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1.  Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.
doi:10.1155/2011/959816
PMCID: PMC3253449  PMID: 22235165
2.  The Role of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins in Inflammation and Sequelae among Women with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Chlamydia trachomatis polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) may increase genital tract inflammation and play a role in virulence. Antibody levels for PmpA, PmpD, and PmpI, measured in densitometric units, were assessed among a pilot sample of 40 C. trachomatis-infected women with mild-to-moderate clinical PID. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpA were less likely to achieve pregnancy (40.0% versus 85.7%; P = 0.042) and less likely to have a live birth (0.0% versus 80.0%; P = 0.005) compared to women who did not express antibody to PmpA. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpI were more likely to have upper genital tract infection (61.5% versus 20.0%; P = 0.026). However, seropositivity to PmpI and PmpD did not modify the risk of reproductive sequelae or inflammation. Seropositivity to chlamydial PmpA may represent a biomarker of increased risk of sequelae secondary to infection with C. trachomatis.
doi:10.1155/2011/989762
PMCID: PMC3199047  PMID: 22028586
3.  Mycoplasma genitalium among Young, Urban Pregnant Women 
Objective. As the consequences of Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women are unknown, we examined the relationship between prenatal M. genitalium infection and SAB. Methods. The presence of M. genitalium was determined by PCR in urine from 82 women who subsequently experienced a SAB and 134 women who maintained their pregnancies past 22 weeks gestation. The relationships between M. genitalium and subsequent SAB, demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive health history characteristics were evaluated. Results. Compared to women without M. genitalium, women with M. genitalium were more likely to report nulliparity (41.7% versus 17.4%, P = .04), history of pelvic inflammatory disease (27.3% versus 8.8%, P = .08), prior C. trachomatis infection (63.6% versus 36.9%, P = .11,) and problems getting pregnant (18.2% versus 4.4%, P = .10). M. genitalium was not associated with SAB (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.2–3.8). Conclusions. Pregnant women who test positive for M. genitalium do not have an increased risk of SAB but report a history of reproductive morbidities.
doi:10.1155/2010/984760
PMCID: PMC2850137  PMID: 20379360
4.  Mycoplasma Genitalium Among Women With Nongonococcal, Nonchlamydial Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a frequent condition of young women, often resulting in reproductive morbidity. Although Neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or Chlamydia trachomatis are/is recovered from approximately a third to a half of women with PID, the etiologic agent is often unidentified. We need PCR to test for M genitalium among a pilot sample of 50 women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial endometritis enrolled in the PID evaluation and clinical health (PEACH) study. All participants had pelvic pain, pelvic organ tenderness, and leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated cervicitis. Endometritis was defined as ≥5 surface epithelium neutrophils per ×400 field absent of menstrual endometrium and/or ≥2 stromal plasma cells per ×120 field. We detected M genitalium in 7 (14%) of the women tested: 6 (12%) in cervical specimens and 4 (8%) in endometrial specimens. We conclude that M genitalium is prevalent in the endometrium of women with nongonococcal, nonchlamydial PID.
doi:10.1155/IDOG/2006/30184
PMCID: PMC1581464  PMID: 17485798

Results 1-4 (4)