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1.  Archaeal Protein Biogenesis: Posttranslational Modification and Degradation 
Archaea  2010;2010:643046.
PMCID: PMC2948886  PMID: 20936149
2.  S-Layer Glycoproteins and Flagellins: Reporters of Archaeal Posttranslational Modifications 
Archaea  2010;2010:612948.
Many archaeal proteins undergo posttranslational modifications. S-layer proteins and flagellins have been used successfully to study a variety of these modifications, including N-linked glycosylation, signal peptide removal and lipid modification. Use of these well-characterized reporter proteins in the genetically tractable model organisms, Haloferax volcanii, Methanococcus voltae and Methanococcus maripaludis, has allowed dissection of the pathways and characterization of many of the enzymes responsible for these modifications. Such studies have identified archaeal-specific variations in signal peptidase activity not found in the other domains of life, as well as the enzymes responsible for assembly and biosynthesis of novel N-linked glycans. In vitro assays for some of these enzymes have already been developed. N-linked glycosylation is not essential for either Hfx. volcanii or the Methanococcus species, an observation that allowed researchers to analyze the role played by glycosylation in the function of both S-layers and flagellins, by generating mutants possessing these reporters with only partial attached glycans or lacking glycan altogether. In future studies, it will be possible to consider questions related to the heterogeneity associated with given modifications, such as differential or modulated glycosylation.
PMCID: PMC2913515  PMID: 20721273
3.  Identification of Residues Important for the Activity of Haloferax volcanii AglD, a Component of the Archaeal N-Glycosylation Pathway 
Archaea  2010;2010:315108.
In Haloferax volcanii, AglD adds the final hexose to the N-linked pentasaccharide decorating the S-layer glycoprotein. Not knowing the natural substrate of the glycosyltransferase, together with the challenge of designing assays compatible with hypersalinity, has frustrated efforts at biochemical characterization of AglD activity. To circumvent these obstacles, an in vivo assay designed to identify amino acid residues important for AglD activity is described. In the assay, restoration of AglD function in an Hfx. volcanii aglD deletion strain transformed to express plasmid-encoded versions of AglD, generated through site-directed mutagenesis at positions encoding residues conserved in archaeal homologues of AglD, is reflected in the behavior of a readily detectable reporter of N-glycosylation. As such Asp110 and Asp112 were designated as elements of the DXD motif of AglD, a motif that interacts with metal cations associated with nucleotide-activated sugar donors, while Asp201 was predicted to be the catalytic base of the enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2877612  PMID: 20585355
4.  An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons 
Archaea  2006;2(2):73-81.
Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.
PMCID: PMC2686383  PMID: 17350928
Archaea; N-glycosylation; oligosaccharide transferase; post-translational modification
5.  Getting on target: The archaeal signal recognition particle 
Archaea  2001;1(1):27-34.
Protein translocation begins with the efficient targeting of secreted and membrane proteins to complexes embedded within the membrane. In Eukarya and Bacteria, this is achieved through the interaction of the signal recognition particle (SRP) with the nascent polypeptide chain. In Archaea, homologs of eukaryal and bacterial SRP-mediated translocation pathway components have been identified. Biochemical analysis has revealed that although the archaeal system incorporates various facets of the eukaryal and bacterial targeting systems, numerous aspects of the archaeal system are unique to this domain of life. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that elucidation of the archaeal SRP pathway will provide answers to basic questions about protein targeting that cannot be obtained from examination of eukaryal or bacterial models. In this review, recent data regarding the molecular composition, functional behavior and evolutionary significance of the archaeal signal recognition particle pathway are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2685543  PMID: 15803656
protein targeting; protein translocation; ribonucleoprotein complex; RNA; signal sequence

Results 1-5 (5)