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1.  Eikenella Corrodens, Cause of a Vulvar Abscess in a Diabetic Adult 
We report a case of Eikenella corrodens causing vulvar abscess in a diabetic patient. Eikenella corrodens is a slow growing, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus which is commensal of the oral cavity, intestinal and genital tracts. The most common clinical sources of this organism are human bite wounds, head and neck infections and respiratory tract infections. In our knowledge, the presented case is the first report of Eikenella corrodens causing vulvar abscess in a diabetic patient.
PMCID: PMC1791056  PMID: 17485819
2.  Adherence and Blocking of Candida Albicans to Cultured Vaginal Epithelial Cells: Treatments to Decrease Adherence 
Background. Pathogenesis of mucosal microorganisms depends on adherence to the tissues they colonize and infect. For Candida albicans, cell surface hydrophobicity may play a significant role in tissue binding ability. Methods. A continuous cell line of vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) was grown in keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM) with supplements and harvested by trypsinization. VEC were combined with yeast cells to evaluate adherence and inhibition of adherence. In this experimental setup, yeast stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate were allowed to attach to VEC and the resulting fluorescent VEC were detected by flow cytometry. Results. VEC were cultured and examined daily after plating and showed morphology similar to basal epithelial cells. Culture media supplemented with estradiol showed increased VEC proliferation initially (first 24 h) but cell morphology was not altered. Fluorescinated Candida cells bound effectively to the cultured VEC. Using fresh cells exposed to various preparations of K-Y, we showed that all formulations of the product reduced Candida binding to VEC by 25% to 50%. While VEC were generally harvested for use in experiments when they were near confluent growth, we allowed some cultures to grow beyond that point and discovered that cells allowed to become overgrown or stressed appeared to bind yeast cells more effectively. Conclusion. Flow cytometry is a useful method for evaluating binding of stained yeast cells to cultured VEC and has demonstrated that commercially available products have the ability to interfere with the process of yeast adherence to epithelial cells.
PMCID: PMC1581476  PMID: 17485817
4.  Acquisition and Elimination of Bacterial Vaginosis During Pregnancy: A Danish Population-Based Study 
Objectives: the aim was to examine factors associated with acquisition and elimination of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Methods: a group of 229 pregnant women were randomly selected from a population-based prospective cohort study of 2927. They were examined at enrollment (mean gestational weeks 16w + 0d) and again in mid-third trimester (mean gestational age 32w + 3d). Measures: BV (Amsel's clinical criteria), microbiological cultures of the genital tract and questionnaire data. Results: BV prevalence decreased from 17% in early second trimester to 14% in mid-third trimester due to a tenfold higher elimination rate (39%) than incidence rate (4%). Heavy smokers (> 10/d) in early pregnancy were at increased risk (5.3 [1.1–25]) for the acquisition of BV during pregnancy, as were women receiving public benefits (4.8 [1.0–22]), having a vaginal pH above 4.5 (6.3 [1.4–29]) or vaginal anaerobe bacteria (18 [2.7–122]) at enrollment. A previous use of combined oral contraceptives was preventive for the acquisition of BV (0.2 [0.03–0.96]). Elimination of BV in pregnancy tended to be associated with a heavy growth of Lactobacillus (3.2 [0.8–13]) at enrollment. Conclusions: acquisition of BV during pregnancy is rare and is associated with smoking, while the presence of anaerobe bacteria and a vaginal pH > 4.5 are interpreted as steps on a gradual change towards BV. In the same way heavy growth of Lactobacillus spp in early pregnancy may be an indicator of women on the way to eliminate BV.
PMCID: PMC1581474  PMID: 17485815
5.  Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study 
Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA) users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB) versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained fromall consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesteronedominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25%) and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15%) (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87). Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.
PMCID: PMC1581473  PMID: 17093355
6.  Hepatic Dysfunction in Typhoid Fever During Pregnancy 
We described the hepatic dysfunction found in 10 cases out of 32 women with typhoid fever during pregnancy. This was associated with late diagnosis and maternal and perinatal complications.
PMCID: PMC1581472  PMID: 17485807
7.  Efficacy of an Immune Modulator in Experimental Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Female Genital Tract 
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if vaginal application of the immune response modifier imiquimod (Aldara cream, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn) would alter the course and/or outcome of female genital tract infection with a human isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in a murine model. Methods. Groups of CF-1 mice were treated with Aldara on three different schedules: (1) ongoing beginning 5 days prior to and continuing through day 5 of infection; (2) a single prophylactic dose 2 hours prior to infection; and (3) therapeutic from day 4 to day 14 of infection. Mice were infected vaginally with a serovar D strain of C trachomatis, and monitored by culture to determine the level of shedding and duration of infection. Results. We observed a significant reduction in both duration of infection and the level of shedding during the acute phase in mice treated on an ongoing basis commencing 5 days prior to infection. There was no effect with respect to the other regimens. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that ongoing Aldara treatment has efficacy and may enhance local innate immunity which reduces the duration of subsequent infection with human isolates of C trachomatis in a murine model of female genital tract infection.
PMCID: PMC1581471  PMID: 17093354
8.  Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen 
Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01% − 0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.
PMCID: PMC1581470  PMID: 17485806
9.  Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance Among Group B Streptococcus Isolates: 2001–2004 
The objectives were to determine the prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) and to characterize antibiotic resistance patterns. All pregnant women presenting to the triage units at two urban hospitals during three intervals from 2001 to 2004 were included. Each interval lasted approximately four weeks. Swabs were inoculated into selective broth and cultured on tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood. GBS was identified using the StrepTex latex agglutination system. GBS positive cultures were tested for their resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and cefazolin. GBS was isolated from 154 (12.2%) of 1264 swabs collected during the study period. African-American women were more likely to be colonized with GBS than Caucasians and Hispanics. Resistance to routinely administered antibiotics was common, but there were no statistically significant increases in resistance to antibiotics over the study period. Ongoing surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns is important in determining optimal prophylaxis and therapy.
PMCID: PMC1581469  PMID: 17093353
10.  Assessment of the Value of Rescreening for Syphilis in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy 
Objectives. Our aim is evaluating the need for repeating tests for syphilis on pregnant women in the third trimester. Study design. A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed on all women delivering 7/03–6/04. Results. During the study interval, 2244 women delivered at our hospital. Of those women having available records and attending at least one prenatal visit, 1940 (98.9%) were screened for syphilis at the first prenatal visit. Of the 1627 women beginning prenatal care prior to 27 weeks and delivering after 32 weeks, 1377 (84.6%) were rescreened in the third trimester. No cases of syphilis were identified with either the initial (upper limit of 95% CI 0.24%) or repeat (upper limit of 95% CI 0.34%) screening. Conclusions. In our obstetric population, syphilis is so uncommon that mandated prenatal screening on more than one occasion seems unjustified and laws requiring repeated screening should be reevaluated.
PMCID: PMC1581468  PMID: 17485804
11.  Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women: A Novel Case Series 
Objective. To evaluate the management and outcomes of a series of human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV-) infected women whose pregnancies were complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study design. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all women with confirmed HIV infection who had a pregnancy complicated by PPROM remote from term. PPROM remote from term was defined as rupture of membranes prior to 32-week gestation. Collective cases from two centers (Hennepin County Medical Center and The University of Alabama at Birmingham) were reviewed and data on management and outcomes were abstracted. Results. Of the HIV-positive women, we identified 291 pregnancies having occurred in the study interval from two institutions. Of these pregnancies, 7 (2.4%) developed PPROM remote from term with subsequent delivery from 25- to 32-week gestation. Vertical HIV transmission was noted in 2 of 6 children whose long-term followup status was confirmed (33%) of these cases. However, both of these cases occurred in women with either no antepartum/intrapartum antiviral therapy or where only zidovudine monotherapy was used. Importantly, in spite of expectant management, no cases of vertical HIV transmission occurred in women who were receiving either multidrug or highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) at the time of PPROM and who had a cesarean delivery in cases where the predelivery viral load > 1000 copies/mL. Conclusion. Our limited observations raise the question as to whether in the current era of multidrug therapy immediate delivery should be undertaken in HIV+ pregnancies complicated by PPROM at an early gestational age. This case series further suggests that in those pregnancies that lend themselves to expectant management, such a strategy may be considered appropriate.
PMCID: PMC1581467  PMID: 17093352
12.  Severe Life Threatening Maxillofacial Infection in Pregnancy Presented as Ludwig's Angina 
Background. Ludwig's angina is a rapidly spreading cellulitis that may produce upper airway obstruction often leading to death. There is very little published information regarding this condition in the pregnant patient. Case. A 24-year old black female was admitted at 26 weeks gestation with tooth pain, submandibular swelling, severe trismus, and dysphagea, consistent with Ludwig's angina. Her treatment included emergent tracheostomy, incision and drainage of associated spaces, teeth extraction, and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions. During a life threatening infectious situation such as the one described, risks of maternal and fetal morbidity include both septicemia and asphyxia. Furthermore, the healthcare provider must consider the risks that the condition and the possible treatments may cause the mother and her unborn child.
PMCID: PMC1581466  PMID: 17485803
13.  Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract 
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC1581465  PMID: 16967912
14.  Mycoplasma Genitalium Among Women With Nongonococcal, Nonchlamydial Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a frequent condition of young women, often resulting in reproductive morbidity. Although Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis are/is recovered from approximately a third to a half of women with PID, the etiologic agent is often unidentified. We need PCR to test for M genitalium among a pilot sample of 50 women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial endometritis enrolled in the PID evaluation and clinical health (PEACH) study. All participants had pelvic pain, pelvic organ tenderness, and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Endometritis was defined as ≥5 surface epithelium neutrophils per ×400 field absent of menstrual endometrium and/or ≥2 stromal plasma cells per ×120 field. We detected M genitalium in 7 (14%) of the women tested: 6 (12%) in cervical specimens and 4 (8%) in endometrial specimens. We conclude that M genitalium is prevalent in the endometrium of women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial PID.
PMCID: PMC1581464  PMID: 17485798
15.  Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra 
Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01−0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy). Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.
PMCID: PMC1581463  PMID: 17093350
16.  Menstrual Disorders in Nongenital Tuberculosis 
Menstrual patterns differ even in nongenital tuberculosis. Our objective is to determine whether nongenital tuberculosis makes menstrual dysfunction, before and sustain after treatment. Menstrual patterns were compared in women with pulmonary or extrapulmonary but nongenital tuberculosis with healthy nursing students and also with themselves, before and after treatment in a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were selected by convenient nonrandomized sampling but control groups were selected by random allocation among volunteers of nursing students. Case and control subjects were matched in age group. Menstrual patterns including amount, duration, interval, cessation of period, any menstrual irregularity, and pelvic pain were evaluated. Among 100 cases of proven tuberculosis, 90 patients had pulmonary and 10 cases had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Secondary amenorrhea (P ≤ .001, RR: 22), spotting during menstrual period (P ≤ .0001, RR: 4.5), decreasing in amount (P ≤ .001, RR: 7.8), shorter duration of menstrual period (P ≤ .001, RR: 12), and pelvic pain (P ≤ .001, RR: 8.6) were more prevalent and significantly different in the cases compared to control subjects (with CI:95% and P < .001), but excessive or prolong vaginal bleeding was not observed. Menstrual disorders occur even in nongenital tuberculosis, but it is manifested with cessation or decrease in menstrual bleeding flow and period.
PMCID: PMC1581462  PMID: 17093348
17.  Septic Pelvic Thrombophlebitis: Diagnosis and Management 
Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis (SPT) was initially diagnosed and described in the late 1800's. The entity had a high incidence and mortality during this period of time, and a surgical therapeutic approach was the treatment of choice. Since then, the diagnosis, incidence, and management of the entity evolved. This evolution followed the development of newer diagnostic tools such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. The treatment of SPT has had significant changes as well, from a surgical approach at the end of the 19th century to a medical approach after the 1960's. By using an adequate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, mortality has decreased. However, controversy in the management of this entity remains even till today.
PMCID: PMC1581461  PMID: 17485796
18.  Symptom Exacerbation and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy During the Menstrual Cycle: A Pilot Study 
Our objective is to investigate the relationship between drug and menstrual cycle symptoms in HIV+ women receiving antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Interviews were done for 12 weeks with 54 HIV+ women receiving HAART. Patients were asked if they experienced any of 28 symptoms associated with HAART and the menstrual cycle and about HAART adherence. Weeks were divided into menstrual weeks (MWs), premenstrual weeks (PWs), and other weeks. Women reported more bloating (P = .02) and cramps (P = .001) during MWs. Skin problems (P = .08) and breast tenderness (P = .03) were experienced during PWs. Feeling tired/loss of energy (P = .05), joint pain (P = .02), and chills (P = .03) were higher in non-MW/PWs. Women were slightly less adherent during the MWs (89%) than PWs (94%) and other weeks (93%). Feeling sad or depressed (P = .01) was associated with nonadherence. Experiencing certain symptoms associated with both the menstrual cycle and HAART drugs was related with nonadherence.
PMCID: PMC1581460  PMID: 17093347
19.  Unilateral Twin Ectopic Pregnancy in a Patient With a History of Multiple Sexually Transmitted Infections 
Background. The incidence of unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition. Several factors increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy, the most important of which is pelvic inflammatory disease, followed by operative trauma, congenital anomalies, tumors, and adhesions resulting in anatomically distorted fallopian tubes. We present a case of a woman with a history of four confirmed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2, and Treponema pallidum. The case illustrates the potential impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on the risk of a twin ectopic pregnancy. Case. A 24-year-old primigravida, presented with an unknown last menstrual period, lower abdominal pain, watery vaginal discharge, and vaginal spotting. During this hospitalization, serum β-HCG testing was 263 mIU/mL and transvaginal ultrasonographic examination suggested a nonviable unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy. At exploratory laparotomy, a 10 cm mass involving the right fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Pathological evaluation of the specimen identified a monochorionic, diamnionic twin ectopic pregnancy within the fallopian tube. Conclusions Patients with a history of multiple (STIs) are known to be at risk for the development of chronic pelvic infection and postinflammatory scarring. The resulting distortion of the normal tubal anatomy leads to an increased risk of an uncommon presentation of ectopic pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC1581458  PMID: 17485794
20.  Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela 
Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.
PMCID: PMC1522064  PMID: 17093349
21.  Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance 
Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11) are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age of the target vaccination population means that physicians, parents, and patients will all be involved in the decision-making process. Research has shown that parents and patients are more likely to accept a vaccine if it is efficacious, safe, reasonably priced, and recommended by a physician. Widespread education of physicians, patients, and parents about the risks and consequences of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination will be instrumental for fostering vaccine acceptance.
PMCID: PMC1522063  PMID: 16967911
22.  Actinomyces israelii May Produce Vulvar Lesions Suspicious for Malignancy 
Background. We present a case of Actinomyces israelii causing vulvar mass suspicious for malignancy in a postmenopausal woman. Case. A 60 year-old woman presented due to a firm, nonmobile, 10 cm vulvar mass, which had been rapidly enlarging for 5 months. The mass was painful, with localized pruritus and sinus tracts oozing of serosanguinous fluid. Biopsy and cultures revealed a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst containing granulation tissue and Actinomyces israelii. Conclusion. Actinomyces israelii may produce vulvar lesions that are suspicious for malignancy. Thus, biopsies and cultures are both mandatory while evaluating vulvar masses suspicious for malignancy.
PMCID: PMC1522062  PMID: 17093351
23.  Reducing the Health Burden of HPV Infection Through Vaccination 
Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection and the etiologic cause of genital warts and cervical cancer, is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women. Although cervical screening procedures have significantly reduced the disease burden associated with HPV infection, they are expensive and abnormal results cause significant emotional distress. Therefore, prevention may be an effective strategy for reducing the economic, psychosocial, and disease burden of HPV infection. Multivalent vaccines are now in clinical development. A bivalent vaccine that protects against HPV 16 and 18, and a quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, have been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of incident and persistent HPV infections in phase 2 clinical trials; phase 3 trials are currently underway. HPV vaccines will be most effective when administered prior to initiation of sexual activity, and vaccination campaigns should aggressively target preadolescent and adolescent populations.
PMCID: PMC1522061  PMID: 16967913
24.  Pasteurization of Milk From an HIV-Infected Woman 
PMCID: PMC1522060  PMID: 17485800
25.  Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum 
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab), showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA), showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group (χ2 = 1.02, P = .31). HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant (χ2 = 2.89, P = .08). In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection.
PMCID: PMC1522059  PMID: 17093356

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