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1.  Eptifibatide and abciximab inhibit insulin-induced focal adhesion formation and proliferative responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells 
Background
The use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab) or eptifibatide improves clinical outcomes in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These β3 integrin inhibitors antagonize fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrins on platelets and ligand binding to αvβ3 integrins on vascular cells. αvβ3 integrins influence responses to insulin in various cell types but effects in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) are unknown.
Results and discussion
Insulin elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response in HASMC. Pretreatment with m7E3 (an anti-β3 integrin monoclonal antibody from which abciximab is derived), c7E3 or LM609 inhibited proliferative responses to insulin by 81%, 59% and 28%, respectively. Eptifibatide or cyclic RGD peptides completely abolished insulin-induced proliferation whereas tirofiban, which binds αIIbβ3 but not αvβ3, had no effect. Insulin-induced increases in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) activity were partially inhibited by m7E3 and eptifibatide whereas antagonism of αvβ3 integrins had no effect on insulin-induced increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Insulin stimulated a rapid increase in the number of vinculin-containing focal adhesions per cell and treatment with m7E3, c7E3 or eptifibatide inhibited insulin-induced increases in focal adhesions by 100%, 74% and 73%, respectively.
Conclusion
These results demonstrate that αvβ3 antagonists inhibit signaling, focal adhesion formation and proliferation of insulin-treated HASMC.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-36
PMCID: PMC2628888  PMID: 19108709
2.  Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study 
Background
Several aspects concerning the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes are incompletely understood including the magnitude of the risk estimate, potential gender differences in the associations between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, the associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, and whether the metabolic syndrome provides additional prediction beyond its components. To shed light on these issues, we examined the prospective association between the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and diabetes.
Methods
We used data for 2796 men and women aged 35–65 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study followed for an average of 6.9 years. This analysis employed a case-cohort design that included 697 participants who developed diabetes and 2099 participants who did not. Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of self-reports and verified by contacting the patient's attending physician.
Results
The adjusted hazard ratio for the NCEP definition was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.90–5.48) and that for the IDF definition was 4.59 (95% CI: 3.84–5.50). The adjusted hazard ratios for the NCEP but not IDF definition were higher for women than men. When participants who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities were used as the reference group for the NCEP definition, the adjusted hazard ratio for having 3 or more abnormalities increased to 22.50 (95% CI: 11.21–45.19). Of the five components, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were most strongly associated with incident diabetes.
Conclusion
In this study population, both definitions of the metabolic syndrome provided similar estimates of relative risk for incident diabetes. The increase in risk for participants with the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP definition was very large when contrasted with the risk among those who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-35
PMCID: PMC2627822  PMID: 19077281
3.  Exercise training enhanced myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats 
Background
Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes the synthesis of superoxide (O2-). Diabetic-induced shifts to decrease the dimer:monomer ratio is thought to contribute to the degradation of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Exercise has long been useful in the management of diabetes. Although exercise-induced increases expression of eNOS has been reported, it is unclear if exercise may alter the functional coupling of eNOS.
Methods
To investigate this question, Goto-Kakizaki rats (a model of type II diabetes) were randomly assigned to a 9-week running program (train) or sedentary (sed) groups.
Results
Exercise training significantly (p < .05) increased plantaris muscle cytochrome oxidase, significantly improved glycosylated hemoglobin (sed: 7.33 ± 0.56%; train: 6.1 ± 0.18%), ad improved insulin sensitivity. Exercise increased both total eNOS expression and the dimer:monomer ratio in the left ventricle LV (sed: 11.7 ± 3.2%; train: 41.4 ± 4.7%). Functional analysis of eNOS indicated that exercise induced significant increases in nitric oxide (+28%) production and concomitant decreases in eNOS-dependent superoxide (-12%) production. This effect was observed in the absence of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), but not in the presence of exogenous BH4. Exercise training also significantly decreased NADPH-dependent O2- activity.
Conclusion
Exercise-induced increased eNOS dimerization resulted in an increased coupling of the enzyme to facilitate production of NO at the expense of ROS generation. This shift that could serve to decrease diabetic-related oxidative stress, which should serve to lessen diabetic-related complications.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-34
PMCID: PMC2602993  PMID: 19019231
4.  Polyol pathway and modulation of ischemia-reperfusion injury in Type 2 diabetic BBZ rat hearts 
We investigated the role of polyol pathway enzymes aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in mediating injury due to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in Type 2 diabetic BBZ rat hearts. Specifically, we investigated, (a) changes in glucose flux via cardiac AR and SDH as a function of diabetes duration, (b) ischemic injury and function after IR, (c) the effect of inhibition of AR or SDH on ischemic injury and function. Hearts isolated from BBZ rats, after 12 weeks or 48 weeks diabetes duration, and their non-diabetic littermates, were subjected to IR protocol. Myocardial function, substrate flux via AR and SDH, and tissue lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratio (a measure of cytosolic NADH/NAD+), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (a marker of IR injury) were measured. Zopolrestat, and CP-470,711 were used to inhibit AR and SDH, respectively. Myocardial sorbitol and fructose content, and associated changes in L/P ratios were significantly higher in BBZ rats compared to non-diabetics, and increased with disease duration. Induction of IR resulted in increased ischemic injury, reduced ATP levels, increases in L/P ratio, and poor cardiac function in BBZ rat hearts, while inhibition of AR or SDH attenuated these changes and protected hearts from IR injury. These data indicate that AR and SDH are key modulators of myocardial IR injury in BBZ rat hearts and that inhibition of polyol pathway could in principle be used as a therapeutic adjunct for protection of ischemic myocardium in Type 2 diabetic patients.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-33
PMCID: PMC2584021  PMID: 18957123
5.  Improved survival in both men and women with diabetes between 1980 and 2004 – a cohort study in Sweden 
Background
In Sweden, diabetes prevalence is increasing in spite of unchanged incidence, indicating improved survival. In recent US studies mortality in diabetic subjects has decreased over three decades, but only in men. Our aim was to study mortality over time in diabetic subjects.
Methods
The annual Swedish Living Conditions Survey from 1980 to 2004 has been record-linked to the Cause of Death Register in order to study trends in mortality risk for those reporting diabetes as a chronic illness. Survival and the relative mortality risk within 5 years of follow-up have been calculated for a random sample of men and women aged 40–84 years with (n = 3,589) and without diabetes (n = 85,685) for the period 1980 to 2004. Poisson regression models were used.
Results
The age-adjusted mortality risk relative to non-diabetics within 5 years of follow-up for men was doubled during all periods. The relative risk for women was initially about 2.5, with a substantial drop in mortality in 1995–1999 to 1.45 although it increased to 1.90 in the last period. Using models that took into consideration the presence of heart disease, hypertension, daily smoking, and socio-economic status at the initial interview did not change the relative mortality risk. The age-adjusted 10-year observed survival rate for men with diabetes increased from 41.4% 1980–1984 to 51.5% in 1995–1999. The observed survival for women increased from 43.7% to 61.0%.
Conclusion
Survival rates have improved in subjects with diabetes since the early 1980s, more so in women than in men, thereby decreasing the gap to non-diabetic women.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-32
PMCID: PMC2586621  PMID: 18937871
6.  Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency? 
Background
Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ), including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested.
Presentation of hypothesis
The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications.
Testing of the hypothesis
Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted.
Implications of the hypothesis
Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and other organs resulting from reversal of the action of androgens in directing the maturation of stem cells towards muscle, vascular endothelium, erythroid stem cells and osteoblasts, and away from adipocyte differentiation. The higher incidence of side-effects with RGZ than PGZ, may be explained by a detailed study of the mechanism by which glitazones down-regulate androgen biosynthesis and action, resulting in a state of androgen deficiency.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-30
PMCID: PMC2576082  PMID: 18922158
7.  Dyslipidemia in primary care – prevalence, recognition, treatment and control: data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS) 
Background
Current guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) define low thresholds for the diagnosis of dyslipidemia using total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) to guide treatment. Although being mainly a prevention tool, its thresholds are difficult to meet in clinical practice, especially primary care.
Methods
In a nationwide study with 1,511 primary care physicians and 35,869 patients we determined the prevalence of dyslipidemia, its recognition, treatment, and control rates. Diagnosis of dyslipidemia was based on TC and LDL-C. Basic descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios, as well as 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results
Dyslipidemia was highly frequent in primary care (76% overall). 48.6% of male and 39.9% of female patients with dyslipidemia was diagnosed by the physicians. Life style intervention did however control dyslipidemia in about 10% of patients only. A higher proportion (34.1% of male and 26.7% female) was controlled when receiving pharmacotherapy. The chance to be diagnosed and subsequently controlled using pharmacotherapy was higher in male (PRR 1.15; 95%CI 1.12–1.17), in patients with concomitant cardiovascular risk factors, in patients with hypertension (PRR 1.20; 95%CI 1.05–1.37) and cardiovascular disease (PRR 1.46; 95%CI 1.29–1.64), previous myocardial infarction (PRR 1.32; 95%CI 1.19–1.47), and if patients knew to be hypertensive (PRR 1.18; 95%CI 1.04–1.34) or knew about their prior myocardial infarction (PRR 1.17; 95%CI 1.23–1.53).
Conclusion
Thresholds of the ESC seem to be difficult to meet. A simple call for more aggressive treatment or higher patient compliance is apparently not enough to enhance the proportion of controlled patients. A shift towards a multifactorial treatment considering lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy to reduce weight and lipids may be the only way in a population where just to be normal is certainly not ideal.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-31
PMCID: PMC2572156  PMID: 18922160
8.  The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes 
Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-29
PMCID: PMC2569910  PMID: 18840258
9.  Prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in atrial fibrillation: A case control study in 75-year old subjects 
Background
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing world wide and amongst factors that aggravate the risk is diabetes mellitus (DM), also in epidemic development.
However, although DM is a potentially modifiable risk factor for AF, few, if any, studies have explored the prevalence of undiagnosed dysglycaemia among subjects with AF or if duration of AF are related to parameters of glycaemia or dysglycaemia prevalence.
Methods
In this case control study, amongst 75-year old subjects with and without AF, the prevalence of dysglycaemia, i.e., impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance or DM, according to World Health Organisation criteria was assessed by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
Results
Prevalence of undiagnosed DM among the 108 subjects (male/female 73/35, BMI 25.4 ± 3.2) without and the 46 (male/female 34/12, BMI 25.3 ± 3.7) with AF (median AF duration five years) where 3.7% and 13.0%, respectively (p = 0.031, Odds ratio (OR) 3.86 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 16.25)) whereas the overall prevalence of dysglycaemia (prediabetes and DM) where similar (respectively 43.5% and 39.1%, p = 0.46, OR 0.83 [95% CI: 0.41, 1.69]). Patients with AF duration ≥ 5 years had however a higher dysglycaemia prevalence (61.1% [DM 22.2%, prediabetes 38.9%]) as compared to AF duration < 5 years (25% [DM 7.1%, prediabetes 17.9%], p = 0.0014, OR 4.7 [95% CI: 1.30, 16.90]) or no AF (p = 0.17, OR 2.04 [95% CI: 0.73, 5.66]). There was also a significant correlation between the duration of AF and HbA1c (r = 0.408, p = 0.005) and fasting glucose levels (r = 0.353, p = 0.016).
Conclusion
AF is associated with chronic hyperglycaemia amongst 75-year old subjects. Prediabetes and DM should be pro-actively assessed if AF duration ≥ 5 years.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-28
PMCID: PMC2564913  PMID: 18822173
10.  Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region 
Aims
We examined, in a country of the African region, i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to three definitions (ATP, WHO and IDF); ii) the distribution of the MetS criteria; iii) the level of agreement between these three definitions and iv) we also examined these issues upon exclusion of people with diabetes.
Methods
We conducted an examination survey on a sample representative of the general population aged 25–64 years in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region), attended by 1255 participants (participation rate of 80.3%).
Results
The prevalence of MetS increased markedly with age. According to the ATP, WHO and IDF definitions, the prevalence of MetS was, respectively, 24.0%, 25.0%, 25.1% in men and 32.2%, 24.6%, 35.4% in women. Approximately 80% of participants with diabetes also had MetS and the prevalence of MetS was approximately 7% lower upon exclusion of diabetic individuals. High blood pressure and adiposity were the criteria found most frequently among MetS holders irrespective of the MetS definitions. Among people with MetS based on any of the three definitions, 78% met both ATP and IDF criteria, 67% both WHO and IDF criteria, 54% both WHO and ATP criteria and only 37% met all three definitions.
Conclusion
We identified a high prevalence of MetS in this population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of MetS decreased by approximately 32% upon exclusion of persons with diabetes. Because of limited agreement between the MetS definitions, the fairly similar proportions of MetS based on any of the three MetS definitions classified, to a substantial extent, different subjects as having MetS.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-27
PMCID: PMC2556312  PMID: 18801172
11.  Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on myocardial blood flow reserve assessed by myocardial contrast echocardiography in rats 
The role of structural and functional abnormalities of small vessels in diabetes cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Myocardial contrast echocardiography allows the quantification of myocardial blood flow at rest and during dipyridamole infusion. The aim of the study was to determine the myocardial blood flow reserve in normal rats compared with Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using contrast echocardiography.
We prospectively studied 40 Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin in 20 rats. All rats underwent baseline and stress (dipyridamole: 20 mg/kg) high power intermittent imaging in short axis view under anaesthesia baseline and after six months. Myocardial blood flow was determined and compared at rest and after dipyridamole in both populations. The myocardial blood flow reserve was calculated and compared in the 2 groups. Parameters of left ventricular function were determined from the M-mode tracings and histological examination was performed in all rats at the end of the study.
At six months, myocardial blood flow reserve was significantly lower in diabetic rats compared to controls (3.09 ± 0.98 vs. 1.28 ± 0.67 ml min-1 g-1; p < 0.05). There were also a significant decrease in left ventricular function and a decreased capillary surface area and diameter at histology in the diabetic group.
In this animal study, diabetes induced a functional alteration of the coronary microcirculation, as demonstrated by contrast echocardiography, a decrease in capillary density and of the cardiac systolic function. These findings may offer new insights into the underlying mechanisms of diabetes cardiomyopathy.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-26
PMCID: PMC2546381  PMID: 18764943
12.  Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients 
Background
Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
Methods
155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for glucose, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and complete blood count. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin < 12 g/dl (F) or < 13 g/dl (M). Kidney function was assessed using glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as estimated by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Subjects were considered to have chronic kidney disease when the estimated GFR was < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Comparisons for within- and between-gender, between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were performed using Student's t-test while chi-square test was employed for categorical variables.
Results
The diabetic patients were older than the non-diabetic subjects. While male non-diabetic subjects had significantly higher red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations than non-diabetic female subjects (p < 0.001), the RBC and hematocrit concentrations were similar in male and female diabetic patients. Furthermore, irrespective of gender, diabetic patients had significantly higher prevalence rate of anemia than non-diabetic subjects (p < 0.05). Anaemic diabetes patients had significantly lower GFR (67.1 ± 3.0 vs. 87.9 ± 5.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2, p < 0.001) than non-anaemic patients.
Conclusion
A high prevalence of anaemia was identified in this group of type 2 diabetic patients previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. It is therefore recommended that diagnostic laboratories in developing countries and elsewhere should include complete blood count in routine laboratory investigations in the management of diabetic patients.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-25
PMCID: PMC2542986  PMID: 18752687
13.  Evaluation of the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with sub-optimally controlled Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom 
Objective
Exenatide belongs to a new therapeutic class in the treatment of diabetes (incretin mimetics), allowing glucose-dependent glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial data suggest that exenatide is as effective as insulin glargine at reducing HbA1c in combination therapy with metformin and sulphonylureas; with reduced weight but higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal events. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of exenatide versus insulin glargine using RCT data and a previously published model of Type 2 diabetes disease progression that is based on the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study; the perspective of the health-payer of the United Kingdom National Health Service.
Methods
The study used a discrete event simulation model designed to forecast the costs and health outcome of a cohort of 1,000 subjects aged over 40 years with sub-optimally-controlled Type 2 diabetes, following initiation of either exenatide, or insulin glargine, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analysis for a higher treatment discontinuation rate in exenatide patients was applied to the cohort in three different scenarios; (1) either ignored or (2) exenatide-failures excluded or (3) exenatide-failures switched to insulin glargine. Analyses were undertaken to evaluate the price sensitivity of exenatide in terms of relative cost effectiveness. Baseline cohort profiles and effectiveness data were taken from a published randomised controlled trial.
Results
The relative cost-effectiveness of exenatide and insulin glargine was tested under a variety of conditions, in which insulin glargine was dominant in all cases. Using the most conservative of assumptions, the cost-effectiveness ratio of exenatide vs. insulin glargine at the current UK NHS price was -£29,149/QALY (insulin glargine dominant) and thus exenatide is not cost-effective when compared with insulin glargine, at the current UK NHS price.
Conclusion
This study evaluated the relative cost effectiveness of insulin glargine versus exenatide in the management of Type 2 diabetes using a published model. Given no significant difference in glycaemic control and applying the additional effectiveness of exenatide over insulin glargine, with respect to weight loss, and using the current UK NHS prices, insulin glargine was found to be dominant over exenatide in all modelled scenarios. With current clinical evidence, exenatide does not appear to represent a cost-effective treatment option for patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to insulin glargine.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-24
PMCID: PMC2546382  PMID: 18694484
14.  Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity 
Context
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed.
Objective
To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family.
Design
Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis.
Subjects
The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects.
Results
In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04–1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-23
PMCID: PMC2527300  PMID: 18657264
15.  First-line antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-diabetes: Rationale, design and baseline results of the ADaPT investigation 
Background
Recent clinical trials reported conflicting results on the reduction of new-onset diabetes using RAS blocking agents. Therefore the role of these agents in preventing diabetes is still not well defined. Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor (ACEi), that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in high risk patients and post-hoc analyses of the HOPE trial have provided evidence for its beneficial action in the prevention of diabetes.
Methods
The ADaPT investigation ("ACE inhibitor-based versus diuretic-based antihypertensive primary treatment in patients with pre-diabetes") is a 4-year open, prospective, parallel group phase IV study. It compares an antihypertensive treatment regimen based on ramipril versus a treatment based on diuretics or betablockers. The primary evaluation criterion is the first manifestation of type 2 diabetes. The study is conducted in primary care to allow the broadest possible application of its results. The present article provides an outline of the rationale, the design and baseline characteristics of AdaPT and compares these to previous studies including ASCOT-BLPA, VALUE and DREAM.
Results
Until March 2006 a total of 2,015 patients in 150 general practices (general physicians and internists) throughout Germany were enrolled. The average age of patients enrolled was 67.1 ± 10.3 years, with 47% being male and a BMI of 29.9 ± 5.0 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was present in 56.5%. 37.8% reported a family history of diabetes, 57.8% were previously diagnosed with hypertension (usually long standing). The HbA1c value at baseline was 5.6 %. Compared to the DREAM study patients were older, had more frequently hypertension and patients with cardiovascular disease were not excluded.
Conclusion
Comparing the ADaPT design and baseline data to previous randomized controlled trial it can be acknowledged that AdaPT included patients with a high risk for diabetes development. Results are expected to be available in 2010. Data will be highly valuable for clinical practice due to the observational study design.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-22
PMCID: PMC2529270  PMID: 18652658
16.  The impact of individualised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimates and lifestyle advice on physical activity in individuals at high risk of CVD: a pilot 2 × 2 factorial understanding risk trial 
Background
There is currently much interest in encouraging individuals to increase physical activity in order to reduce CVD risk. This study has been designed to determine if personalised CVD risk appreciation can increase physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD.
Methods/Design
In a 2 × 2 factorial design participants are allocated at random to a personalised 10-year CVD risk estimate or numerical CVD risk factor values (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and fasting glucose) and, simultaneously, to receive a brief lifestyle advice intervention targeting physical activity, diet and smoking cessation or not. We aim to recruit 200 participants from Oxfordshire primary care practices. Eligibility criteria include adults age 40–70 years, estimated 10-year CVD risk ≥20%, ability to read and write English, no known CVD and no physical disability or other condition reducing the ability to walk. Primary outcome is physical activity measured by ActiGraph accelerometer with biochemical, anthropometrical and psychological measures as additional outcomes. Primary analysis is between group physical activity differences at one month powered to detect a difference of 30,000 total counts per day of physical activity between the groups. Additional analyses will seek to further elucidate the relationship between the provision of risk information, and intention to change behaviour and to determine the impact of both interventions on clinical and anthropometrical measures including fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fructosamine, serum cotinine, plasma vitamin C, body fat percentage and blood pressure.
Discussion
This is a pilot trial seeking to demonstrate in a real world setting, proof of principal that provision of personalised risk information can contribute to behaviour changes aimed at reducing CVD risk. This study will increase our understanding of the links between the provision of risk information and behaviour change and if successful, could be used in clinical practice with little or no modification.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-21
PMCID: PMC2490674  PMID: 18637168
17.  Intensification of oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes despite antihyperglycemic treatment 
Introduction
The metabolic deregulation associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems. Endothelial injury is induced by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. We have previously shown that DM type 2 patients are exposed to increased OS and inflammation contributed in part by primed peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs).
Aims
To characterize the effect of oral medication on PMNL priming, on PMNL-related and on systemic inflammation, in correlation to changed diabetes parameters in patient with newly diagnosed type 2 DM.
Methods
PMNLs were separated from DM patient's prior and following treatment with either metformin (Glucophage), or Thiazolidinedione (rosiglitazone) and from healthy control subjects (HC). Rate of superoxide release from phorbol ester-stimulated PMNLs and CD11b on PMNLs assessed PMNL priming. White blood cells (WBC) and PMNL counts and apoptosis reflected PMNL-related inflammation. CRP, fibrinogen, transferrin and albumin blood levels reflected systemic inflammation.
Results
Both metformin and rosiglitazone treatments reduced significantly the high levels of glucose and HbA1c, and slightly improved lipid profile during 2 months. PMNL priming parameters, higher compared to HC, increased after 2 months of metformin treatment. Rosiglitazone treatment decreased PMNL priming. ALP, higher in DM, significantly decreased following 2 months of both treatments. Systemic inflammation markers (fibrinogen, CRP), higher in DM, decreased following both treatments. Transferrin and albumin were similar to HC. PMNL-related inflammation markers were higher in DM; however, only PMNL apoptosis decreased after both treatments. Monocyte counts, higher in DM compared to HC, decreased following both treatments. Serum insulin levels, higher in DM compared to HC, decreased following both treatments. PMNL-related priming and inflammation parameters positively correlated with HbA1c.
Conclusion
The present research adds new facet in evaluating anti-hyperglycemic treatment in type 2 DM patients. Despite sufficient glycemic control using both treatments, some PMNL-related parameters deteriorated. Thus, anti hyperglycemic treatment should be favored due to its combined anti-PMNL priming and anti-inflammatory effect, in addition to its anti-hyperglycemic characteristics, according to the correlation among these parameters. Such combined treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality common in DM patients.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-20
PMCID: PMC2441608  PMID: 18570678
18.  Important genetic checkpoints for insulin resistance in salt-sensitive (S) Dahl rats 
Despite the marked advances in research on insulin resistance (IR) in humans and animal models of insulin resistance, the mechanisms underlying high salt-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Insulin resistance is a multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental factors (such as high salt) involved in its pathogenesis. High salt triggers insulin resistance in genetically susceptible patients and animal models of insulin resistance. One of the mechanisms by which high salt might precipitate insulin resistance is through its ability to enhance an oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response that disrupts the insulin signaling pathway. The aim of this hypothesis is to discuss two complementary approaches to find out how high salt might interact with genetic defects along the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathways to predispose to insulin resistance in a genetically susceptible model of insulin resistance. The first approach will consist of examining variations in genes involved in the insulin signaling pathway in the Dahl S rat (an animal model of insulin resistance and salt-sensitivity) and the Dahl R rat (an animal model of insulin sensitivity and salt-resistance), and the putative cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The second approach will consist of studying the over-expressed genes along the inflammatory pathway whose respective activation might be predictive of high salt-induced insulin resistance in Dahl S rats.
Variations in genes encoding the insulin receptor substrates -1 and/or -2 (IRS-1, -2) and/or genes encoding the glucose transporter (GLUTs) proteins have been found in patients with insulin resistance. To better understand the combined contribution of excessive salt and genetic defects to the etiology of the disease, it is essential to investigate the following question:
Question 1: Do variations in genes encoding the IRS -1 and -2 and/or genes encoding the GLUTs proteins predict high salt-induced insulin resistance in Dahl S rats?
A significant amount of evidence suggested that salt-induced oxidative stress might predict an inflammatory response that upregulates mediators of inflammation such as the nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-kappa B), the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the c-Jun Terminal Kinase (JNK). These inflammatory mediators disrupt the insulin signaling pathway and predispose to insulin resistance. Therefore, the following question will be thoroughly investigated:
Question 2: Do variations in genes encoding the NF-kappa B, the TNF-α and the JNK, independently or in synergy, predict an enhanced inflammatory response and subsequent insulin resistance in Dahl S rats in excessive salt environment?
Finally, to better understand the combined role of these variations on glucose metabolism, the following question will be addressed:
Question 3: What are the functional consequences of gene variations on the rate of glucose delivery, the rate of glucose transport and the rate of glucose phosphorylation in Dahl S rats?
The general hypothesis is that "high-salt diet in combination with defects in candidate genes along the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathways predicts susceptibility to high salt-induced insulin resistance in Dahl S rats".
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-19
PMCID: PMC2459151  PMID: 18570670
19.  Does the lipid-lowering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligand bezafibrate prevent colon cancer in patients with coronary artery disease? 
Background
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance are related to the development of colon cancer. Nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), which play a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism, had been hypothesized as being involved in colon cancerogenesis. In animal studies the lipid-lowering PPAR ligand bezafibrate suppressed colonic tumors. However, the effect of bezafibrate on colon cancer development in humans is unknown. Therefore, we proposed to investigate a possible preventive effect of bezafibrate on the development of colon cancer in patients with coronary artery disease during a 6-year follow-up.
Methods
Our population included 3011 patients without any cancer diagnosis who were enrolled in the randomized, double blind Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Study. The patients received either 400 mg of bezafibrate retard (1506 patients) or placebo (1505 patients) once a day. Cancer incidence data were obtained by matching a subject's identification numbers with the National Cancer Registry. Each matched record was checked for correct identification.
Results
Development of new cancer (all types) was recorded in 177 patients: in 79 (5.25%) patients from the bezafibrate group vs. 98 (6.51%) from the placebo group. Development of colon cancer was recorded in 25 patients: in 8 (0.53%) patients from the bezafibrate group vs. 17 (1.13%) from the placebo group, (Fisher's exact test: one side p = 0.05; two side p = 0.07).
A difference in the incidence of cancer was only detectable after a 4 year lag and progressively increased with continued follow-up. On multivariable analysis the colon cancer risk in patients who received bezafibrate tended to be lower with a hazard ratio of 0.47 and 95% confidence interval 0.2–1.1.
Conclusion
Our data, derived from patients with coronary artery disease, support the hypothesis regarding a possible preventive effect of bezafibrate on the development of colon cancer.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-18
PMCID: PMC2440374  PMID: 18565233
20.  On the use of a continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric research 
Background
The constellation of elevated levels of abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, glucose, and triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol has been termed the metabolic syndrome. Given the current pediatric obesity epidemic, it is perhaps not surprising that recent reports suggest the emergence of the metabolic syndrome during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the derivation and utility of the continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric epidemiologic research.
Methods/Design
Data were generated from published papers related to the topic.
Conclusion
Although there is no universal definition in children or adolescence, recent estimates indicate that approximately 2–10% of youth possess the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Since there is no clear definition and the prevalence rate is relatively low, several authors have derived a continuous score representing a composite risk factor index (i.e., the metabolic syndrome score). This paper provides an overview of the derivation and utility of the continuous metabolic syndrome score in pediatric epidemiological research.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-17
PMCID: PMC2430947  PMID: 18534019
21.  Prospective randomized study for optimal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure 
Background
The large clinical trials proved that Basal-Bolus (BB) insulin therapy was effective in the prevention of diabetic complications and their progression. However, BB therapy needs multiple insulin injections per a day. In this regard, a biphasic insulin analogue needs only twice-daily injections, and is able to correct postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore it may achieve the blood glucose control as same as that of BB therapy and prevent the diabetic complications including macroangiopathy.
Methods
In PROBE (Prospective, Randomized, Open, Blinded-Endpoint) design, forty-two type 2 diabetic patients (male: 73.8%, median(inter quartile range) age: 64.5(56.8~71.0)years) with secondary failure of sulfonylurea (SU) were randomly assigned to BB therapy with a thrice-daily insulin aspart and once-daily basal insulin (BB group) or to conventional therapy with a twice-daily biphasic insulin analogue (30 Mix group), and were followed up for 6 months to compare changes in HbA1c, daily glycemic profile, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery, adiponectin levels, amounts of insulin used, and QOL between the two groups.
Results
After 6 months, HbA1c was significantly reduced in both groups compared to baseline (30 Mix; 9.3(8.1~11.3) → 7.4(6.9~8.7)%, p < 0.01, vs BB;8.9(7.7~10.0) → 6.9(6.2~7.3)%, p < 0.01), with no significant difference between the groups in percentage change in HbA1c (30 Mix; -14.7(-32.5~-7.5)% vs BB -17.8(-30.1~-11.1)%, p = 0.32). There was a significant decrease in daily glycemic profile at all points except dinner time in both groups compared to baseline. There was a significant increase in the amount of insulin used in the 30 Mix group after treatment compared to baseline (30 Mix;0.30(0.17~0.44) → 0.39(0.31~0.42) IU/kg, p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in IMT, BMI, QOL or adiponectin levels in either group compared to baseline.
Conclusion
Both BB and 30 mix group produced comparable reductions in HbA1c in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure. There was no significant change in IMT as an indicator of early atherosclerotic changes between the two groups. The basal-bolus insulin therapy may not be necessarily needed if the type 2 diabetic patients have become secondary failure.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials number, NCT00348231
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-16
PMCID: PMC2442047  PMID: 18507868
22.  Association between intrarenal arterial resistance and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes 
Background
In comparison to the well established changes in compliance that occur at the large vessel level in diabetes, much less is known about the changes in compliance of the cardiovascular system at the end-organ level. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether there was a correlation between resistance of the intrarenal arteries of the kidney and compliance of the left ventricle, as estimated by measurements of diastolic function, in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
We studied 167 unselected clinic patients with type 2 diabetes with a kidney duplex scan to estimate intrarenal vascular resistance, i.e. the resistance index (RI = peak systolic velocity-minimum diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity) and a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) employing tissue doppler studies to document diastolic and systolic ventricular function.
Results
Renal RI was significantly higher in subjects with diastolic dysfunction (0.72 ± 0.05) when compared with those who had a normal TTE examination (0.66 ± 0.06, p < 0.01). Renal RI values were correlated with markers of diastolic dysfunction including the E/Vp ratio (r = 0.41, p < 0.001), left atrial area (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), the E/A ratio (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) and the E/E' ratio (r = 0.31, p < 0.001). These associations were independent of systolic function, hypertension, the presence and severity of chronic kidney disease, the use of renin-angiotensin inhibitors and other potentially confounding variables.
Conclusion
Increasing vascular resistance of the intrarenal arteries was associated with markers of diastolic dysfunction in subjects with type 2 diabetes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that vascular and cardiac stiffening in diabetes are manifestations of common pathophysiological mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-15
PMCID: PMC2413205  PMID: 18500986
23.  Uteroplacental insufficiency down regulates insulin receptor and affects expression of key enzymes of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) metabolism in skeletal muscle at birth 
Background
Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ligation of the uterine arteries in rats mimics uteroplacental insufficiency and serves as a model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent developmental programming of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and adiposity in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of uterine artery ligation on the skeletal muscle expression of insulin receptor and key enzymes of LCFA metabolism.
Methods
Bilateral uterine artery ligation was performed on day 19 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats. Muscle of the posterior limb was dissected at birth and processed by real-time RT-PCR to analyze the expression of insulin receptor, ACCα, ACCβ (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and beta subunits), ACS (acyl-CoA synthase), AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, alpha2 catalytic subunit), CPT1B (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta subunit), MCD (malonyl-CoA decarboxylase) in 14 sham and 8 IUGR pups.
Muscle tissue was treated with lysis buffer and Western immunoblotting was performed to assay the protein content of insulin receptor and ACC.
Results
A significant down regulation of insulin receptor protein (p < 0.05) and reduced expression of ACS and ACCα mRNA (p < 0.05) were observed in skeletal muscle of IUGR newborns. Immunoblotting showed no significant change in ACCα content.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that uteroplacental insufficiency may affect skeletal muscle metabolism down regulating insulin receptor and reducing the expression of key enzymes involved in LCFA formation and oxidation.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-14
PMCID: PMC2396605  PMID: 18485240
24.  Exercise-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors in skeletal muscle and in capillaries of healthy and diabetic mice 
Background
Diabetes has negative, and exercise training positive, effects on the skeletal muscle vasculature, but the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the present experiment the effects of running exercise on the mRNA expression of pro- and antiangiogenic factors were studied in healthy and diabetic skeletal muscle. The responses in capillaries and muscle fibers, collected from the muscle with laser capture microdissection, were also studied separately.
Methods
Healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Exercise was a single bout of 1 h running on a treadmill. Gastrocnemius muscles were harvested 3 h and 6 h post exercise, and angiogenesis-related gene expressions were analyzed with real-time PCR. In addition to muscle homogenates, capillaries and muscle fibers were collected from the muscle with laser capture microdissection method and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mRNA expression.
Results
Of the proangiogenic factors, VEGF-A and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNA expression increased significantly (P < 0.05) in healthy skeletal muscle 6 h post exercise. VEGF-B also showed a similar trend (P = 0.08). No significant change was observed post exercise in diabetic muscles in the expression of VEGF-A, VEGFR-2 or VEGF-B. The expression of angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-1 and angiogenic extracellular matrix protein Cyr61 were significantly increased in diabetic muscles (P < 0.05–0.01). Capillary mRNA expression resembled that in the muscle homogenates, however, the responses were greater in capillaries compared to muscle homogenates and pure muscle fibers.
Conclusion
The present study is the first to report the effects of a single bout of exercise on the expression of pro- and antiangiogenic factors in diabetic skeletal muscle, and it provides novel data about the separate responses in capillaries and muscle fibers to exercise and diabetes. Diabetic mice seem to have lower angiogenic responses to exercise compared to healthy mice, and they show markedly increased expression of angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-1. Furthermore, exercise-induced VEGF-A expression was shown to be greater in capillaries than in muscle fibers.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-13
PMCID: PMC2386864  PMID: 18452614
25.  Treatment with pioglitazone induced significant, reversible mitral regurgitation 
There has in recent years been great concern about possible cardiac side effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We present a case-report of a 60 year-old male who developed significant mitral regurgitation during six months treatment with pioglitazone in parallel with laboratory indications of fluid retention. Echocardiography six months after discontinuation of medication showed regression of mitral regurgitation and the laboratory parameters were also normalized. It is noteworthy that six months treatment with pioglitazone could induce significant valve dysfunction, which was reversible, and this underlines the importance of carefully monitoring patients when placing them on treatment with TZDs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-7-12
PMCID: PMC2412844  PMID: 18445302

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