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1.  Amniotic-fluid Lactoferrin: A Marker for Subclinical Intraamniotic Infection Prior to 32 Weeks Gestation 
Objective: Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein released from the secondary granules of activated neutrophils in the setting of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if amniotic-fluid (AF) lactoferrin levels are elevated in preterm labor (PTL) patients with subclinical intraamniotic infection (IAI).
Methods: AF samples were obtained from 186 pregnant patients with the following characteristics: group 1 - term, no labor; group 2 - preterm, no labor; group 3 - PTL with IAI; group 4 - PTL without IAI. Lactoferrin levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: AF lactoferrin levels were elevated in normal gestation after 31 weeks (P < 0.0001). Lactoferrin levels were also higher in infected PTL patients compared with noninfected PTL patients at gestations ≤31 weeks (P = 0.005). An AF lactoferrin level of >2.5 μg/ml is highly suggestive of infection in PTL patients at <32 weeks, with an overall sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 83%, when infection is defined as a positive AF culture or positive placental histology.
Conclusions: AF lactoferrin levels increase after 31 weeks in normal gestations, but lactoferrin levels >2.5 μg/ml in PTL patients before this gestational age are highly suggestive of IAI. AF lactoferrin levels may be a useful clinical tool for selecting those PTL patients who might benefit from antimicrobial therapy, closer observation, or early delivery.
doi:10.1155/S1064744995000573
PMCID: PMC2366152  PMID: 18472887
2.  In Vitro Bacterial Contamination of Amniotic Fluid: Effects on Fluorescence Polarization Lung Maturity Testing 
Objective: We sought to determine the effect of bacteria on fluorescence polarization (FPOL) testing of amniotic fluid.
Methods: Fusobacterium necrophorum and Escherichia coli were inoculated at concentrations of 103 and 106/ml in amniotic-fluid specimens from 4 patients with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection. The FPOL results were obtained at inoculation and again at 24 h of incubation. The results were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: The FPOL results from inoculated specimens were all within 2% of the uninoculated controls. The specimens incubated with bacteria showed a < 1–19% variation when compared with the time-zero uninoculated controls. However, uninoculated controls incubated for 24 h exhibited a 2–12% variation when compared with the time-zero controls, suggesting that the variation present was not secondary to the bacterial co-incubation.
Conclusions: In vitro, neither bacterial inoculation nor prolonged co-incubation influences FPOL results beyond the effect of incubation alone. FPOL appears to be an appropriate test to assess fetal lung maturity in patients in whom intraamniotic infection is a concern.
doi:10.1155/S1064744995000408
PMCID: PMC2364429  PMID: 18476029
3.  Trichomonas vaginalis Weakens Human Amniochorion in an In Vitro Model of Premature Membrane Rupture 
Objective: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) and preterm birth. We evaluated the effects of TV growth and metabolism on preparations of human amniochorion to understand and characterize how TV may impair fetal-membrane integrity and predispose to PROM and preterm birth.
Methods: Term fetal membranes were evaluated using an established in vitro fetal-membrane model. Fresh TV clinical isolates were obtained from pregnant women. The protozoa (5.0×105 to 1.5×106/ml) were incubated with fetal membranes in modified Diamond's medium for 20 h at 37°C in 5% CO2.The effects of fetal-membrane strength (bursting tension, work to rupture, and elasticity) were measured using a calibrated Wheatstone-bridge dynamometer. Tests were also performed to evaluate the effects of 1) inoculum size; 2) metronidazole (50 μg/ml); and 3) cell-free filtrate.
Results: The TV-induced membrane effects were 1) isolate variable; 2) inoculum dependent; 3) incompletely protected by metronidazole; and 4) mediated by both live organisms as well as protozoan-free culture filtrates. Six of 9 isolates significantly reduced the calculated work to rupture (P ≤ 0.02); 7 of 9 reduced bursting tension; and 1 of 9 reduced elasticity. One isolate significantly increased the work to rupture and bursting tension (P ≤ 0.002).
Conclusions: In vitro incubation of fetal membranes with TV can significantly impair the measures of fetal-membrane strength. This model may be used to delineate the mechanisms of TV-induced membrane damage. This study suggests that there are enzyme-specific effects as well as pH effects.
doi:10.1155/S1064744995000160
PMCID: PMC2364407  PMID: 18475407
4.  Trichomonas vaginalis: Diagnosis and Clinical Characteristics in Pregnancy 
Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the prevalance and characterize the symptomatology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in pregnant women on entry into prenatal care in an inner-city population; 2) compare conventional microscopic methods vs. culture techniques in diagnosing TV in both symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant patients; and 3) correlate wet mount microscopic and microbiologic characteristics of varying manifestations of trichomoniasis.
Methods: One thousand two hundred sixty patients in an inner-city population were tested at entry into prenatal care for TV by saline wet mount and culture techniques. Other tests for lower genital tract infection were also performed. Vaginal symptoms were ascertained through standardized questioning prior to examination. Standard microscopic and microbiologic data were also obtained for analysis. Wet mounts were systematically examined and considered negative if no TV was identified in 10 high powerfields (HPFs). Cultures were inspected from days 4 to 7 or until positive results were obtained. Results were analyzed using McNemar's test for correlated proportions, chi-squared test, or Fisher exact test where appropriate.
Results: Culture and wet mount results were available in 1,175 patients. TV infection was documented by one or both techniques in 110/1,175 (9.4%). Culture methods detected 105/110 (94.5%) of all patients while wet mount detected 90/110 (73%) (P <0.001). Vaginal symptoms were present in only 20/110 patents (18.2%). Among asymptomatic patients, culture detected 94% while wet mount detected 70% (P < 0.001). Among symptomatic patients, wet mount and culture were both effective and diagnosed 85% and 95% of infections, respectively (P = not significant). Patients with TV were more likely to have increased vaginal fluid wlaite blood cells (WBCs) and more severe vaginal flora disruption than uninfected controls. Subgroup analysis revealed wet mount-positive/culture-positive patients were more likely to have vaginal flora disruption, as evidenced by decreased lactobacilli and elevated vaginal pH, than wet mount-negative/culture-positive subjects. Coexistent infection rates were similar regardless of wet mount status. Elevated vaginal fluid WBCs were more common among patients with symptoms.
Conclusions: 1) Screening pregnant women for TV based solely on symptomatology is ineffective in this population; 2) culture techniques detected more infections than conventional microscopic evaluation; and 3) significant increases in vaginal fluid WBCs and altered vaginal flora are found in both symptomatic and asymptomatic TV, suggesting that both infestations have the potential to adversely affect pregnancy outcome. Studies on the influence of TV on pregnancy outcomes are ongoing.
doi:10.1155/S1064744994000141
PMCID: PMC2366141  PMID: 18472879

Results 1-4 (4)