A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dl for 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage. We designed this study to address if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] circulating levels are associated with glucose tolerance status, and in particular with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels.
We enrolled 300 consecutive Caucasian hypertensive never-treated outpatients (160 men and 140 women, aged 52.9 ± 9.2 years). Subjects underwent OGTT and measurements of 25(OH)D and standard laboratory tests. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI formula and insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda-index.
Among participants, 230 were NGT, 44 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 26 had type-2 diabetes. According to 1-h post-load plasma glucose cut-off point of 155 mg/dL, we divided NGT subjects into: NGT < 155 (n = 156) and NGT > 155 mg/dL (n = 74).
NGT ≥ 155 had higher significant fasting and post-load glucose and insulin, parathyroid hormone and hs-CRP levels than NGT < 155. On the contrary, Matsuda-index, e-GFR, and 25(OH)D were significantly lower in NGT ≥ 155 than NGT < 155 subjects. In the multiple regression analysis, 25(OH)D levels resulted the major determinant of 1-h post-load plasma glucose in all population and in the four groups of glucose tolerance status. In the whole population, Matsuda-index, hs-CRP and e-GFR explained another 12.2%, 6.7% and 1.7% of its variation.
Our data demonstrate a significant and inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and glucose tolerance status, particularly with 1-h post-load glucose.
Vitamin D; Glucose tolerance; Insulin resistance
Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats.
Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days.
Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 ± 0.40, ISO: 4.43 ± 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 ± 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 ± 0.16, p < 0.05). Cardiac catheterization revealed that vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4.
Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats.
Cardiac hypertrophy; Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; Inflammation; Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
Vaspin is an adipocytokine that was recently identified in the visceral adipose tissue of diabetic rats and has anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects. We hypothesized that vaspin prevents inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular endothelial cells.
We examined the effects of vaspin on NF-κB activation and the expression of the NF-κB-mediated genes intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECS) were used. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine.
Treatment with vaspin significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the down-stream target of AMPK. Furthermore, treatment with vaspin significantly decreased TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1. These effects were abolished following transfection of AMPKα1-specific small interfering RNA. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, vaspin reduced TNFα-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECS in an AMPK-dependent manner.
Vaspin might attenuate the cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecule genes by inhibiting NF-κB following AMPK activation.
Vaspin; Endothelial cells; AMPK; NF-κB; Adhesion molecules
Diabetes is known to impair the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells in the circulation, causing structural and functional alterations in the micro- and macro-vasculature. The aim of this study was to identify early diabetes-related changes in the expression of genes that have been reported to be closely involved in endothelial progenitor cell migration and function.
Based on review of current literature, this study examined the expression level of 35 genes that are known to be involved in endothelial progenitor cell migration and function in magnetically sorted Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells obtained from the bone marrow of Akita mice in the early stages of diabetes (18 weeks) using RT-PCR and Western blotting. We used the Shapiro-Wilk and D’Agostino & Pearson Omnibus tests to assess normality. Differences between groups were evaluated by Student’s t-test for normally distributed data (including Welch correction in cases of unequal variances) or Mann–Whitney test for not normally distributed data.
We observed a significant increase in the number of Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells within the bone marrow in diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic mice. Two genes, SDF-1 and SELE, were significantly differentially expressed in diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells and six other genes, CAV1, eNOS, CLDN5, NANOG, OCLN and BDNF, showed very low levels of expression in diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ progenitor cells.
Low SDF-1 expression may contribute to the dysfunctional mobilization of bone marrow Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells, which may contribute to microvascular injury in early diabetes.
Diabetes; Endothelial progenitor cells; Diabetic vasculopathies; Molecular pathology; SDF-1; Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs; Cardiovascular pathology; Retinopathy
We examined the effect of chronic administration of angiotensin IV (AngIV) on the vascular alterations induced by type 1 diabetes in mice.
Diabetes was induced in adult Swiss mice with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Mice were treated subcutaneously with AngIV (1.4 mg/kg/day) either immediately following diabetes induction (preventive treatment), or treated with AngIV (0.01 to 1.4 mg/kg), alone or with the AT4 receptor antagonist Divalinal or the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, for two weeks after 4 weeks of diabetes duration (rescue treatment). Acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured in isolated aortic rings preparations. Histomorphometric measurements of the media thickness were obtained, and nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance in aorta and mesenteric arteries. The effect of diabetes on mesenteric vascular alterations was also examined in genetically modified mice lacking the AT2 receptor.
Induction of diabetes with STZ was associated with a progressive decrease of EDR and an increase of the aortic and mesenteric media thickness already significant after 4 weeks and peaking at week 6. Immediate treatment with AngIV fully prevented the diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. Rescue treatment with AngIV implemented after 4 weeks of diabetes dose-dependently restored a normal endothelial function at week 6. AngIV blunted the thickening of the aortic and mesenteric media, and reversed the diabetes-induced changes in NO and O2•– production by the vessels. The protective effect of AngIV on endothelial function was completely blunted by cotreatment with Divalinal, but not with PD123319. In contrast, both the pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor reversed the diabetes-induced morphologic and endothelial alteration caused by diabetes.
The results suggest an opposite contribution of AT2 and AT4 receptors to the vascular alterations caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, since chronic stimulation of AT4 by AngIV and inhibition of AT2 similarly reverse diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, and increase NO bioavailability.
Angiotensin IV; AT2 receptor; AT4 receptor; Streptozotocin-induced diabetes; Endothelial dysfunction
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease as it causes arterial stiffness changes. The purpose of this study is to characterize, in vivo, carotid arterial structural and functional changes by applying radio frequency and X-strain ultrasound techniques.
Ninety-one subjects were assigned into two groups; a diabetes group and a control group. Structural and functional changes in the common carotid arterial wall were investigated by quality intima-media thickness (QIMT), quality arterial stiffness (QAS), and X-strain analysis with a Mylab Twice ultrasound instrument. The relationships among variables between the two groups were analyzed in this study.
There was no significant difference in carotid IMT (626.5 ± 169.1 μm vs. 568.5 ± 122.6 μm, P = 0.1506) between two groups. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and stiffness index (β) were remarkably greater (8.388 ± 3.254 m/s vs. 7.269 ± 1.332 m/s; 12.51 ± 14.16 vs.9.279 ± 2.871), while compliance coefficient (CC) decreased significantly in the diabetes group (0.802 ± 0.3094 mm2/Kpa vs. 0.968 ± 0.3992 mm2/Kpa) (P < 0.05). The displacement difference of radial (RD-D), longitudinal (LD-D) and rotation (ROT-D) directions were significantly different between two groups’ comparison (P = 0.0212, P = 0.0235 and P = 0.0072, respectively). The time of circumferential peak strain difference (CS-DT) and the time of radial peak strain rate (RSR-T) were found to be significantly different between the two groups (341.9 ± 77.56 ms vs. 369.0 ± 78.26 ms, P = 0.0494; 142.7 ± 22.43 ms vs. 136.2 ± 30.70 ms, P = 0.0474). CS-TD and RSR-T were also found to be positively correlated with CC value (r = 0.3908, P < 0.005 and r = 0.3027, P = 0.0326, respectively). Finally, PWV was negatively correlated with CC with (r = –0.6177, P < 0.001).
In type 2 diabetes, the functional changes in CCA can be identified using the methods presented in this article earlier than the structural changes. Arterial stiffness values provided by QAS and X-strain analysis can be used as indicators of CCA functional lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Arterial stiffness; Intima-media thickness; Diabetes; Strain
Cyclophilin A, an immunophilin is secreted from human monocytes activated by high glucose. Given its role as an inflammatory mediator of vascular tissue damage associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we examined plasma levels of cyclophilin A in normal healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), with or without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Study subjects comprised of 212 patients with DM and CAD,101 patients with diabetes, 122 patients with CAD and 121 normal healthy volunteers. Diabetes was assessed by HbA1c levels while coronary artery disease was established by a positive treadmill test and/or coronary angiography. Plasma cyclophilin A was measured using a cyclophilin A ELISA Kit. Relationship of plasma cyclophilin A levels with blood markers of type 2 diabetes, blood lipid levels and medication for diabetes and coronary artery disease were also explored.
Plasma Cyclophilin levels were higher in diabetes patients with or without CAD compared to normal subjects (P < 0.001). Age, fasting blood sugar levels and HbA1C levels were positively associated with increased plasma cyclophilin. Patients using metformin had reduced levels of plasma cyclophilin (p < 0.001).Serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides had no significant association with plasma cyclophilin levels. In patients with increased serum CRP levels, plasma cyclophilin A was also elevated (p = 0.016). Prevalence odds for DM, DM + CAD and CAD are higher in those with high cyclophilin values, compared to those with lower values, after adjusting for age and sex, indicating strong association of high cyclophilin values with diabetes and vascular disease.
Our study demonstrates that patients with type 2 diabetes have higher circulating levels of cyclophilin A than the normal population. Plasma cyclophilin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease suggesting a role of this protein in accelerating vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Considering the evidence that Cyclophilin A is an inflammatory mediator in atherogenesis, the mechanistic role of cyclophilin A in diabetic vascular disease progression deserves detailed investigation.
Hyperglycemia; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Monocytes; Cyclophilin A; Vascular disease
Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and is also known to possess an array of cardioprotective effects. However, its overall effects on energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism involved in cardioprotection require further investigation. Herein we hypothesize that ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels as molecular sensors of cellular metabolism may mediate the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol.
Kir6.2 knockout, Kir6.1 heterozygous and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury and were injected with resveratrol (10 mg/kg, i.p). Myocardial infarct size, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were determined. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were used in in vitro assays to investigate the underlying mechanism of resveratrol in cardioprotection.
Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and serum LDH and CK activity and inhibited oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation – induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in WT and Kir6.1 heterozygous mice, but Kir6.2 deficiency can abolish the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol in vivo and in vitro. We further found that resveratrol enhanced 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and promoted the association of AMPK with Kir6.2. Suppression of AMPK attenuated and activation of AMPK mimicked the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol in cardiomyocytes. Notably, Kir6.2 knockout also reversed the cardioprotection of AMPK activator.
Our study demonstrates that resveratrol exerts cardioprotective effects through AMPK -Kir6.2/K-ATP signal pathway and Kir6.2-containing K-ATP channel is required for cardioprotection of resveratrol.
Resveratrol; ATP-sensitive potassium channel; Kir6.2; Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion; 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase
Alterations in extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microparticles, contribute to cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that obesity could favour enhanced release of EVs from adipose tissue, and thereby contribute to cardiovascular risk via obesity-induced metabolic complications. The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the relation between the quantity, distribution and (dys) function of adipose tissue and plasma concentrations of atherothrombotic EV-markers; 2) to determine the relation between these EV-markers and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; and 3) to assess the contribution of EV markers to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes.
In 1012 patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, subcutaneous and visceral fat thickness was measured ultrasonographically. Plasma EVs were isolated and levels of cystatin C, serpin G1, serpin F2 and CD14 were measured, as well as fasting metabolic parameters, hsCRP and adiponectin. The association between adiposity, EV-markers, and metabolic syndrome was tested by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. As sex influences body fat distribution, sex-stratified analyses between adipose tissue distribution and EV-markers were performed. The relation between EV-markers and type 2 diabetes was assessed with Cox regression analyses.
Higher levels of hsCRP (β 5.59; 95% CI 3.00–8.18) and lower HDL-cholesterol levels (β-11.26; 95% CI −18.39 – -4.13) were related to increased EV-cystatin C levels, and EV-cystatin C levels were associated with a 57% higher odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.19–2.27). HDL-cholesterol levels were positively related to EV-CD14 levels (β 5.04; 95% CI 0.07–10.0), and EV-CD14 levels were associated with a relative risk reduction of 16% for development of type 2 diabetes (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75–0.94), during a median follow up of 6.5 years in which 42 patients developed type 2 diabetes.
In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, EV-cystatin C levels were positively related, and EV-CD14 levels were negatively related to metabolic complications of obesity.
Extracellular vesicle markers; Obesity; hsCRP; Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes
Background and aims
Liraglutide treatment can improve glycemic control with a concomitant weight loss, but the underlying mechanism on weight loss is not completely understood. Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) can resist body fat accumulation through increasing adipocytes lypolysis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that liraglutide-induced weight loss was associated with increased plasma NPs concentrations.
Thirty-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with metformin and other oral antidiabetic drugs except for thiazolidinediones (TZDs) were subcutaneously administered with liraglutide for 12 weeks. Body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue areas (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas (SAT) were assessed at pre- and post-treatment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning and abdominal computerized tomography (CT). Plasma atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and B-type ventricular natriuretic peptides (BNP) concentrations were tested by commercial ELISA Kit quantitatively.
Following 12-week liraglutide treatment, body weight, waist circumference, total fat and lean mass, fat percentage, SAT and VAT areas were significantly reduced from baseline. Concurrently, plasma ANP and BNP levels were significantly increased following 12-week liraglutide treatment. There were significant correlations between the reductions in body compositions and the increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels.
There were significant correlations between increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels and changes in liraglutide-induced body composition. Our data implied that increases in plasma NPs may add a novel dimension to explain how liraglutide induces weight loss.
Liraglutide; Body composition; Weight loss; Cardiac natriuretic peptides
The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, a new anti-diabetic medicine, is effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing the activation and duration of action of glucagon-like peptide-1. Since atherosclerosis is the main pathological feature of diabetic cardiovascular complications, it is important to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of sitagliptin and explore the relevant mechanisms.
Male apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed either high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus sitagliptin at a concentration of 0.3% for 16 weeks. Body weight, food intake, blood glucose, serum lipids and adhesion molecules were measured. The atherosclerotic plaque area and its histological composition were analyzed using Sudan staining and immunohistochemistry. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the aortas were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively.
Mice treated with sitagliptin developed fewer atherosclerotic plaques than the control group (7.64 ± 1.98% vs 12.91 ± 1.15%, p < 0.001), particularly in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta, where plaques were decreased 1.92- and 2.74-fold, respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). Sitagliptin significantly reduced the content of collagen fiber in plaques 1.2-fold (p < 0.05). Moreover, sitagliptin significantly reduced the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 in the aorta (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), as well as the serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin (both p < 0.05). In addition, Sitagliptin induced phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), while suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in aortas.
Our present study indicates that sitagliptin can reduce the area of the atherosclerotic lesion, possibly by regulating the AMPK and MAPK pathways and then reducing leukocyte –endothelial cell interaction and inflammation reactions. These actions are independent of weight loss and glucose-reducing effects.
Sitagliptin; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation; AMPK signaling pathway MAPK signaling pathway; Leukocyte–endothelial cell interaction
It is important to establish the cardiovascular (CV) safety profile of novel antidiabetic drugs.
Pooled analyses were performed of 20 randomized controlled studies (N = 9156) of saxagliptin as monotherapy or add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as a subset of 11 saxagliptin + metformin studies. Adjudicated major adverse CV events (MACE; CV death, myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke) and investigator-reported heart failure were assessed, and incidence rates (IRs; events/100 patient-years) and IR ratios (IRRs; saxagliptin/control) were calculated (Mantel-Haenszel method).
In pooled datasets, the IR point estimates for MACE and individual components of CV death, MI, and stroke favored saxagliptin, but the 95% CI included 1. IRR (95% CI) for MACE in the 20-study pool was 0.74 (0.45, 1.25). The Cox proportional hazard ratio (95% CI) was 0.75 (0.46, 1.21), suggesting no increased risk of MACE in the 20-study pool. In the 11-study saxagliptin + metformin pool, the IRR for MACE was 0.93 (0.44, 1.99). In the 20-study pool, the IRR for heart failure was 0.55 (0.27, 1.12).
Analysis of pooled data from 20 clinical trials in patients with T2DM suggests that saxagliptin is not associated with an increased CV risk.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; Major adverse cardiovascular events; Saxagliptin; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control.
A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 ± 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Transforming growth factor β1, Monocyte chemotactic protein 1, Leptin, Adiponectin) were evaluated according to the degree of glycemic control, LDL phenotype and other clinical characteristics. Forty-two subjects with T2D were studied before and after 3 months of improving glycemic control by different strategies.
Patients with T2D had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) levels and lower adiponectin concentration, compared to controls. T2D subjects with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher CRP levels (5.2 ± 4.8 mg/l vs 3.7 ± 4.3 mg/l; p < 0.05). The presence of LDL phenotype B was related to higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (53.92 ± 52.82 ng/l vs 31.35 ± 33.74 ng/l; p < 0.05) and lower levels of adiponectin (3663 ± 3044 ng/l vs 2723 ± 1776 ng/l; p < 0.05). The reduction of HbA1c from 9.5 ± 1.8% at baseline to 7.4 ± 0.8% was associated with a significant reduction of TGF-β1 (41.86 ± 32.84 ng/l vs 26.64 ± 26.91 ng/l; p = 0.02).
Subjects with T2D, especially those with LDL phenotype B and obesity, have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Improvement of glycemic control reduces TGF-β1 levels, which may contribute partly to its renoprotective role.
Inflammatory biomarkers; C-reactive protein; Adiponectin; Monocyte chemotactic protein-1; Transforming growth factor-β1; Tumor growth factor β1; Type 2 diabetes; LDL phenotype; Atherogenic dyslipidemia
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). One important feature underlying the pathophysiology of many types of CVD is microvascular dysfunction. Although components of MetS are themselves CVD risk factors, the risk is increased when the syndrome is considered as one entity. We aimed to characterize microvascular function and some of its influencing factors in the course of MetS development.
Development of MetS in C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD, 51% of energy from fat) was studied. The initial phase of MetS (I-MetS) was defined as the first 2 weeks of HFD feeding, with the fully developed phase occurring after 8 weeks of HFD. We characterized these phases by assessing changes in adiposity, blood pressure, and microvascular function. All data are presented as mean ± standard error (SEM). Differences between cumulative dose–response curves of myograph experiments were calculated using non-linear regression analysis. In other experiments, comparisons between two groups were made with Student’s t-test. Comparisons between more than two groups were made using one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. A probability value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
I-MetS mice presented with weight gain, blood pressure elevation, and microvascular dysfunction characterized by augmented vasoconstriction. This finding, contrary to those in mice with fully developed MetS, was not associated with endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, or systemic inflammation. In the initial phase, perivascular adipose tissue showed no sign of inflammation and had no influence on the pattern of vasoconstriction. These findings suggest that the onset of hypertension in MetS is strongly influenced by vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction and independent of important factors known to influence microvascular function and consequently blood pressure levels.
We identified in I-MetS the occurrence of isolated augmented vasoconstriction along with blood pressure elevation, but not the presence of classical MetS components known to influence microvascular function. These findings increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of CVD risk associated with MetS.
High-fat diet; Metabolic syndrome; Hypertension; Microvascular dysfunction; Vasoconstriction
Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker (ARB), has a higher affinity for and slower dissociation from AT1 receptors and shows stronger inverse agonism compared to other ARBs. Possible benefits of azilsartan in diabetic vascular dysfunction have not been established.
We measured vascular reactivity of aortic rings in male KKAy diabetic mice treated with vehicle, 0.005% azilsartan, or 0.005% candesartan cilexetil for 3 weeks. Expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress was measured using semiquantitative RT-PCR in the vascular wall, perivascular fat, and skeletal muscle. Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at Ser1177 and Thr495 was measured using Western blotting, and the ratio of phosphorylation at Ser1177 to phosphorylation at Thr495 was used as a putative indicator of vascular eNOS activity.
(1) Vascular endothelium–dependent relaxation with acetylcholine in KKAy mice was improved by azilsartan treatment compared to candesartan cilexetil; (2) the ratio of Ser1177/Thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS was impaired in KKAy and was effectively restored by azilsartan; (3) anomalies in the expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), F4/80, NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) 2, and Nox4 of the aortic wall and in the expression of TNFα in the perivascular fat were strongly attenuated by azilsartan compared to candesartan cilexetil.
These results provide evidence that azilsartan prevents endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice, more potently than does candesartan cilexetil. Azilsartan’s higher affinity for and slower dissociation from AT1 receptors may underlie its efficacy in diabetic vascular dysfunction via a dual effect on uncoupled eNOS and on Nox.
The Editors of Cardiovascular Diabetology wish to thank all reviewers, both Editorial Board Members and external referees, who contributed to the journal in 2013 (Volume 12), and whose enthusiastic support in providing the essential service of peer review continues to improve the scientific quality of the journal and enable its goals to be achieved.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder acting as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiometabolic derangements including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent research data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease may be a more sensitive marker than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for early subclinical metabolic risk and may contribute to the progression of subclinical disease to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Presentation of the hypothesis
We postulate that obstructive sleep apnea may be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease. It is well known that intermittent hypoxia related to obstructive sleep apnea leads to hormonal derangements. Excessive lipolysis, enhanced lipid synthesis and systemic and local inflammation may favor ectopic fat deposition similarly to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, it is possible that obstructive sleep apnea can lead to pancreatic beta cell damage via intermittent hypoxia.
Testing of the hypothesis
Future research should focus on the following: first, whether non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic disease including diabetes mellitus or is a simple consequence of obesity; second, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease among people with obstructive sleep apnea and vice versa, which should be compared to the prevalence of these diseases in general population; third, whether coexistence of these conditions is related to greater cardiometabolic risk than either disease alone; and fourth, whether the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea will translate into the resolution of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease.
Implications of the hypothesis
If proven, this hypothesis will provide new knowledge on the complex interplay between various metabolic insults. Second, screening for NAFPD may identify individuals at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus for targeted prevention. Third, screening for the presence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea may help to decrease the incidence of diabetes mellitus through a targeted prevention.
Obstructive sleep apnea; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease; Cardiometabolic risk; Pancreatitis; Pancreatic cancer
Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for the development of hypertension, contributing to cardiovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia-mediated neurohormonal activation increases arterial stiffness, and is an important contributing factor for hypertension. Since the sodium glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin lowers blood pressure and HbA1c in type 1 diabetes mellitus, we hypothesized that this agent would also reduce arterial stiffness and markers of sympathetic nervous system activity.
Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability (HRV) and circulating adrenergic mediators were measured during clamped euglycaemia (blood glucose 4–6 mmol/L) and hyperglycaemia (blood glucose 9–11 mmol/L) in 40 normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Studies were repeated after 8 weeks of empagliflozin (25 mg once daily).
In response to empagliflozin during clamped euglycaemia, systolic blood pressure (111 ± 9 to 109 ± 9 mmHg, p = 0.02) and augmentation indices at the radial (-52% ± 16 to -57% ± 17, p = 0.0001), carotid (+1.3 ± 1 7.0 to -5.7 ± 17.0%, p < 0.0001) and aortic positions (+0.1 ± 13.4 to -6.2 ± 14.3%, p < 0.0001) declined. Similar effects on arterial stiffness were observed during clamped hyperglycaemia without changing blood pressure under this condition. Carotid-radial pulse wave velocity decreased significantly under both glycemic conditions (p ≤ 0.0001), while declines in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were only significant during clamped hyperglycaemia (5.7 ± 1.1 to 5.2 ± 0.9 m/s, p = 0.0017). HRV, plasma noradrenalin and adrenaline remained unchanged under both clamped euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions.
Empagliflozin is associated with a decline in arterial stiffness in young type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects. The underlying mechanisms may relate to pleiotropic actions of SGLT2 inhibition, including glucose lowering, antihypertensive and weight reduction effects.
Clinical trial registration: NCT01392560
Diabetes mellitus; Systemic blood pressure; SGLT2 inhibition; Empagliflozin; Hyperglycaemia; Arterial stiffness; Heart rate variability
AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the coordination of anabolic and catabolic processes and is an attractive therapeutic target for T2DM, obesity and metabolic syndrome. We report the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of CNX-012-570 is an orally bioavailable small molecule (molecular weight of 530 Daltons) that directly activates AMPK in DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes.
Activity and efficacy of the compound was tested in cell based as well as cell free systems in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) were assigned to either vehicle or CNX-012-570 (3 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 8 weeks (n = 8). Genetically diabetic db/db mice on chow diet were dosed with vehicle control or CNX-012-570 (2.5 mg/kg, orally once a day) for 6 weeks (n = 8).
CNX-012-570 is a highly potent and orally bioavailable compound activating AMPK in both cell and cell free systems. It inhibits lipolysis (33%) and gluconeogenesis (28%) in 3T3L1 cells and rat primary hepatocytes respectively. The efficacy of the molecule was translated to both DIO and db/db animal models of diabetes. CNX-012-570 has reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 14%, body weight by 24% and fasting serum triglycerides (TG) by 24%. CNX-012-570 showed a 22% reduction in fed serum cholesterol levels and 19% increase in HDL levels.
In db/db mice model, CNX-012-570 has shown 18% decrease in fed glucose and 32% decrease in fasting glucose with a 2.57% reduction in absolute HbA1c. Decrease in serum insulin and glucose AUC indicates the increased insulin sensitivity. Body weight was reduced by 13% with increased browning of adipose tissue and decreased inguinal and mesenteric fat mass. There was significant reduction in liver TG and liver total cholesterol.
CNX-012-570 has the potential to control hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also reduces body weight gain with an additional benefit of minimizing cardiovascular risks in diabetics.
AMPK; CNX-012-570; Glucose; Insulin sensitivity; Triglycerides; Cholesterol and body weight
The associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus (DM) on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of MetS and DM on the 16-year survival after CABG.
Diabetic and metabolic status together with relevant cardiovascular data was established in 910 CABG patients operated in 1993-94. They were divided in three groups as follows: neither DM nor MetS (375 patients), MetS alone (279 patients) and DM with or without MetS (256 patients). The 16-year follow-up of patient survival was carried out using national health databases. The relative survival rates were analyzed using the Life Table method comparing the observed survival rates of three patient groups to the rates based on age-, sex- and time-specific life tables for the whole population in Finland. To study the independent significance of MetS and DM for clinical outcome, multivariate analysis was made using an optimizing stepwise procedure based on the Bayesian approach.
Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed together six variables to predict clinical outcome (2 months to 16 years) in relation to the national background population, i.e. age, diabetes, left ventricular ejection fraction, BMI, perfusion time during the CABG and peripheral arterial disease. Our principal finding was that after postoperative period the 16-year prognosis of patients with neither DM nor MetS was better than that of the age-, sex-and time-matched background population (relative survival against background population 1.037, p < 0.0001). The overall survival of MetS patients resembled that of the matched background population (relative survival 0.998, NS). DM was associated with significantly increased mortality (relative survival 0.86, p < 0.0001). Additionally, mortality was even higher in patients receiving insulin treatment than in those without. Excess death rate of DM patients was predominantly caused by cardiovascular causes.
In this long-term follow-up study patient groups without diabetes had at least equal 16 years’ survival after CABG than their matched background populations. Survival of DM patients started to deteriorate already few years after the operation.
Coronary artery bypass grafting; Diabetes mellitus; Metabolic syndrome; Follow-up; Mortality
The liver-specific glucokinase knockout (gckw/–) mouse experiences long-term hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the functional and structural changes in the myocardium of 60 week-old gckw/– mice, and to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on the myocardium in this model.
60 week-old gckw/– mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: gckw/–, gckw/– mice treated with insulin (1 U/kg) and gckw/– mice treated with rosiglitazone (18 mg/kg). Insulin or rosiglitazone treatment was for 4 weeks. Gckw/w litermates were used as controls. Echocardiography, electrocardiogram, biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural, real time PCR and Western blot studies were performed to examine for structural and functional changes.
Long-term liver-specific gck knockout in mice elicits hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Compared to age matched gckw/w mice, 60 week-old gckw/– mice showed decreased LV internal dimension, increased posterior wall thickness, lengthened PR and QRS intervals, up-regulated MLC2 protein expression, decreased SOD activity, increased MDA levels and up-regulated Cyba mRNA. Morphological studies revealed that there was an increase in the amount of PAS and Masson positively stained material, as did the number and proportion of the cell occupied by mitochondria in the gckw/– mice. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of the insulin receptor, Akt, phosphorylated AMPK beta and phosphorylated ACC were reduced in gckw/– mice. These effects were partly attenuated or ablated by treatment with rosiglitazone.
Our results indicate that changes in the myocardium occur in the liver-specific glucokinase knockout mouse and suggest that reduced glucokinase expression in the liver may induce diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK protein levels. Rosiglitazone treatment may protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by altering the levels of a set of proteins involved in cardiac damage.
Liver-specific glucokinase knockout; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Rosiglitazone; Insulin receptor; AMPK
Obesity and particularly the metabolic syndrome, which is often associated with obesity, combine a major risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence indicate obesity-associated subclinical inflammation primarily originating from adipose tissue as a common cause for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, a suitable and well-characterized mouse model to simultaneously study obesity-associated metabolic disorders and atherosclerosis is not available yet. Here we established and characterized a murine model combining diet-induced obesity and associated adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic deteriorations as well as atherosclerosis, hence reflecting the human situation of cardio-metabolic disease.
We compared a common high-fat diet with 0.15% cholesterol (HFC), and a high-fat, high-sucrose diet with 0.15% cholesterol (HFSC) fed to LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, atherosclerotic lesion formation, hepatic lipid accumulation, and inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue and liver were assessed.
After 12–16 weeks, LDLR-/- mice fed HFSC or HFC developed significant diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to lean controls. Notably, HFSC-fed mice developed significantly higher adipose tissue inflammation in parallel with significantly elevated atherosclerotic lesion area compared to those on HFC. Moreover, LDLR-/- mice on HFSC showed increased insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance relative to those on HFC. After prolonged feeding (20 weeks), however, no significant differences in inflammatory and metabolic parameters as well as atherosclerotic lesion formation were detectable any more between LDLR-/- mice fed HFSC or HFC.
The use of high sucrose rather than more complex carbohydrates in high-fat diets significantly accelerates development of obesity-driven metabolic complications and atherosclerotic plaque formation parallel to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation in LDLR-/- mice. Hence LDLR-/- mice fed high-fat high-sucrose cholesterol-enriched diet appear to be a suitable and time-saving animal model for cardio-metabolic disease. Moreover our results support the suggested interrelation between adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque formation.
Metabolic syndrome; Diet-induced obesity; Sucrose-enrichment; Adipose tissue inflammation; Insulin resistance; Glucose intolerance; Atherosclerosis; Type 2 diabetes; Cardio-metabolic disease
Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults.
We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001).
These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context.
Puberty; Menarche; Diabetes; Cardiometabolic risk; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; Brazil; Nutrition transition; Primordial prevention; Epidemiology
To investigate whether flow-mediated dilation (FMD) impairment, which precedes overt atherosclerosis, is associated with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes.
Forearm FMD was measured by ultrasonography in 25 healthy control, 30 non-diabetic overweight or obese patients and 118 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile. SMI (abnormal stress myocardial scintiscan and/or stress dobutamine echocardiogram) and CAD (coronary angiography in the patients with SMI) were assessed in the diabetic cohort.
FMD was lower in diabetic patients (median 0.61% (upper limits of first and third quartiles -1.22;3.2)) than in healthy controls (3.95% (1.43;5.25), p < 0.01) and overweight/obese patients (4.25% (1.74;5.56), p < 0.01). SMI was present in 60 diabetic patients, including 21 subjects with CAD. FMD was lower in patients with SMI than in those without (0.12% (-2.3;1.58) vs 1.64% (0;3.69), p < 0.01), with a higher prevalence of paradoxical vasoconstriction (50.0% vs 29.3%, p < 0.05). FMD was also lower in patients with than without CAD (-1.22% (-2.5;1) vs 1.13% (-0.4;3.28), p < 0.01; paradoxical vasoconstriction 61.9% vs 34.4%, p < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses considering the parameters predicting SMI or CAD in univariate analyses with a p value <0.10 showed that paradoxical vasoconstriction (odds ratio 2.7 [95% confidence interval 1.2-5.9], p < 0.05) and nephropathy (OR 2.6 [1.2-5.7], p < 0.05) were independently associated with SMI; and only paradoxical vasoconstriction (OR 3.1 [1.2-8.2], p < 0.05) with CAD. The negative predictive value of paradoxical vasoconstriction to detect CAD was 88.7%.
In diabetic patients, FMD was independently associated with SMI and asymptomatic CAD.
Trial registration number NCT00685984.
Silent myocardial ischemia; Flow-mediated dilation; Asymptomatic coronary artery disease; Diabetes
Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for microvascular complications. Early changes in microcirculation are characterized by hyperperfusion (e.g. in the retina and kidney) and increased pulse wave reflection leading to increased aortic pressure. We investigated the effects of the DPP-4-inhibitor saxagliptin on early retinal microvascular changes.
In this double-blind, controlled, cross-over trial 50 patients (without clinical signs of microvascular alterations) with type-2 diabetes (mean duration of 4 years) were randomized to receive placebo or 5 mg saxagliptin for 6 weeks. Retinal arteriolar structure and retinal capillary flow (RCF) at baseline and during flicker-light exposure was assessed by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Central hemodynamics were assessed by pulse wave analysis.
Postprandial blood glucose (9.27 ± 0.4 versus 10.1 ± 0.4 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and HbA1c (6.84 ± 0.15 (51 ± 1.6) versus 7.10 ± 0.17% (54 ± 1.9 mmol/mol); p < 0.001) were significantly reduced with saxagliptin treatment compared to placebo. RCF was significantly reduced after treatment with saxagliptin (288 ± 13.2 versus 314 ± 14.1 AU; p = 0.033). This was most pronounced in a subgroup of patients (n = 32) with a fall in postprandial blood glucose (280 ± 12.1 versus 314 ± 16.6 AU; p = 0.011). No significant changes in RCF were seen during flicker-light exposure between placebo and saxagliptin, but the vasodilatory capacity increased two-fold with saxagliptin treatment. Central augmentation pressure tended to be lower after treatment with saxagliptin (p = 0.094), and central systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (119 ± 2.3 versus 124 ± 2.3 mmHg; p = 0.038).
Our data suggest that treatment with saxagliptin for 6 weeks normalizes retinal capillary flow and improves central hemodynamics in type-2 diabetes.
The study was registered at (ID: NCT01319357).
Saxagliptin; DPP-4 inhibitor; Type-2 diabetes; Retinal blood flow; Central hemodynamics