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1.  Synthetic Archaeosome Vaccines Containing Triglycosylarchaeols Can Provide Additive and Long-Lasting Immune Responses That Are Enhanced by Archaetidylserine 
Archaea  2012;2012:513231.
The relation between archaeal lipid structures and their activity as adjuvants may be defined and explored by synthesizing novel head groups covalently linked to archaeol (2,3-diphytanyl-sn-glycerol). Saturated archaeol, that is suitably stable as a precursor for chemical synthesis, was obtained in high yield from Halobacterium salinarum. Archaeosomes consisting of the various combinations of synthesized lipids, with antigen entrapped, were used to immunize mice and subsequently determine CD8+ and CD4+-T cell immune responses. Addition of 45 mol% of the glycolipids gentiotriosylarchaeol, mannotriosylarchaeol or maltotriosylarchaeol to an archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl archaeosome, significantly enhanced the CD8+ T cell response to antigen, but diminished the antibody titres in peripheral blood. Archaeosomes consisting of all three triglycosyl archaeols combined with archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl (15/15/15/55 mol%) resulted in approximately additive CD8+ T cell responses and also an antibody response not significantly different from the archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl alone. Synthetic archaetidylserine played a role to further enhance the CD8+ T cell response where the optimum content was 20–30 mol%. Vaccines giving best protection against solid tumor growth corresponded to the archaeosome adjuvant composition that gave highest immune activity in immunized mice.
PMCID: PMC3465877  PMID: 23055819
2.  Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen 
Archaea  2003;1(3):151-164.
Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation.
PMCID: PMC2685569  PMID: 15803661
antibody; archaea; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; liposomes; phagocytosis; phosphatidylserine

Results 1-2 (2)