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1.  Diaphragm Used with Replens Gel and Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to female HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the effect of providing a latex diaphragm with Replens and condoms compared to condom only on BV prevalence among participants enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Methods. We enrolled HIV-seronegative women and obtained a vaginal swab for diagnosis of BV using Nugent's criteria; women with BV (score 7–10) were compared to those with intermediate (score 4–6) and normal flora (score 0–3). During quarterly follow-up visits over 12–24 months a vaginal Gram stain was obtained. The primary outcome was serial point prevalence of BV during followup. Results. 528 participants were enrolled; 213 (40%) had BV at enrollment. Overall, BV prevalence declined after enrollment in women with BV at baseline (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.29–.56) but did not differ by intervention group. In the intention-to-treat analysis BV prevalence did not differ between the intervention and control groups for women who had BV (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.52–1.94) or for those who did not have BV (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.65–2.27) at enrollment. Only 2.1% of participants were treated for symptomatic BV and few women (5–16%) were reported using anything else but water to cleanse the vagina over the course of the trial. Conclusions. Provision of the diaphragm, Replens, and condoms did not change the risk of BV in comparison to the provision of condoms alone.
doi:10.1155/2012/921519
PMCID: PMC3485870  PMID: 23133307
2.  Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male): A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination 
HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.
doi:10.1155/2012/587651
PMCID: PMC3423871  PMID: 22927714
3.  Endometrial Histopathology in Patients with Laparoscopic Proven Salpingitis and HIV-1 Infection 
Study Objective. To identify sensitive and specific histological criteria for endometritis in women with laparoscopically-confirmed acute salpingitis. Methods. Women, age 18–40 years of age presenting with complaints of lower abdominal pain ≤2 weeks and no antibiotics use in past two weeks, were enrolled. They underwent clinical examination, screening for HIV; other sexually transmitted infections plus endometrial biopsy sampling for histopathology. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of acute salpingitis. Controls were women undergoing tubal ligation and HIV-1 infected women asymptomatic for genital tract infection. Results. Of 125 women with laparoscopically-confirmed salpingitis, 38% were HIV-1 seropositive. Nineteen HIV-1 negative controls were recruited. For the diagnosis of endometritis, ≥1 plasma cells (PC) and ≥3 polymorphonuclear lymphocytes (PMN) per HPF in the endometrium had a sensitivity of 74% for HIV-1-seropositive, 63% for HIV-1-seronegative women with a specificity of 75% and positive predictive value of 85% regardless of HIV-1-infection for predicting moderate to severe salpingitis. For HIV-1-seronegative women with mild salpingitis, ≥1 PC and ≥3 PMN had a sensitivity of 16% and a PPV of 57%. Conclusion. Endometrial histology, did not perform well as a surrogate marker for moderate to severe salpingitis, and failed as a surrogate marker for mild salpingitis.
doi:10.1155/2011/407057
PMCID: PMC3177090  PMID: 21941427
4.  Etiology of Persistent Tubo-Ovarian Abscess in Nairobi, Kenya 
Objective To study the microbial etiology of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA).
Methods We recruited 11 women in Nairobi, Kenya who failed antibiotic therapy alone and required surgical drainage of a presumptive TOA. Pus from the nine abscesses and two pyosalpinges were collected and cultured for aerobic, facultative and anaerobic microorganisms.
Results Eleven women suspected of having a TOA were hospitalized and treated for a median of 6 days (range 3–14 days) prior to surgical drainage of the abscess. Nine (82%) specimens were culture positive. Aerobes were present in all nine specimens. Seven of the nine positive cultures (78%) were polymicrobial and five of the polymicrobial cultures contained both anaerobes and aerobes. Anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (Prevotella sp., Porphyromonas sp. and Bacteroides sp., Escherichia coli ) and Streptococcus sp. ( S. viridans and S. agalactiae) were the most common microorganisms isolated. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were not isolated by culture or detected by polymerase chain reaction.
Conclusions In Kenya, persistent TOAs are associated with endogenous flora similar to that normally found in the gastrointestinal tract.
doi:10.1155/S1064744903000061
PMCID: PMC1852266  PMID: 12839632

Results 1-4 (4)