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1.  The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded 
The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues.
Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies.
Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy) are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-4-9
PMCID: PMC1175853  PMID: 15985157
Atherosclerosis; Collagen; elastin; proteoglycan; structural glycoprotein; Integrin; oxidative stress; redox stress; MMP; TIMP; remodeling
2.  Vascular ossification – calcification in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and calciphylaxis – calcific uremic arteriolopathy: the emerging role of sodium thiosulfate 
Background
Vascular calcification is associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and end stage renal disease. Each of the above contributes to an accelerated and premature demise primarily due to cardiovascular disease. The above conditions are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in an increase in reactive oxygen species to the arterial vessel wall, which results in a response to injury wound healing (remodeling). The endothelium seems to be at the very center of these disease processes, acting as the first line of defense against these multiple metabolic toxicities and the first to encounter their damaging effects to the arterial vessel wall.
Results
The pathobiomolecular mechanisms of vascular calcification are presented in order to provide the clinician – researcher a database of knowledge to assist in the clinical management of these high-risk patients and examine newer therapies. Calciphylaxis is associated with medial arteriolar vascular calcification and results in ischemic subcutaneous necrosis with vulnerable skin ulcerations and high mortality. Recently, this clinical syndrome (once thought to be rare) is presenting with increasing frequency. Consequently, newer therapeutic modalities need to be explored. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate is currently used as an antidote for the treatment of cyanide poisioning and prevention of toxicities of cisplatin cancer therapies. It is used as a food and medicinal preservative and topically used as an antifungal medication.
Conclusion
A discussion of sodium thiosulfate's dual role as a potent antioxidant and chelator of calcium is presented in order to better understand its role as an emerging novel therapy for the clinical syndrome of calciphylaxis and its complications.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-4-4
PMCID: PMC1079905  PMID: 15777477
atherosclerosis; atheroscleropathy; HDL-C; lipoproteins; osteoatheroitis; oxidative and redox stress; reactive oxygen species; end stage renal disease
3.  Isolated low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C): implications of global risk reduction. Case report and systematic scientific review 
Background
The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus), and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant – anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential growth.
Case presentation
In 1997 a 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a lipoprotein profile of many years duration with an isolated low HDL-C and uric acid levels in the upper quintile of normal. He developed an acute myocardial infarction involving the right coronary artery and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting of this lesion. He also demonstrated a non-critical non-flow limiting lesion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at the time of this evaluation.
Following a program of global risk reduction this patient has done well over the past 7 years and remains free of any clinical signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. His HDL-C and uric acid levels are currently in the normal physiological range.
Conclusion
Low HDL-C and isolated low HDL-C constitute an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therapies that lead to a return to normal physiologic range of HDL-C may result in the delay of atherosclerotic progression.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-4-1
PMCID: PMC544835  PMID: 15631632
Apo A-1; ABCA1; Atheroscleropathy; Atherosclerosis; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; lipoprotein A; redox stress; fibrates; niacin; ezetimibe; statins.
4.  Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: a malignant transformation 
Background
Vascularization is an exciting and complex mechanism involving angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities, which result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to an elevated tension of oxidative-redox stress and an accelerated atherosclerosis termed atheroscleropathy.
Results
This atheroscleropathy is associated with accelerated angiogenesis within the vulnerable, thin-cap fibro-atheroma, prone to rupture resulting in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The resulting intimopathy with its neovascularization due to angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (Vv) is prone to intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). These IPH are associated with destabilization of the vulnerable plaques resulting in plaque erosion and plaque rupture resulting in ACS. In atheroscleropathy the adventitial Vv invades the plaque in a malignant-like fashion and concurrently is associated with chronic inflammation, as macrophages are being deposited within the shoulder regions of these vulnerable plaques. These angiogenic Vv provide a custom delivery vascular network for multiple detrimental substrates, which further accelerates the growth of these vulnerable plaques and atheroscleropathy. There exists a vascularization paradox in MS and T2DM, in that, angiogenesis within the plaque is induced and arteriogenesis is impaired.
Conclusion
This review will attempt to provide a database of knowledge regarding the vascularization process (angiogenesis and arteriogenesis) and its mechanisms to better understand the increased cardiovascular risk and the increased morbidity and mortality associated with MS and T2DM.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-3-1
PMCID: PMC356925  PMID: 14761253
Arteriogenesis; eNOS; nitric oxide (eNO); reactive oxygen species (ROS); reactive nitrogen species (RNS); reactive thiol species (RTS)
5.  Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a vascular disease (atheroscleropathy) with hyperglycemia a late manifestation? The role of NOS, NO, and redox stress. 
Background
Cardiovascular disease accounts for at least 85 percent of deaths for those patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, 75 percent of these deaths are due to ischemic heart disease.
Hypothesis
Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a vascular disease (atheroscleropathy) with hyperglycemia a late manifestation? The role of NOS, NO, and redox stress.
Testing of the hypothesis
The vulnerable three arms of the eNOS reaction responsible for the generation of eNO is discussed in relation to the hypothesis: (1). The L-arginine substrate. (2). The eNOS enzyme. (3). The BH4 cofactor.
Implications of the hypothesis
If we view T2DM as a vascular disease initially with a later manifestation of hyperglycemia, we may be able to better understand and modify the multiple toxicities associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, overt T2DM, and accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy). The importance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), L-arginine, and redox stress are discussed in relation to endothelial cell dysfunction and the development and progression of atheroscleropathy and T2DM. In addition to the standard therapies to restore endothelial cell dysfunction and stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, this article will discuss the importance of folic acid (5MTHF) supplementation in this complex devastating disease process.
Atheroscleropathy and hyperglycemia could be early and late manifestations, respectively, in the natural progressive history of T2DM.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-2-2
PMCID: PMC151667  PMID: 12628022
ADMA; Atherosclerosis; Folic Acid; Oxidative stress; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNO); endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) (NOS-3)
6.  Intimal redox stress: Accelerated atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atheroscleropathy 
Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with an accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy). This quartet is also associated with multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species. The redox stress associated with these reactive oxygen species contribute to the development, progression, and the final fate of the arterial vessel wall in prediabetic and diabetic atheroscleropathy. The prevention of morbidity and mortality of these intersecting metabolic diseases can be approached through comprehensive global risk reduction.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-1-3
PMCID: PMC140143  PMID: 12392600
Atherosclerosis; Atheroscleropathy; Oxidative stress; ROS (reactive oxygen species); RNS (reactive nitrogen species); Reductive stress

Results 1-6 (6)