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1.  Development of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase Expression in the Ovine Fetal Central Nervous System and Pituitary 
Gene expression patterns : GEP  2009;9(8):603-611.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase -1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and PGHS-2) are expressed throughout the latter half of gestation in ovine fetal brain and pituitary. Hypothalamus, pituitary, hippocampus, brainstem, cortex and cerebellum were collected from fetal sheep at 80, 100, 120, 130, 145 days of gestational age (DGA), 1 and 7 days postpartum lambs, and from adult ewes (n=4–5 per group). mRNA and protein were isolated from each region, and expression of Prostaglandin Synthase -1 (PGHS-1) and -2 (PGHS-2) were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR and western blot. PGHS-1 and -2 were detected in every brain region at every age tested. Both enzymes were measured in highest abundance in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and lowest in brainstem and pituitary. PGHS-1 and -2 mRNA’s were upregulated in hypothalamus and pituitary after 100 DGA. The hippocampus exhibited decreases in PGHS-1 and increases in PGHS-2 mRNA after 80 DGA. Brainstem PGHS-1 and -2 and cortex PGHS-2 exhibited robust increases in mRNA postpartum, while cerebellar PGHS-1 and -2 mRNA’s were upregulated at 120 DGA. Tissue concentrations of PGE2 correlated with PGHS-2 mRNA, but not to other variables. We conclude that the regulation of expression of these enzymes is region-specific, suggesting that the activity of these enzymes is likely to be critical for brain development in the late-gestation ovine fetus.
PMCID: PMC2784086  PMID: 19706338
parturition; prostanoid; neuroendocrinology; fetus; HPA axis; brain
2.  The ontogeny of genes related to ovine fetal cardiac growth 
Gene expression patterns : GEP  2008;9(2):122-128.
The objective of this study was to determine the ontogenetic profiles in left and right ventricle of genes implicated in cardiac growth, including mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) 1 and 2 and genes of the angiotensin system and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. Samples from left and right ventricles (LV, RV) were collected from hearts of sheep fetuses at 80, 100, 120, 130, and 145 days of gestation and from newborn lambs. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine the MR, GR, 11β-HSD 1 and 2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 1 and 2, IGF1, IGF2, IGF receptors IGF-1R and IGF-2R, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 2 and 3. In the LV, MR and GR both decreased toward term. In the RV, MR and GR expression did not decrease, but both 11β-HSD 1 and 2 mRNA levels increased after birth. ACE1 expression in LV and RV sharply increases just before parturition, whereas ACE2 decreased in the LV and RV in late gestation. IGF2, IGF2R, and IGFBP2 expression levels substantially decreased in late gestation in LV and RV; IGF2R also decreased with age in LV. These patterns suggest that reduced expression of genes related to IGF and angiotensin II action occur as proliferative activity declines and terminal differentiation occurs in the late gestation fetal heart.
PMCID: PMC2652708  PMID: 18835462
Heart; Fetus; MR; GR; 11βHSD1; 11βHSD2; IGF1; IGF2; IGF1R; IGF2R; IGFBP2; ACE1; ACE2; AT1R; AT2R; Cortisol; Angiotensin; Angiotensinogen

Results 1-2 (2)