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1.  Association between Semen Exposure and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis 
Objective. To identify correlates of incident bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed with Nugent scoring among high-risk women. Study Design. We conducted both cohort and case-crossover analyses, stratified by HIV infection status, based on 871 HIV-infected and 439 HIV-uninfected participants in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study, conducted in 4 US sites in 1993–2000. Results. BV incidence was 21% and 19% among HIV-infected and -uninfected women, respectively. Fewer correlates of BV were found with case-crossover than with cohort design. Reporting frequent coitus (regardless of consistency of condom use) was correlated with BV in cohort analyses but not in case-crossover analyses. The sole correlate of BV in both types of analyses was the detection of spermatozoa on Gram stain, which is a marker of semen exposure. Conclusion. The inconsistent association between condom use and BV in prior studies could be from reporting bias. We found evidence of a relationship between semen exposure and incident BV.
PMCID: PMC3235572  PMID: 22190844
2.  Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus 
Objective. To evaluate associations between common vaginal infections and human papillomavirus (HPV). Study Design. Data from up to 15 visits on 756 HIV-infected women and 380 high-risk HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) were evaluated for associations of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal Candida colonization with prevalent HPV, incident HPV, and clearance of HPV in multivariate analysis. Results. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with increased odds for prevalent (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26) and incident (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47) HPV and with delayed clearance of infection (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97). Whereas BV at the preceding or current visit was associated with incident HPV, in an alternate model for the outcome of incident BV, HPV at the current, but not preceding, visit was associated with incident BV. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
PMCID: PMC3159014  PMID: 21869857
3.  Vulvovaginal Trichosporonosis 
Objective: Isolation of Trichosporon species from vaginal secretions is a rare event, and no data are available on its pathogenic role. A case series is presented to determine the pathogenic role of Trichosporon species in vulvovaginal infections.
Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients seen in the W.S.U. Vaginitis Clinic in order to identify patients from whom Trichosporon species were isolated.
Results: Between 1986 and 2001, a total of 13 patients had a total of 18 positive vaginal cultures for Trichosporon species. All 18 vaginal isolates were T. inkin. In general, positive vaginal cultures were accompanied by low yeast colony counts. Four out of 18 positive T. inkin cultures were obtained from visits by asymptomatic patients. Of the remaining 14 positive T. inkin cultures from patients with symptoms, nine out of 14 cultures had other diagnoses (Candida albicans, six cases; bacterial vaginosis, two cases; Trichomonas, one case). Five positive T. inkin cultures were obtained from visits at which patients had symptoms and no associated diagnosis. In only one of the five episodes could we establish a clear pathogenic role for Trichosporon. In this case the patient was treated with boric acid and had resolution of symptoms and a negative culture at follow-up. In-vitro susceptibility tests revealed that T. inkin was resistant to flucytosine and susceptible to all topical and oral azoles.
Conclusions: T. inkin is occasionally found in vulvovaginal cultures and is usually a non-pathogen. Transient colonization tended to occur in women, usually of African—American origin, with major perturbations in vaginal flora (bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis) and increased pH. Pathogenic consequences of Trichosporon colonization appear to be rare.
PMCID: PMC1852272  PMID: 14627220
4.  Vaginal Mucormycosis: A Case Report 
Although Zygomycetes cause life-threatening, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, the first case of vaginitis caused by Mucor species in a healthy woman is reported. Mucor vaginitis, which caused mild symptoms only, was refractory to conventional azole therapy and resistant to flucytosine. Cure was achieved with topical amphotericin B.
PMCID: PMC1784639  PMID: 11495552
5.  Comparative Study of Intravaginal Metronidazole and Triple-Sulfa Therapy for Bacterial Vaginosis 
Objective: We sought to compare the efficacy of metronidazole gel vs. triple-sulfa cream in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV).
Methods: In a double-blinded study, 247 women with symptomatic BV were randomly assigned to receive either 5 g of 0.75% metronidazole gel twice daily for 5 days or triple-sulfa cream twice daily for 5 days. There were 205 (96 treated with metronidazole and 109 treated with triple-sulfa) evaluable patients to compare efficacy at the final visit. Approximately 60% of these patients had been previously treated for BV, reflecting the recurrent nature of the disease in this patient population.
Results: At the first (12–16 days) return visit, 81/103 (79%) patients in the metronidazole group were cured compared with 80/113 (71%) patients in the triple-sulfa cream group (P = 0.333). At the final (28–35 days) return visit, 63/96 (66%) in the 96 metronidazole group remained cured compared with only 51/109 (47%) in the triple-sulfa group (P = 0.02). An intent-to-treat analysis similarly showed that the cure rate with metronidazole was superior to triple-sulfa (P ≤ 0.02). The clinical diagnosis demonstrated a high correlation (88%) with the diagnosis made by an independent assessment by Gram's stain. The side effects reported by the patients using metronidazole gel were infrequent and mild and were similar to those reported with triple-sulfa.
Conclusions: Metronidazole gel is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment for BV.
PMCID: PMC2364475  PMID: 18476069
6.  Trichomoniasis as Seen in a Chronic Vaginitis Clinic 
Objective: We sought to determine the clinical and laboratory features of trichomonas vaginitis (TV) in a chronic vaginitis clinic.
Methods: We studied 45 women with symptomatic TV attending a specialty chronic vaginitis clinic. These patients were older than the usual symptomatic patients with TV. They frequently described unusual chronicity of symptoms, half being referred because of clinical resistance and the other half referred because of chronic vaginitis of unknown etiology.
Results: In spite of the chronicity of infection, the signs and symptoms of florid inflammation were still evident and high numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and parasitic load were present.
Conclusions: A longstanding infection, especially if previously untreated, invariably responded to conventional nitroimidazole therapy. In addition, the majority of patients seen with clinical resistance to the conventional doses of metronidazole responded to high-dose oral metronidazole therapy. Unsuspected TV should always be considered in low-risk patients with chronic vulvovaginal symptoms.
PMCID: PMC2364473  PMID: 18476071

Results 1-6 (6)