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2.  Intrauterine infection and spontaneous midgestation abortion: is the spectrum of microorganisms similar to that in preterm labor? 
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether microorganisms associated with intrauterine infection and preterm labor play a contributing role in midgestation abortion. METHODS: A 4 year retrospective review of spontaneous midgestation abortions for which autopsy and microbiological cultures of placental and fetal tissue were performed was conducted for a tertiary obstetrics hospital, which included a regional referral service for perinatal and fetal pathology. One hundred twenty-nine spontaneously delivered, nonmacerated, midgestation fetuses or stillbirths (of between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation) and placentas were examined and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts, and genital mycoplasmas. RESULTS: Microorganisms were recovered in 85 (66%) cases (57% placentas, 49% fetuses). Among the culture positive cases, 81% had histological chorioamnionitis, 28% fetal pneumonitis, 38% clinical signs of infection, and 62% ruptured membranes at the time of miscarriage. These differed significantly from culture-negative cases (44%, 5%, 13%, and 34%, respectively). Group B streptococcus (GBS) was the most significant pathogen, recovered in 21 cases, 13 as the sole isolate, 94% with chorioamnionitis, and 47% in women with intact membranes. Escherichia coli and Ureaplasma urealyticum (22 and 24 cases, respectively) occurred mostly as mixed infections, with ruptured membranes. GBS, MU urealyticum, and Streptococcus anginosus group were individually associated with chorioamnionitis, Bacteroides/Prevotella and S. anginosus with fetal pneumonitis. The spectrum of microorganisms was similar to that in preterm labor at later gestations; however, GBS appeared to be the most significant pathogen in midgestation miscarriage, especially with intact membranes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsuspected intrauterine infection underlies many spontaneous midgestation abortions. GBS is a key pathogen in this setting.
PMCID: PMC1784699  PMID: 11220481
3.  Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in commercial sex workers in Japan. 
OBJECTIVE: We used the hybrid capture assays to investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among commercial sex workers in Tokyo. METHODS: Five hundred forty-six consecutive commercial sex workers (CSW) who visited an STD clinic for STD checkup in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A control group consisted of 233 consecutive women who visited a general gynecological clinic for annual checkup. A cervical sample was obtained for hybrid capture assays for HPV-A (low-oncogenic-risk types), HPV-B (intermediate- and high-oncogenic-risk types), C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The positive rate for HPV-B among the CSW was 48.4%, significantly higher than the 6.0% among the control subjects. The positive rates for HPV-A, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae were also significantly higher among the CSW than among the control subjects. Among the microorganisms tested, the positive rate for HPV-B was the highest in both the STD and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae infection in CSW poses a risk of further transmission of STD to the general public, suggesting the need for further education and screening for CSW and the general public. We found high- and intermediate-oncogenic-type HPV to be the most prevalent infection among both CSW and control subjects. Screening for HPV may be necessary in STD and general clinics to predict the risk of cervical malignancy. Hybrid capture assays, which permit simultaneous detection of HPV and other STD with high sensitivity, may be a useful diagnostic method.
PMCID: PMC1784698  PMID: 11220484
4.  Systematic review of diagnostic tests for vaginal trichomoniasis. 
OBJECTIVE: To review critically and to summarize the evidence of diagnostic tests and culture media for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginitis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature indexed in MEDLINE of studies that used Trichomonas culture as the reference standard (9,882 patients, 35 studies). Level I studies (5,047 patients, 13 studies) fulfilled at least two of three criteria: 1) consecutive patients were evaluated prospectively, 2) decision to culture was not influenced by test results, and 3) there was independent and blind comparison to culture. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) was 95% (95% CI 91% to 99%), and the specificity was 98% (95% CI 96% to 100%). One study was classified as Level I evidence (52 patients). The sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 82% (95% CI 74% to 90%), and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 35% to 100%). The sensitivity of the direct fluorescence antibody was 85% (95% CI 79% to 90%), and the specificity was 99% (95% CI 98% to 100%). Sensitivities of culture media were 95% for Diamond's, 96% for Hollander, and 95% for CPLM. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of tests to diagnose trichomoniasis vary widely.
PMCID: PMC1784697  PMID: 11220487
6.  Vaginal-rectal colonization with group A streptococci in late pregnancy. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine the vaginal-rectal colonization rate with group A streptococci in late pregnancy. METHODS: All patients delivering at a northern New England hospital over a 38 month period had 35-37 week vaginal-rectal swabs cultured for group A and group B streptococci, using selective media and slide agglutination. RESULTS: Six thousand nine hundred forty-four screening cultures were obtained. Among these 1,393 were positive for group B streptococci and 2 for group A streptococci, yielding colonization rates of 20.1% and 0.03%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal-rectal colonization with group A streptococci is rare, arguing against the need for establishing group A streptococcal screening programs in pregnancy. An approach for managing this uncommon finding is presented.
PMCID: PMC1784695  PMID: 11220480
7.  Wound infection in gynecologic surgery. 
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the wound infection rate among patients undergoing elective gynecologic surgery at a single tertiary care center and to determine the predictive value of various factors that contribute to infection. We further investigated the adequacy of hospital records in documenting infection rates as well as the timing of presentation of wound infections. METHODS: The records of 115 patients undergoing elective gynecologic surgery at our institution were reviewed. Patients were further subdivided based on route of surgery. We analyzed the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis, route of surgery, smoking, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: The overall wound infection rate was 12.17% with no significant difference in the subgroups by route of surgery. Overall, antibiotic prophylaxis significantly decreased infection rates (P = 0.0118), but the route of surgery, BMI, smoking, and diabetes were not significant predictors of infection. Only one case of infection was detected during the initial hospital stay (6.1%). Fifty percent of the patients with infection required readmission, and of these 35.7% required an additional surgical procedure. The average length of hospital stay was 2.4 days longer in patients with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prophylaxis has a role in the management of patients undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery. In today's environment of cost containment, an increased hospital stay and the added likelihood of additional surgical intervention associated with wound infection are important targets for prevention. Most patients with wound infection were diagnosed after discharge from the hospital. In our population, among whom transportation problems and remote residence are prevalent, strategies for infection surveillance should be integral to discharge planning.
PMCID: PMC1784694  PMID: 11220483
8.  Value of Candida polymerase chain reaction and vaginal cytokine analysis for the differential diagnosis of women with recurrent vulvovaginitis. 
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginitis remains difficult to diagnose accurately and to treat. The present investigation evaluated the utility of testing vaginal specimens from women with symptomatic recurrent vulvovaginitis for Candida species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for cytokine responses. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive symptomatic women with pruritus, erythema, and/or a thick white discharge and a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis and 31 asymptomatic women with no such history were studied. Vaginal swabs were tested for Candida species by PCR, for the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12. RESULTS: C. albicans was detected in 19 (31.1%) of the patients as well as in three (9.7%) controls (P = 0.03). Both IL-10 (31.1% vs. 0%) and IL-12 (42.6% vs. 6.5%) were also more prevalent in the recurrent vulvovaginitis patients (P < 0.001). However, there was no relation between the presence or absence of Candida and either cytokine. Detection of IL-12 in 14 women indicated the stimulation of a vaginal cell-mediated immune response possibly from an infectious agent. The presence of only IL-10 in six patients indicated a suppression of vaginal cell-mediated immunity and was consistent with a possible allergic etiology. The absence of both IL-10 and IL-12 in other patients, similar to that found in healthy controls, suggested a noninfectious, nonallergic etiology of their symptoms. CONCLUSION: Many women with recurrent vulvovaginitis are not infected with Candida. Testing for Candida should be required in this population. Treatment with only anti-Candida medication will clearly be inadequate for the majority of women with this condition.
PMCID: PMC1784693  PMID: 11220486
9.  Ex vivo human placental transfer of trovafloxacin. 
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the ex vivo human placental transfer of trovafloxacin from the maternal circulation to the fetal circulation. METHODS: Six placentas from uncomplicated, term, vaginal or cesarean deliveries were studied using the ex vivo isolated cotyledon perfusion chamber; 14C-antipyrine was used as a reference compound to determine the clearance index (CI) of trovafloxacin. RESULTS: The CI of trovafloxacin was 0.19 +/- 0.13 at a mean trough concentration of 1.38 +/- 0.22 microg/ml and 0.16 +/- 0.10 at a mean peak concentration of 7.48 +/- 2.3 microg/ml as determined by our newly developed high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay. Tissue concentration did not exceed maternal concentration, and there was little or no accumulation when the perfusion system was closed for 1 hr. CONCLUSIONS: Trovafloxacin crosses the placenta by simple diffusion and does not accumulate in the media to any extent, nor does it bind to tissue or accumulate in the placenta.
PMCID: PMC1784692  PMID: 11220482
10.  Terconazole cream for non-Candida albicans fungal vaginitis: results of a retrospective analysis. 
OBJECTIVE: Although it is FDA-approved for use in vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by non-Candida albicans species, terconazole cream has not been been studied in patients with these infections. We sought to assess the clinical and mycological efficacy of terconazole cream in women with non-C. albicans vaginitis. METHODS: The records of patients who had received a 7-day course of terconazole cream for culture-proved non-C. albicans vaginitis were reviewed. Data with regard to patient demographics, clinical and mycologic response to therapy within 1 month of treatment, and outcome with other antifungal therapies were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients received terconazole cream for non-C. albicans infections. Three patients did not return for follow-up. The median age was 45 years. Seven (28%) patients were nulliparous. The median duration of symptoms was 3 years. Nine patients (36%) had received terconazole within the 6 months prior to referral. Overall, there were 20 C. glabrata cases, 3 C. parapsilosis, and 2 C. lusitaniae. Fourteen (56%) patients achieved a mycologic cure; 11 (44%) noted a resolution of their symptoms. Prior terconazole use was not associated with treatment failure (P = 0.09). Ten failures received boric acid suppositories as subsequent treatment; a cure was effected in 4 (40%). Two of three patients (67%) were eventually cured with flucytosine cream. Five (20 %) patients remained uncured. CONCLUSIONS: Terconazole cream may be an appropriate first-line treatment for non C. albicans vaginitis, even in patients who have previously received the drug.
PMCID: PMC1784691  PMID: 11220485
12.  Is antenatal group B streptococcal carriage a predictor of adverse obstetric outcome? 
OBJECTIVES: While early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis is positively associated with premature birth and prolonged rupture of membranes, there is debate in the literature as to whether maternal GBS colonization is a predictor of adverse obstetric outcome. This is a critical issue to resolve for appropriate management (expectant vs. interventional management) of the patient presenting with premature rupture of membranes, who has no overt signs of sepsis, but who is colonized with GBS. METHODS: Since 1981 it has been hospital policy to screen all public patients antenatally for genital carriage of GBS by collection of a low vaginal swab at 28-32 weeks. All patients colonized with GBS antenatally are given penicillin as intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Review of all GBS-colonized antenatal patients for a 12-month period (580 of 4,495 patients) and a randomized (every fourth consecutive antenatal patient) number of noncolonized patients (958) was made. Lower vaginal GBS colonization and other risk factors for preterm delivery were assessed using univariate and multivariate generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: In the study group, the maternal GBS colonization rate was 12.9%. When cofounding variables were controlled in a multivariate analysis, the association between antepartum GBS colonization and preterm labor and preterm rupture of membranes was not significant. CONCLUSION: Maternal antenatal carriage of GBS does not predict preterm labor. Therefore it is appropriate that expectant management occur for a GBS-colonized woman who ruptures her membranes, is not in labor, and has no evidence of sepsis.
PMCID: PMC1784688  PMID: 10968595
13.  Antenatal marijuana use is unrelated to sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. 
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinic records over a 12-1/2 month period identified all women entering prenatal care. Eighty-six women using no illicit substance other than marijuana were compared to 441 drug-free women. The prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen, human papilloma virus, and herpes was ascertained. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the prevalence of any single sexually transmitted disease between pregnant women who used marijuana and drug-free pregnant women. When the presence of one or more sexually transmitted disease was considered, again no difference was found. CONCLUSION: Marijuana use was not associated with sexually transmitted disease in pregnant women.
PMCID: PMC1784687  PMID: 10968598
15.  A study to determine the incidence and prevalence of newly discovered human immunodeficiency virus infection during the prenatal care period. 
OBJECTIVES: This study asked the following questions: 1) Does HIV testing in pregnancy identify women who previously were not known to be HIV positive? 2) When in pregnancy are women identified as HIV infected? 3) Does HIV seroconversion occur during the prenatal care period? METHODS: Medical records of 97 women from two primarily indigent care hospitals in Houston, TX who were found to be HIV positive at delivery were reviewed to determine if they had tested positive during the prenatal care period. Demographics and time of gestation of the prenatal testing also were recorded. The outcome measures were: 1) number of women found positive during prenatal care; 2) week of gestation at discovery of HIV positivity; and 3) number of women seroconverting between the initiation of prenatal care and delivery. RESULTS: Thirty women were known to be HIV positive prior to pregnancy. Fifty-six women were found to be positive during prenatal care and the seropositivity of 44 was discovered before the 34th week of pregnancy. Ten women were found to be positive at their first prenatal visit, which occurred after the 34th week. Date of testing was unknown for two women. Eleven women who received no prenatal care were found to be HIV positive at delivery. There were no seroconversions while women were under prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing at delivery did not find any HIV-positive women who had tested negative during prenatal care. Testing is very important for women who do not receive prenatal care. Making certain that high-risk women get into prenatal care also is very important.
PMCID: PMC1784685  PMID: 10968601
16.  Gynecologic conditions and bacterial vaginosis: implications for the non-pregnant patient. 
Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by a shift from the predominant lactobacillus vaginal flora to an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an increased risk of gynecologic complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infection, cervicitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and possibly cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The obstetrical risks associated with bacterial vaginosis include premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor and delivery, chorioamnionitis and postpartum endometritis. Despite the health risks associated with bacterial vaginosis and its high prevalence in women of childbearing age, bacterial vaginosis continues to be largely ignored by clinicians, particularly in asymptomatic women.
PMCID: PMC1784684  PMID: 10968604
17.  Antifungal activity of local anesthetics against Candida species. 
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity. METHODS: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 20 Candida strains (18 clinical isolates and two American Type Culture Collection strains). The fungistatic activity was studied with the fluorescent probe FUN-1 and observation under epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The fungicidal activity of the three drugs was assayed by viability counts. Membrane alterations induced in the yeast cells were evaluated by staining with propidium iodide, by quantitation of intracellular K+ leakage and by transmission electron microscopy of intact yeast cells and prepared spheroplasts. RESULTS: The MIC ranged from 12.5-50.0 microg/mL, 5.0-40.0 mg/mL, and 2.5-10.0 mg/mL for benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, respectively. The inhibitory activity of these concentrations could be detected with the fluorescent probe FUN-1 after incubation for 60 minutes. A very fast fungicidal activity was shown by 0.2, 50, and 30 mg/mL of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At lower concentrations, the tested drugs have a fungistatic activity, due to yeast metabolic impairment, while at higher concentrations they are fungicidal, due to direct damage to the cytoplasmic membrane.
PMCID: PMC1784683  PMID: 10968594
18.  Use of methergine for the prevention of postoperative endometritis in non-elective cesarean section patients. 
OBJECTIVE: Methergine increases constriction of uterine musculature which may facilitate sloughing of endometrial debris, close uterine vessels, and prevent post-cesarean endometritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methergine in preventing endometritis in patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section delivery. METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing non-elective cesarean section were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial of methergine (41) versus no methergine (39) administration during the postpartum period. The hospital records were abstracted after discharge to compare the postpartum course. RESULTS: There were no significant demographic differences between the two groups. The women receiving methergine had a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative endometritis (10% vs. 36%, P < 0.005). In addition, the mean postoperative hemoglobin was significantly higher in the methergine treated group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of methergine postpartum in women undergoing non-elective cesarean sections significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative endometritis and blood loss.
PMCID: PMC1784682  PMID: 10968597
19.  Detection of cytomegalovirus in the meconium of infected newborns by polymerase chain reaction. 
OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of hearing loss and mental retardation throughout the world. Detection of the CMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers a sensitive, rapid, and specific means of identification. Meconium, the stool formed in utero, may be an ideal specimen for CMV detection. The objective of this study was to develop a PCR-based methodology for the detection of CMV in the meconium of neonates. METHODS: Meconium was collected from 10 newborn infants (seven with positive viral cultures and three uninfected infants born to CMV-seropositive mothers). For each, DNA was isolated from meconium by organic extraction and attachment to a DNA-binding matrix, and PCR was performed using amplimers specific for the major intermediate early (MIE) and late antigenic (LA) regions of CMV. RESULTS: Gel electrophoresis demonstrated an anticipated PCR product of 250 base pairs (bp) corresponding to the MIE region of CMV in all infected and positive control meconium samples. Furthermore, a single band of 150 bp corresponding to the LA region of CMV was also amplified in several of the infected infants. Conversely, no amplification of these antigenic regions was noted in either uninfected infants born to CMV-seropositive mothers or negative controls. CONCLUSIONS: CMV is present within the meconium of infected neonates and is readily detectable by PCR.
PMCID: PMC1784681  PMID: 10968600
20.  Non-surgical management of post-cesarean endomyometritis associated with myometrial gas formation. 
We present a case of post-cesarean delivery, nonclostridial endomyometritis in which uterine (myometrial) gas formation raised concern for myonecrosis and need for hysterectomy. The patient fully recovered without surgery. Myometrial gas formation in this setting and in an otherwise stable patient may be an insufficient reason for hysterectomy.
PMCID: PMC1784680  PMID: 10968603
21.  Immunotherapy of gynaecological high-risk human papilloma virus infection with human leukocyte ultrafiltrate. 
OBJECTIVE: In this preliminary presentation the outcome of women following systemic treatment of cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) with a leukocyte ultrafiltrate is reported. METHODS: Cervical brush specimens of 819 women with low-grade CIN-1 were evaluated for HPV infection. HPV-positive patients were treated either by cone biopsy because of suspicious colposcopy or by antibiotics for symptoms of bacterial cervicitis. The remaining women were considered as asymptomatic carriers of HPV and underwent systemic therapy by a human leukocyte ultrafiltrate in a dosage of 5 IE, 6 times in the first 2 weeks, and additionally as a single dose at weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10. RESULTS: The leukocyte ultrafiltrate was administered to 97 HPV-positive women. In follow-up 88.7% were HPV negative at week 6; the remaining 11 women were tested negative after completion of a second course of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data on the successful treatment of HPV infection by a leukocyte ultrafiltrate are very promising but have to be supported by additional research.
PMCID: PMC1784679  PMID: 10968593
22.  Liberal diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine infection reduces early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection but not sepsis by other pathogens. 
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the incidence and case fatality of early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis and sepsis caused by other pathogens in neonates after change of management of intrauterine infection. METHODS: All infants delivered from 1988 through 1997 at a gestational age > or = 24 weeks with a birth weight > or = 500 gram without lethal congenital abnormalities were eligible for inclusion. Infants delivered by cesarean section before the onset of labor or rupture of membranes were excluded. During the first period (1988-1991) intrauterine infection was diagnosed by a temperature > 38 degrees C, during the second period (1992-1997) this diagnosis was made at a lower temperature (> or = 37.8 degrees C) or by fetal tachycardia > or = 160/min. Treatment of intrauterine infection was similar during both periods with 3 x 2 gram amoxicillin and 1 x 240 mg gentamicin every 24 hours intravenously during labor. Prophylactic treatment during labor was only given to women with a history of an earlier infant with early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis. RESULTS: During the first period 6,103 infants were included, during the second period 8,504. Intrauterine infection was diagnosed and treated more often in the second period (7.1% vs. 2.6%). The incidence of early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis was significantly lower in the second period than in the first period [0.2% vs. 0.4%; OR 0.5 (0.3-0.9)] and survival without disability higher [80% vs. 52%; OR 4.5 (1.4-16.5)]. However, in both periods the overall incidence of neonatal sepsis (3.6% vs. 3.5%) and overall mortality because of sepsis (14.3% vs.13.1%) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Although the early detection of clinical signs of intrauterine infection might have been effective for the prevention of serious sequelae of early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis the overall incidence and mortality from neonatal sepsis remained unchanged. Evaluation of preventive measures for early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis should always take the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by other pathogens into account.
PMCID: PMC1784678  PMID: 10968596
23.  Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women. 
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. RESULTS: Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen.
PMCID: PMC1784677  PMID: 10968599
24.  Association between HIV in pregnancy and antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors and low birth weight infants. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of low birth weight infants born to HIV seropositive women and to demonstrate any effects of antiretroviral therapy on birth weight. METHODS: Retrospective review of all obstetrical medical records from January 1, 1995 through June 30, 1998 to identify HIV seropositive women. We evaluated their antiretroviral therapy, CD4 counts, and birth weights of their newborns. We conducted detailed review of the clinical and laboratory findings for the HIV-infected untreated patients, women who received ZDV antepartum alone, and those who received PIs as part of antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS: The frequency of low birth weight infants was significantly increased in HIV seropositive compared to HIV seronegative parturients. Low birth weight infants were more frequent among HIV infected women with lower CD4 counts but the association was not statistically significant. Women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum only ZDV, and those treated with PIs had significantly more low birth weight infants than did comparison groups. HIV seropositive women also had high frequencies of several obstetrical risk factors for low birth weight infants. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a significantly increased frequency of low birth weight infants among HIV infected women and especially the subgroups of infected women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum ZDV only, and those treated with PIs. This association, however, may be related to the presence of many other preterm obstetrical risk factors noted in this study. Increasing numbers of HIV seropositive women are being treated with PIs according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. If PIs are a cause of low birth weight infants, women taking these drugs may have incremental risk of low birth weight.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(2000)8:2<94::AID-IDOG6>3.0.CO;2-V
PMCID: PMC1784673  PMID: 10805364
25.  Comparison of Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay with Gen-Probe PACE2 and culture. 
In this study the LCx assay (a nucleic acid amplification assay) for Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples was compared with the Gen-Probe PACE2 assay (a nucleic acid probe assay) for endocervical samples, and with endocervical culture. In addition, the efficacy of the LCx assay was determined for midstream clean-catch urine samples because it is often necessary to obtain such a sample for routine urine culture and it is simpler to collect only a single sample without also collecting a first-void urine for LCx. Endocervical specimens from 205 patients were tested for C. trachomatis via LCx and PACE2. Of these patients, 203 were tested by culture. Midstream clean-catch urine samples from 75 of these patients were tested by LCx. The sensitivities and specificities for these assays, after discrepant analysis, were 100 and 98.9% for LCx of endocervical samples, 52.4 and 100% for PACE2; and 71.4 and 100% for culture. The sensitivity/specificity of LCx for midstream clean-catch urines was 66.7/98.5%. The apparent prevalence of C. trachomatis in our population was 10.2%. These data indicate that among the methods tested, LCx of endocervical samples had the highest sensitivity for C. trachomatis in this population. The sensitivity of the urine LCx assay using midstream clean-catch collected urines was considerably less than that reported in other studies that used first-void urines but was higher than that of PACE2.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(2000)8:2<112::AID-IDOG9>3.0.CO;2-E
PMCID: PMC1784672  PMID: 10805367

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