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1.  Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor member ST2 exhibits higher soluble levels in type 2 diabetes, especially when accompanied with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction 
Background
Soluble ST2, a member of the of the Toll/IL-1 superfamily, is a novel biomarker with exceptional predictive value in heart failure and myocardial infarction- related mortality as well as in acute dyspneic states. Soluble ST2 is considered a decoy receptor of IL 33 that blocks the protective effects of the cytokine in atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling. In the present study we investigated the differences in the levels of soluble ST2, BNP and hs-CRP between healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between sST2 and other biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c.
Methods
158 volunteers were recruited and underwent a complete Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of both systolic & diastolic cardiac function. All subjects with ejection fraction < 50% were excluded. The study population was divided in 4 groups as follows: A: 42 healthy controls, B: 18 subjects without diabetes with LVDD, C: 48 patients with type 2 diabetes without LVDD & D: 50 patients with type 2 diabetes & LVDD. ELISA technique was performed to measure sST2 levels. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney test (continuous variables), chi squared & Fischer exact test (discrete variables), Spearman coefficient (univariate analysis) and step-wise backward method (multivariate analysis).
Results
Patients with type 2 diabetes with (p < 0.001) or without LVDD (p = 0.007) had higher serum ST2 levels compared to healthy controls, state found also for hs-CRP levels but not for the corresponding BNP levels (p = 0.213 & p = 0.207 respectively). Patients with type 2 diabetes & LVDD had higher serum ST2 in relation to diabetic patients without LVDD (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis HbA1c positively and independently correlated with sST2 levels in both groups of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions
Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher sST2 levels compared to healthy controls. The presence of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with even higher sST2 levels. A significant correlation between glycemic control and sST2 levels was also revealed.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-101
PMCID: PMC3229462  PMID: 22104207
Soluble ST2; BNP; hs-CRP; type 2 diabetes; diastolic dysfunction
2.  Adiponectin levels and expression of adiponectin receptors in isolated monocytes from overweight patients with coronary artery disease 
Background
Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherosclerotic effects, partly mediated through its action on monocytes. We aimed to determine adiponectin levels and expression of its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in peripheral monocytes from overweight and obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
Fifty-five overweight/obese patients, suspected for CAD, underwent coronary angiography: 31 were classified as CAD patients (stenosis ≥ 50% in at least one main vessel) and 24 as nonCAD. Quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry were used for determining mRNA and protein surface expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral monocytes. A high sensitivity multiplex assay (xMAP technology) was used for the determination of plasma adiponectin and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secreted levels.
Results
Plasma adiponectin levels were decreased in CAD compared to nonCAD patients (10.9 ± 3.1 vs. 13.8 ± 5.8 μg/ml respectively, p = 0.033). In multivariable analysis, Matsuda index was the sole independent determinant of adiponectin levels. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 protein levels were decreased in monocytes from CAD compared to nonCAD patients (59.5 ± 24.9 vs. 80 ± 46 and 70.7 ± 39 vs. 95.6 ± 47.8 Mean Fluorescence Intensity Arbitrary Units respectively, p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed concerning the mRNA levels of the adiponectin receptors between CAD and nonCAD patients. AdipoR2 protein levels were positively correlated with plasma adiponectin and Matsuda index (r = 0.36 and 0.31 respectively, p < 0.05 for both). Furthermore, basal as well as adiponectin-induced IL-10 release was reduced in monocyte-derived macrophages from CAD compared to nonCAD subjects.
Conclusions
Overweight patients with CAD compared to those without CAD, had decreased plasma adiponectin levels, as well as decreased surface expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral monocytes. This fact together with the reduced adiponectin-induced IL-10 secretion from CAD macrophages could explain to a certain extent, an impaired atheroprotective action of adiponectin.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-14
PMCID: PMC3042923  PMID: 21284833
3.  Genetic variation in the adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2) gene is associated with coronary artery disease and increased ADIPOR2 expression in peripheral monocytes 
Background
Adiponectin is an adipose tissue secreted protein known for its insulin sensitising and anti-atherogenic actions. To this date two adiponectin receptors have been discovered, adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of ADIPOR2 gene variations with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
Eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire ADIPOR2 locus were chosen to perform association studies with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Greek population. They were classified as either CAD (stenosis >50% in at least one main vessel) or non-CAD individuals in accordance with coronary angiography data.
Genotyping was performed using a microsphere-based suspension array and the Allele Specific Primer Extension (ASPE) method. Expression of ADIPOR2 protein and mRNA in circulating CD14+ monocytes were determined using flow cytometry and real time Polymerase Chain Reaction assays respectively.
Results
There was a significant difference in the distribution of genotypes of polymorphism rs767870 of ADIPOR2 between CAD and non-CAD individuals (p = 0.017). Furthermore, heterozygotes of the rs767870 polymorphism had significantly lower Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD) values, higher values of Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) and increased ADIPOR2 protein levels in peripheral monocytes, compared to homozygotes of the minor allele after adjustment for age, sex, waist to hip ratio and HOMA.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that variants of ADIPOR2 could be a determinant for atherosclerosis independent of insulin resistance status, possibly by affecting ADIPOR2 protein levels.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-9-10
PMCID: PMC2846898  PMID: 20178558

Results 1-3 (3)