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1.  FIAT is Co-expressed with its Dimerization Target ATF4 in early Osteoblasts, but not in Osteocytes 
Gene expression patterns : GEP  2009;9(5):335-340.
FIAT represses osteocalcin gene transcription by heterodimerizing with ATF4 and preventing it from binding to DNA. We report here the expression profiles of FIAT and ATF4 during osteoblastogenesis. Messenger RNA levels for the osteoblast transcriptional regulators Satb2, Runx2, Fiat and Atf4 were quantified using Real Time-reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and respective protein levels monitored by immunodetection in differentiating primary osteoblast cultures. Satb2, Fiat and Atf4 mRNA levels remained constant throughout the differentiation sequence, whereas Runx2 transcript levels were significantly increased by 12 days post-confluency. Using immunofluorescence, the SATB2, RUNX2, and ATF4 signals appeared to increase as a function of time in culture. FIAT protein expression was readily detected in early cultures, but signal intensity decreased thereafter. When immunoblotting was used to quantify the relative amounts of FIAT and ATF4 proteins, the expression levels of the two proteins were found to be inversely correlated. The decrease in FIAT protein levels coincided with increased binding of ATF4 to the osteocalcin gene promoter, and with increased osteocalcin expression measured by RT-qPCR or immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry of long bones from mice at E16.5 and 2 days post-natal revealed that both proteins are initially expressed in osteoblasts. In adult bone, FIAT was detected in osteocytes, while ATF4 expression was observed in active osteoblasts and lining cells, but not in osteocytes. Taken together, these data support the idea that a stoichiometric excess of ATF4 over FIAT in mature osteoblasts releases ATF4 from sequestration by FIAT, thereby allowing ATF4 homodimerization and subsequent transactivation of the osteocalcin gene.
PMCID: PMC2692570  PMID: 19232401
ATF4; FIAT; leucine zipper transcription factors; osteoblasts; osteocytes; osteoblastogenesis; bone development

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