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1.  Combined effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women 
Background
Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested this association in type 2 diabetic women, categorized as obese, overweight and normal body weight groups based on BMI.
Design and methods
A total of 101 subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, C reactive protein, leptin, TGF-α, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Data were logarithmically transformed for variables not normally distributed. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni was applied to compare the data between the groups. Simple and partial correlation coefficients between the variables were determined and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between the variables of interest.
Results
Significantly increased levels of IL-6, C reactive protein, leptin and significantly decreased levels of adiponectin were found in obese group, while the levels of TNF-α and TGF-α were unaltered. A positive correlation between waist circumference and IL-6 was found in obese group. Similarly, C reactive protein, waist and hip circumferences were linearly correlated with BMI in obese group. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed several significant predictors for breast cancer risk.
Conclusion
Obesity and type 2 diabetes, owing to their effects on adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators, contribute to increased breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. This study emphasizes healthy life style and better management of these metabolic disorders to avoid the pathogenesis of breast cancer and of other chronic diseases.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-33
PMCID: PMC2706231  PMID: 19545451
2.  Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies 
Introduction
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue.
Aims
The study investigated the relationship between endotoxin and various metabolic parameters of diabetic patients to determine if anti-diabetic therapies exerted a significant effect on endotoxin levels and adipocytokine profiles.
Methods
Fasting blood samples were collected from consenting Saudi Arabian patients (BMI: 30.2 ± (SD)5.6 kg/m2, n = 413), consisting of non-diabetics (ND: n = 67) and T2DM subjects (n = 346). The diabetics were divided into 5 subgroups based on their 1 year treatment regimes: diet-controlled (n = 36), metformin (n = 141), rosiglitazone (RSG: n = 22), a combined fixed dose of metformin/rosiglitazone (met/RSG n = 100) and insulin (n = 47). Lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and endotoxin concentrations were determined.
Results
Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between endotoxin levels and triglycerides (R2 = 0.42; p < 0.0001); total cholesterol (R2 = 0.10; p < 0.001), glucose (R2 = 0.076; p < 0.001) and insulin (R2 = 0.032; p < 0.001) in T2DM subjects. Endotoxin showed a strong inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (R2 = 0.055; p < 0.001). Further, endotoxin levels were elevated in all of the treated diabetic subgroups compared with ND, with the RSG treated diabetics showing significantly lower endotoxin levels than all of the other treatment groups (ND: 4.2 ± 1.7 EU/ml, RSG: 5.6 ± 2.2 EU/ml). Both the met/RSG and RSG treated groups had significantly higher adiponectin levels than all the other groups, with the RSG group expressing the highest levels overall.
Conclusion
We conclude that sub-clinical inflammation in T2DM may, in part, be mediated by circulating endotoxin. Furthermore, that whilst the endotoxin and adipocytokine profiles of diabetic patients treated with different therapies were comparable, the RSG group demonstrated significant differences in both adiponectin and endotoxin levels. We confirm an association between endotoxin and serum insulin and triglycerides and an inverse relationship with HDL. Lower endotoxin and higher adiponectin in the groups treated with RSG may be related and indicate another mechanism for the effect of RSG on insulin sensitivity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-20
PMCID: PMC2674418  PMID: 19368716
3.  Serum leptin and its relation to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic Saudis 
Background
Little information is available on leptin concentrations in individuals with IGT. This study aims to determine and correlate leptin levels to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic, (IFG and IGT), type 2 diabetic and normoglycaemic Saudis.
Methods
308 adult Saudis (healthy controls n = 80; pre-diabetes n = 86; Type 2 diabetes n = 142) participated. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples taken. Serum insulin was analysed, using a solid phase enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay and also leptin concentrations, using radio-immunoassay. The remaining blood parameters were determined using standard laboratory procedures.
Results
Leptin levels of diabetic and pre-diabetic men were higher than in normoglycaemic men (12.4 [3.2–72] vs 3.9 [0.8–20.0] ng/mL, (median [interquartile range], p = 0.0001). In females, leptin levels were significantly higher in pre-diabetic subjects (14.09 [2.8–44.4] ng/mL) than in normoglycaemic subjects (10.2 [0.25–34.8] ng/mL) (p = 0.046). After adjustment for BMI and gender, hip circumference was associated with log leptin (p = 0.006 with R2 = 0.086) among all subjects.
Conclusion
Leptin is associated with measures of adiposity, hip circumference in particular, in the non-diabetic state among Saudi subjects. The higher leptin level among diabetics and pre-diabetics is not related to differences in anthropometric measures of obesity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-6-18
PMCID: PMC1933413  PMID: 17617917

Results 1-3 (3)