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1.  Effects of Medicare Part D on Drug Affordability and Utilization: Are Seniors with Prior High Out-of-Pocket Drug Spending Affected More? 
Background
Medicare Part D was expected to have differential impacts on patient drug expenditures and utilization based on beneficiaries’ levels of pre-Part D patient drug spending, but it is unknown whether these projections have borne out
Objectives
We sought to evaluate whether and how the policy effect of Medicare Part D on drug expenditures and utilization was modified by levels of pre-Part D drug spending.
Methods
A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, nonequivalent control group design was used. Data were obtained from a regional supermarket chain for all prescriptions dispensed between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007 (n =1,230,612) to patients age 60 and older as of January 1, 2005 (n = 51,305) to construct 12-month pre-Part D and post-Part D periods. The treatment group was defined as individuals who were eligible via age, for Part D coverage on January 1, 2006 (ages 65+). The control group included individuals aged 60 through 62 on January 1, 2006. Annual medication utilization was measured as the total number of pill-days acquired. Annual drug expenditures were measured as total expenditures, patient out-of-pocket expenditures, and the proportion of total expenditures paid out of pocket by the patient.
Results
Part D resulted in significantly greater reductions in absolute and relative out-of-pocket spending for individuals in the highest pre-Part D drug spending group relative to the moderate and low pre-Part D drug spending groups.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that, as expected, Part D facilitated access to medications for patients who previously experienced the greatest costs without adversely increasing use and costs among those with the lowest prior cost.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.02.004
PMCID: PMC4087326  PMID: 20511108
Medicare Part D; Utilization; Out-of-pocket Spending; Access
2.  Development of a Scale to Measure Pharmacists’ Self-Efficacy in Performing Medication Therapy Management Services 
Background
Measuring community pharmacists’ self-efficacy in performing medication therapy management (MTM) services can be useful for tailoring interventions and predicting participation.
Objective
To identify relevant survey constructs related to the Wisconsin Pharmacy Quality Collaborative (WPQC) MTM program and to evaluate scale validity.
Methods
The 31-item MTM Self-efficacy Scale was developed using previous research, identifying critical program components, and beta-testing. After administration to pharmacists in the 53 WPQC pilot sites, summary statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted. Parallel analysis was used to determine the optimal number of factors. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated.
Results
Baseline participation rate was 94% (N=76). The 11-point scale (0–10) item means ranged from 2.83±3.05 to 7.82±2.19. Parallel analysis produced a 3-factor solution, accounting for 56% of the variance. Low factor loadings or unacceptably high cross-loadings resulted in 17 item deletions. The final EFA on the remaining 14 items retained the original 3-factor solution and increased the proportion of explained variance (72%). The factors relate to MTM tasks (alpha = 0.92), personal interactions (alpha = 0.86), and goal setting (alpha = 0.84). Overall Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90.
Conclusion
Constructs for measuring self-efficacy were identified that may aid in future research predicting whether pharmacists engage in and persist in providing MTM services.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.05.001
PMCID: PMC2904078  PMID: 20511114
Self-efficacy; Medication therapy management; Community pharmacy; Scale validation; Research methods

Results 1-2 (2)