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1.  Association between Semen Exposure and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis 
Objective. To identify correlates of incident bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed with Nugent scoring among high-risk women. Study Design. We conducted both cohort and case-crossover analyses, stratified by HIV infection status, based on 871 HIV-infected and 439 HIV-uninfected participants in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study, conducted in 4 US sites in 1993–2000. Results. BV incidence was 21% and 19% among HIV-infected and -uninfected women, respectively. Fewer correlates of BV were found with case-crossover than with cohort design. Reporting frequent coitus (regardless of consistency of condom use) was correlated with BV in cohort analyses but not in case-crossover analyses. The sole correlate of BV in both types of analyses was the detection of spermatozoa on Gram stain, which is a marker of semen exposure. Conclusion. The inconsistent association between condom use and BV in prior studies could be from reporting bias. We found evidence of a relationship between semen exposure and incident BV.
doi:10.1155/2011/842652
PMCID: PMC3235572  PMID: 22190844
2.  Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus 
Objective. To evaluate associations between common vaginal infections and human papillomavirus (HPV). Study Design. Data from up to 15 visits on 756 HIV-infected women and 380 high-risk HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) were evaluated for associations of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vaginal Candida colonization with prevalent HPV, incident HPV, and clearance of HPV in multivariate analysis. Results. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with increased odds for prevalent (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26) and incident (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47) HPV and with delayed clearance of infection (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.97). Whereas BV at the preceding or current visit was associated with incident HPV, in an alternate model for the outcome of incident BV, HPV at the current, but not preceding, visit was associated with incident BV. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and successful treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
doi:10.1155/2011/319460
PMCID: PMC3159014  PMID: 21869857
3.  Vaginal flora morphotypic profiles and assessment of bacterial vaginosis in women at risk for HIV infection. 
Specific morphotypic profiles of normal and abnormal vaginal flora, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), were characterized. A prospective study of 350 women yielded concurrent Gram-stain data and clinical assessment (n = 3455 visits). Microbiological profiles were constructed by Gram stain. Eight profile definitions were based on dichotomizing the levels of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, and curved, Gram-negative bacillus (Mobiluncus) morphotypes. Of these, two were rare, and the other six demonstrated a graded association with the clinical components of BV. The proposed profiles from the Gram stain reflect the morphotypic categories describing vaginal flora that may enable clearer elucidation of gynecologic and obstetric outcomes in various populations.
doi:10.1080/10647440400020711
PMCID: PMC1784599  PMID: 15763911
4.  A Multicenter Study of Bacterial Vaginosis in Women With or at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 
Background: Bacterial vaginosis is a common gynecologic infection that has been associated with a variety of gynecologic and obstetric complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, postabortal infection and premature delivery. Recent studies suggest that bacterial vaginosis may increase a woman’s risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We undertook this study to assess whether the prevalence and characteristics of bacterial vaginosis differed according to HIV status in high-risk US women.
Methods: Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was assessed by Gram’s stain and clinical criteria for 854 HIV-infected and 434 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiology Research (HER) Study.Multiple logistic regression techniques were used to determine whether HIV infection independently predicted bacterial vaginosis.
Results: Almost half (46%) the women had bacterial vaginosis by Gram’s stain. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 47% in the HIV-positive women compared with 44% in the HIV-negativewomen; this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.36). After adjustment for other covariates, HIV-positive women were more likely than HIV-negative women to have bacterial vaginosis (odds ratio (OR) 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.70) by Gram's stain but not by clinical criteria (OR 1.16; CI 0.87-1.55). Among HIV-positive women, use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with a lower prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR 0.54; Cl 0.38 -0.77).
Conclusions: In this cross-sectional analysis of high-risk US women, HIV infection was positively correlated with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Gram’s stain.
doi:10.1155/S1064744901000242
PMCID: PMC1784649  PMID: 11516061

Results 1-4 (4)