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1.  E-Prescribing: A Focused Review and New Approach to Addressing Safety in Pharmacies and Primary Care 
Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP  2012;9(6):10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.09.004.
Summary
E-prescribing, the health information technology (HIT) that enables prescribers to electronically transmit prescriptions to community pharmacies has been touted as a solution for improving patient safety and overall quality of care. However, the impact of HIT, such as e-prescribing on medication errors in acute care settings has been widely studied and show that if poorly designed or implemented, HIT can pose a risk to patient safety by introducing a source of medication errors. Unlike acute care settings, safety issues related to e-prescribing in primary care settings (where e-prescriptions are generated and transmitted) and pharmacies (where e-prescriptions are received) have not received as much attention in the literature. This paper provides a focused review of patient safety issues related to using e-prescribing systems in primary care and pharmacies. In addition, the paper proposes using human factors engineering concepts to study e-prescribing safety in pharmacies and primary care settings to identify safety problems and recommendations for improvement.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.09.004
PMCID: PMC3709012  PMID: 23062769
2.  Development of a Scale to Measure Pharmacists’ Self-Efficacy in Performing Medication Therapy Management Services 
Background
Measuring community pharmacists’ self-efficacy in performing medication therapy management (MTM) services can be useful for tailoring interventions and predicting participation.
Objective
To identify relevant survey constructs related to the Wisconsin Pharmacy Quality Collaborative (WPQC) MTM program and to evaluate scale validity.
Methods
The 31-item MTM Self-efficacy Scale was developed using previous research, identifying critical program components, and beta-testing. After administration to pharmacists in the 53 WPQC pilot sites, summary statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted. Parallel analysis was used to determine the optimal number of factors. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated.
Results
Baseline participation rate was 94% (N=76). The 11-point scale (0–10) item means ranged from 2.83±3.05 to 7.82±2.19. Parallel analysis produced a 3-factor solution, accounting for 56% of the variance. Low factor loadings or unacceptably high cross-loadings resulted in 17 item deletions. The final EFA on the remaining 14 items retained the original 3-factor solution and increased the proportion of explained variance (72%). The factors relate to MTM tasks (alpha = 0.92), personal interactions (alpha = 0.86), and goal setting (alpha = 0.84). Overall Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90.
Conclusion
Constructs for measuring self-efficacy were identified that may aid in future research predicting whether pharmacists engage in and persist in providing MTM services.
doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.05.001
PMCID: PMC2904078  PMID: 20511114
Self-efficacy; Medication therapy management; Community pharmacy; Scale validation; Research methods

Results 1-2 (2)