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1.  Detection of cytomegalovirus in the meconium of infected newborns by polymerase chain reaction. 
OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of hearing loss and mental retardation throughout the world. Detection of the CMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers a sensitive, rapid, and specific means of identification. Meconium, the stool formed in utero, may be an ideal specimen for CMV detection. The objective of this study was to develop a PCR-based methodology for the detection of CMV in the meconium of neonates. METHODS: Meconium was collected from 10 newborn infants (seven with positive viral cultures and three uninfected infants born to CMV-seropositive mothers). For each, DNA was isolated from meconium by organic extraction and attachment to a DNA-binding matrix, and PCR was performed using amplimers specific for the major intermediate early (MIE) and late antigenic (LA) regions of CMV. RESULTS: Gel electrophoresis demonstrated an anticipated PCR product of 250 base pairs (bp) corresponding to the MIE region of CMV in all infected and positive control meconium samples. Furthermore, a single band of 150 bp corresponding to the LA region of CMV was also amplified in several of the infected infants. Conversely, no amplification of these antigenic regions was noted in either uninfected infants born to CMV-seropositive mothers or negative controls. CONCLUSIONS: CMV is present within the meconium of infected neonates and is readily detectable by PCR.
PMCID: PMC1784681  PMID: 10968600
2.  Non-surgical management of post-cesarean endomyometritis associated with myometrial gas formation. 
We present a case of post-cesarean delivery, nonclostridial endomyometritis in which uterine (myometrial) gas formation raised concern for myonecrosis and need for hysterectomy. The patient fully recovered without surgery. Myometrial gas formation in this setting and in an otherwise stable patient may be an insufficient reason for hysterectomy.
PMCID: PMC1784680  PMID: 10968603
3.  Effect of imiquimod on cytokine induction in first trimester trophoblasts. 
OBJECTIVES: Imiquimod (IQ) is used clinically for the topical treatment of external genital warts. IQ is an immune response modifier and induces the expression of interferon-alpha and other cytokines in human Peripheral Blood Monocytes (PBMC). Trophoblasts have been previously shown to express inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of IQ to induce transcription of cytokines in trophoblasts. METHODS: A transformed human first trimester trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, was cultured in DMEM containing IQ at concentrations of 0 to 5.0 microg/ml. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays were conducted to control for any drug-induced cell death. Total RNA was isolated from trophoblasts at 0, 8 and 24 hours of culture and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted using specific amplimers for the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8. RT-PCR of beta-actin was performed to control for equal RNA loading. RESULTS: RT-PCR was unable detect an increase in either IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 or IL-8 mRNA in first trimester trophoblasts cultured in the presence of 0 to 5.0 microg/mL of IQ for up to 24 hours. RT-PCR confirmed equal RNA loading and MTT viability assays did not show loss of cell viability at concentrations of IQ up to 5.0 microg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: IQ, at the concentrations tested, did not induce the transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines in human first trimester trophoblasts. These data suggest that IQ would not induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in placental trophoblasts.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(2000)8:2<105::AID-IDOG8>3.0.CO;2-H
PMCID: PMC1784669  PMID: 10805366
4.  Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of pelvic abscesses. 
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of a less invasive approach to the care of women with a pelvic abscess, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of women with pelvic abscesses managed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 27 pelvic abscesses in 22 consecutive women undergoing transvaginal drainage, including 13 tuboovarian abscesses (TOAs) and 14 postoperative abscesses (POAs). All patients received broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics from the time infection was diagnosed to resolution of signs and symptoms. Chart review and examination of ultrasound files were utilized to extract demographic clinical, laboratory, and outcome data. RESULTS: The mean age for the study group was 30 years old. Mean duration from diagnosis to drainage was 5.6 days (TOA) and 2.0 days (POA), P < 0.01. The mean diameter of the abscesses was 86 mm. The volume of purulent material drained ranged from 70-750 mL. Perceived adequacy of drainage was correlated with lack of abscess septation. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic pathogens were positive in 51% of cases (79% POA versus 23% TOA, P < 0.05) with 1.9 organisms/ positive culture. Transvaginal drainage was successful in 25 of 27 abscesses. No complications were reported. CONCLUSION: In skilled hands, transvaginal guided aspiration of pelvic abscess is a highly successful technique with minimal risk to the patient. Follow-up studies are needed to assess the long-term sequelae, such as frequency of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(1999)7:5<216::AID-IDOG2>3.0.CO;2-N
PMCID: PMC1784752  PMID: 10524665
5.  Single daily dosing of gentamicin: pharmacokinetic comparison of two dosing methodologies for postpartum endometritis. 
OBJECTIVE: We compared the pharmacokinetics of two methods for dosing gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endometritis with the goal of achieving adequate peak serum concentrations (>12 mg/L) and prolonged trough levels below 2 mg/L. METHODS: Group-I subjects (n = 5) received intravenous gentamicin, 5 mg/kg per total body weight over 60 min., with a maximum dose of 500 mg. Group-II subjects (n = 17) were dosed intravenously according to the following formula: Dose = desired peak concentration (fixed at 14 mg/L) * (volume of distribution, i.e., 0.35 L/kg) * adjusted body weight (in kilograms). Serum gentamicin levels were obtained 1 hr. and 8-12 hr. after infusion of the second dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the subjects in each group were calculated according to standard formulas. RESULTS: Subjects in Group I had significantly higher doses and peak drug concentrations (P < 0.01), while in Group II, 76% of patients had peak levels less than desired (<12 mg/L). Both groups maintained trough levels of <2 mg/L in excess of 12 hr. CONCLUSIONS: Changing to the adjusted body weight formula for Group I, while maintaining a dose between 4 and 5 mg/kg, would reduce excessive peak concentrations. Using a calculated volume of distribution of 0.4 L/kg in Group II would improve peak serum concentrations to the desired levels. Both dosing regimens ensure adequate aminoglycoside pharmacokinetic parameters and avoid the need for monitoring serial serum drug concentrations, provided the expected clinical response is also achieved. While the first dosing formula is simpler to calculate, the second dosing formula allows for more individualized dosing considerations.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-0997(1999)7:3<133::AID-IDOG4>3.0.CO;2-H
PMCID: PMC1784732  PMID: 10371471

Results 1-5 (5)