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1.  Comparison of vildagliptin twice daily vs. sitagliptin once daily using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): Crossover pilot study (J-VICTORIA study) 
No previous studies have compared the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin in terms of blood glucose levels using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and cardiovascular parameters.
Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to groups who received vildagliptin then sitagliptin, or vice versa. Patients were hospitalized at 1 month after starting each drug, and CGM was used to determine: 1) mean (± standard deviation) 24-hour blood glucose level, 2) mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), 3) fasting blood glucose level, 4) highest postprandial blood glucose level and time, 5) increase in blood glucose level after each meal, 6) area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose level ≥180 mg/dL within 3 hours after each meal, and 7) area over the curve (AOC) for daily blood glucose level <70 mg/dL. Plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycoalbumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5AG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and urinary CPR levels, were measured.
The mean 24-hour blood glucose level was significantly lower in patients taking vildagliptin than sitagliptin (142.1 ± 35.5 vs. 153.2 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p = 0.012). In patients taking vildagliptin, MAGE was significantly lower (110.5 ± 33.5 vs. 129.4 ± 45.1 mg/dL; p = 0.040), the highest blood glucose level after supper was significantly lower (206.1 ± 40.2 vs. 223.2 ± 43.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015), the AUC (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 h was significantly lower after breakfast (484.3 vs. 897.9 mg/min/dL; p = 0.025), and urinary CPR level was significantly higher (97.0 ± 41.6 vs. 85.2 ± 39.9 μg/day; p = 0.008) than in patients taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in plasma HbA1c, GA, 1,5AG, IRI, CPR, BNP, or PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin.
CGM showed that mean 24-h blood glucose, MAGE, highest blood glucose level after supper, and hyperglycemia after breakfast were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking vildagliptin than those taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in BNP and PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC3471040  PMID: 22867630
Vildagliptin; Sitagliptin; Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP); Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
2.  Relationship between hemoglobin A1c and cardiovascular disease in mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemic Japanese individuals: subanalysis of a large-scale randomized controlled trial 
Although the ADA/EASD/IDF International Expert Committee recommends using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to define diabetes, the relation between HbA1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated. We analyzed this relation using clinical data on Japanese individuals with hypercholesterolemia.
In the large-scale MEGA Study 7832 patients aged 40 to 70 years old with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia without CVD were randomized to diet alone or diet plus pravastatin and followed for >5 years. In the present subanalysis of that study a total of 4002 patients with baseline and follow-up HbA1c data were stratified according to having an average HbA1c during the first year of follow-up <6.0%, 6.0%-<6.5%, or ≥6.5% and their subsequent 5-year incidence rates of CVD compared according to sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and treatment arm.
Overall, risk of CVD was significantly 2.4 times higher in individuals with HbA1c ≥6.5% versus <6.0%. A similar relation was noted in men and women (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; p <0.01 and HR, 3.0; p <0.01, respectively) and was regardless of treatment arm (diet alone group: HR, 2.2; p <0.001; diet plus pravastatin group: HR, 1.8; p = 0.02). Spline curves showed a continuous risk increase according to HbA1c level in all subpopulations studied.
In hypercholesterolemic individuals the risk of CVD increases linearly with HbA1c level. This significant contribution by elevated HbA1c to increased CVD is independent of pravastatin therapy, and thus requires appropriate HbA1c management in addition to lipids reduction.
PMCID: PMC3150244  PMID: 21714932
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); cardiovascular disease (CVD); hypercholesterolemia; HMG CoA reductase inhibitor; pravastatin, MEGA Study
3.  Continuous glucose monitoring with Humalog Mix 25 versus Humalog Mix 50, twice daily: A comparative pilot study -Results from the Jikei-EValuation of insulin Lispro mixture on pharmacodynamics and glycemic VariancE (J-EVOLVE) study 
To evaluate glycemic variability associated with two different premixed insulin analogue formulations when used in a twice-daily regimen.
Patients and Methods
Subjects comprised type 2 diabetic patients aged 20-79 years, treated with twice daily premixed insulin or insulin analogue formulations. All subjects were hospitalized for 6 days and randomized to receive either Humalog Mix 25 (Mix 25) or Humalog Mix 50 (Mix 50). They were then crossed over to the other arm between day 3 and day 4 of the study. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed on all subjects to examine the differences in glycemic variability.
Eleven type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. No significant difference was found in 24-hour mean glucose values and their SDs, pre-meal glucose values, increases from pre-meal to peak glucose values, or time to peak glucose levels between either group. However, the mean glucose values observed during 0-8 hrs were significantly lower with Mix 25 compared to Mix 50 (128 vs. 147 mg/dL; p = 0.024).
The twice-daily Mix 25 regimen provided superior overnight glycemic control compared to the Mix 50 regimen in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, both twice-daily regimens with either Mix 25 or Mix 50 provided inadequate post-lunch glycemic control.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials UMIN000001327
PMCID: PMC2885326  PMID: 20438630
4.  Changes in body mass index, leptin and adiponectin in Japanese children during a three-year follow-up period: a population-based cohort study 
The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort.
Study design
A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan.
Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up (age 12–13) in boys from 17.1 to 18.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in girls from 16.5 to 18.5 kg/m2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adiponectin values significantly decreased from baseline to follow up in boys (13.5 to 8.9 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001) and in girls (12.4 to 9.5 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001). Leptin values at follow up significantly decreased from baseline in boys (4.9 to 2.3 ng/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001) and also in girls (5.3 to 5.1 ng/dl, respectively) (P = 0.049).
A relatively strong correlation was seen in BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.864, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.873, P < 0.001 in girls), adiponectin (r = 0.705, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.695, P < 0.001 in girls), and leptin (r = 0.449, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.610, P < 0.001 in girls) before and after the three-year period.
The ratio of follow up to baseline BMI was negatively correlated with that for adiponectin (r = -0.224, P < 0.001 in boys; r = -0.165, P = 0.001 in girls) and positively correlated with that for leptin (r = 0.518, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.609, P < 0.001 in girls).
This study demonstrated that baseline adiponectin, leptin and BMI values measured at ages 9–10 correlated with those measured three years later. However, adiponectin values decreased and leptin values increased in those subjects whose BMI increased during over this period.
PMCID: PMC2701411  PMID: 19490650
5.  Prospective randomized study for optimal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure 
The large clinical trials proved that Basal-Bolus (BB) insulin therapy was effective in the prevention of diabetic complications and their progression. However, BB therapy needs multiple insulin injections per a day. In this regard, a biphasic insulin analogue needs only twice-daily injections, and is able to correct postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore it may achieve the blood glucose control as same as that of BB therapy and prevent the diabetic complications including macroangiopathy.
In PROBE (Prospective, Randomized, Open, Blinded-Endpoint) design, forty-two type 2 diabetic patients (male: 73.8%, median(inter quartile range) age: 64.5(56.8~71.0)years) with secondary failure of sulfonylurea (SU) were randomly assigned to BB therapy with a thrice-daily insulin aspart and once-daily basal insulin (BB group) or to conventional therapy with a twice-daily biphasic insulin analogue (30 Mix group), and were followed up for 6 months to compare changes in HbA1c, daily glycemic profile, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery, adiponectin levels, amounts of insulin used, and QOL between the two groups.
After 6 months, HbA1c was significantly reduced in both groups compared to baseline (30 Mix; 9.3(8.1~11.3) → 7.4(6.9~8.7)%, p < 0.01, vs BB;8.9(7.7~10.0) → 6.9(6.2~7.3)%, p < 0.01), with no significant difference between the groups in percentage change in HbA1c (30 Mix; -14.7(-32.5~-7.5)% vs BB -17.8(-30.1~-11.1)%, p = 0.32). There was a significant decrease in daily glycemic profile at all points except dinner time in both groups compared to baseline. There was a significant increase in the amount of insulin used in the 30 Mix group after treatment compared to baseline (30 Mix;0.30(0.17~0.44) → 0.39(0.31~0.42) IU/kg, p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in IMT, BMI, QOL or adiponectin levels in either group compared to baseline.
Both BB and 30 mix group produced comparable reductions in HbA1c in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure. There was no significant change in IMT as an indicator of early atherosclerotic changes between the two groups. The basal-bolus insulin therapy may not be necessarily needed if the type 2 diabetic patients have become secondary failure.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials number, NCT00348231
PMCID: PMC2442047  PMID: 18507868
6.  Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography 
Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D).
An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4). Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis.
CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006). In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS < 1000 (45.5% vs. 18.8%; OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045) when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age.
The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.
PMCID: PMC2041944  PMID: 17825092

Results 1-6 (6)