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1.  Comparative effect of clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone on laboratory parameters: a retrospective, observational, cohort study 
Background
Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Combination therapy of clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in patients in routine clinical practice. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters using a clinical database.
Methods
We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between November 2004 and April 2011, to identify cohorts of new users (n = 159) of clopidogrel (75 mg/day) plus aspirin (100 mg/day) and new users (n = 834) of aspirin alone (100 mg/day). We used a multivariable regression model and regression adjustment with the propensity score to adjust for differences in baseline covariates between settings, and compare the mean changes in serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and hematological parameters, including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell and platelet counts up to two months after the start of study drug administration.
Results
After adjustment, the reduction of WBC count in clopidogrel plus aspirin users was significantly greater than that in aspirin alone users. All other tests showed no statistically significant difference in the mean change from baseline to during the exposure period between clopidogrel plus aspirin users and aspirin alone users. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin increased the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with aspirin alone, with a relative risk ranging from 2.06 (95% CI, 1.02 to 4.13; p = 0.043) for the multivariate model and 2.61 (95% CI, 1.18 to 5.80; p = 0.0184) for propensity adjustment.
Conclusion
Our findings suggested that hematological adverse effects may be greater with combination therapy of clopidogrel plus aspirin than with aspirin monotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-87
PMCID: PMC3687565  PMID: 23767412
Clopidogrel; Aspirin; Laboratory parameter; Antiplatelet therapy; Propensity-score adjustment
2.  Correlation between mean platelet volume and fasting plasma glucose levels in prediabetic and normoglycemic individuals 
Background
Prediabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mean platelet volume (MPV) can reflect platelet activity, and high MPV is associated with thrombogenic activation and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In diabetic patients, MPV is higher when compared with normal subjects. However, the relationship between MPV and prediabetes is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare MPV in prediabetic and normoglycemic subjects, and to evaluate the relationship between MPV and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in these two groups.
Methods
We retrospectively studied 1876 Japanese subjects who had undergone health checks at Iida Municipal Hospital. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, medical history, smoking habits, alcohol intake, lipid profiles, FPG levels, and MPV were evaluated. Subjects were categorized into four groups according to FPG: Q1 (70 mg/dL ≤ FPG < 90 mg/dL, n = 467), Q2 (90 mg/dL ≤ FPG < 95 mg/dl, n = 457), Q3 (95 mg/dL ≤ FPG < 100 mg/dL, n = 442), and Q4 (100 mg/dL ≤ FPG < 126 mg/dL, n = 512). Q1, Q2, and Q3 were defined as normal FPG groups and Q4 was defined as prediabetic group.
Results
The MPV increased with the increasing FPG levels, in the following order: Q1 (9.89 ± 0.68 fl), Q2 (9.97 ± 0.69 fl), Q3 (10.02 ± 0.72 fl), and Q4 (10.12 ± 0.69 fl). After adjusting for the confounding parameters, MPV of the prediabetic group was higher than that in other groups (P < 0.001 for Q4 vs. Q1 and Q2, and P < 0.05 for Q4 vs. Q3). MPV in the high-normal glucose group (Q3) was significantly higher than in the low-normal glucose group (Q1). MPV was independently and positively associated with FPG, not only in prediabetic subjects but also in normal FPG subjects (β = 0.020 and β = 0.006, respectively).
Conclusions
MPV in patients with prediabetes was higher than that in normal subjects, and was positively associated with FPG levels in prediabetic and normal subjects.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-14
PMCID: PMC3558413  PMID: 23311535
Diabetes; Prediabetes; Hyperglycemia; Fasting plasma glucose; Mean platelet volume
3.  Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601) and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601), with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy.
Results
We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users.
Conclusions
Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and electrolyte imbalance are greater with ARB monotherapy than with CCB monotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-53
PMCID: PMC3416676  PMID: 22594344
Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB); Calcium channel blocker (CCB); Hematological parameter; Retrospective observational study

Results 1-3 (3)