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1.  Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis. 
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the association between lower genital tract inflammation and objectively diagnosed endometritis. We analyzed the first 157 patients enrolled in the PEACH study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of outpatient and inpatient therapy for PID. Women less than 38 years of age, who presented with a history of pelvic discomfort for 30 days or less and who were found to have pelvic organ tenderness (uterine or adnexal tenderness) on bimanual examination, were initially invited to participate. After recruitment of the first 58 patients (group 1) we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99). We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58) compared to 49.5% (49/99) in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of vaginal white blood cells or mucopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%), but a low specificity (19.4%) for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness.
PMCID: PMC1784668  PMID: 10805362
2.  Pelvic inflammatory disease in the postmenopausal woman. 
OBJECTIVE: Review available literature on pelvic inflammatory disease in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: MEDLINE literature review from 1966 to 1999. RESULTS: Pelvic inflammatory disease is uncommon in postmenopausal women. It is polymicrobial, often is concurrent with tuboovarian abscess formation, and is often associated with other diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women with pelvic inflammatory disease are best treated with inpatient parenteral antimicrobials and appropriate imaging studies. Failure to respond to antibiotics should yield a low threshold for surgery, and consideration of alternative diagnoses should be entertained.
PMCID: PMC1784753  PMID: 10524671
3.  Images in infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. Actinomyces pelvic infection. 
PMCID: PMC1784792  PMID: 9882157
4.  Upper respiratory infections--otitis media. 
PMCID: PMC1784791  PMID: 9785105
6.  Clinical utility of CA125 levels in predicting laparoscopically confirmed salpingitis in patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease. 
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of serum CA125 determinations in diagnosing acute salpingitis. METHODS: CA125 levels were determined for 34 women with the clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Acute salpingitis was confirmed laparoscopically in 28 women (82.3%). RESULTS: Twenty patients (71.4%) with laparoscopically confirmed acute salpingitis had CA125 levels greater than 7.5 units, compared with no patients (0/6) with laparoscopically normal tubes (P = 0.002). The degree of elevation of CA125 levels correlated with the severity of tubal inflammation noted at laparoscopy. All patients with levels above 16 units had laparoscopically severe salpingitis. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while CA125 levels above 7.5 units may modestly improve the ability of the clinical diagnosis of PID to accurately reflect visually confirmed acute salpingitis, limitations of the test make its clinical utility questionable.
PMCID: PMC1784794  PMID: 9812251
7.  Once-daily dosing of gentamicin. 
PMCID: PMC1784793  PMID: 9812245
8.  The germ theory of disease or "where have all the cultures gone?". 
PMCID: PMC1784767  PMID: 9678139

Results 1-8 (8)