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1.  Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract 
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC1581465  PMID: 16967912
2.  Does Rubella Immunity Predict Measles Immunity? A Serosurvey of Pregnant Women 
Background. This study was undertaken to determine whether rubella immunity infers measles immunity in pregnant women. Methods. Stored serum samples were obtained from the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory for evaluation of rubella and measles immunities with IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Nine hundred serum samples were obtained for testing. The average age of the women at the time of antepartum serum collection was 28 (range, 14 to 44) years. Measles and rubella immunity were 88% and 98%, respectively; there was no effect of immunity status by age identified. Eighty eight percent of those with rubella immunity were also measles immune. There was no association between paired rubella and measles immunity identified, P < .0001. Discussion. Known rubella immunity did not infer measles immunity in our population. Thus, we recommend that pregnant women exposed to measles be tested and appropriately treated if they are found to be nonimmune.
PMCID: PMC1581459  PMID: 17485795
3.  Gynecologists' attitudes regarding human papilloma virus vaccination: a survey of Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical neoplasia and genital warts. A vaccine has recently been developed that may prevent infection with HPV. Vaccination for HPV may become a routine part of office gynecology. We surveyed members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) to determine their attitudes to HPV vaccination. METHODS: A survey was sent to Fellows of ACOG to evaluate gynecologists' attitudes. Vaccine acceptability was analyzed using 13 scenarios with the following dimensions and respective attributes: age of patient (13, 17 and 22 years); efficacy of vaccine (50% or 80%); ACOG recommendation (yes or no); and disease targeted (cervical cancer, warts or both). Each scenario was rated by means of an 11-point response format (0 to 100). Responses were evaluated using conjoint analysis. RESULTS: Of 1200 surveys that were sent out, 181 were returned and included in our analysis. ACOG recommendation was considered the most important variable in vaccine distribution (importance score = 32.2), followed by efficacy (24.5), age (22.4) and, lastly, disease targeted (20.9). Of these variables, higher efficacy was favored; preference was given to age 17 years, with a strong disinclination to vaccinate at age 13 years; and protection against cervical cancer, or genital warts, or both, was significantly favored over a vaccine against genital warts alone. Demographic characteristics of the gynecologists (i.e., age of physician, gender, practice setting and community size) did not play an important role in the decision to recommend vaccination. CONCLUSION: Professional society recommendation is important for acceptability of a potential HPV vaccine. Gynecologists are willing to include this vaccine in their office practice.
PMCID: PMC1784603  PMID: 15763912
4.  Imiquimod Does not Affect Shedding of Viable Chlamydiae in a Murine Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infection 
Objective: We postulated that either oral or vaginal administration of the immune response modifier imiquimod would decrease vaginal shedding of Chlamydia trachomatis, mouse pneumonitis strain (MoPn), in a murine model.
Methods: Female BALB/c mice were infected intravaginally withC. trachomatis (MoPn) and were administered imiquimod either orally (30 mg/kg) or vaginally (10 μl of 5%imiquimod cream) prior to infection and every second day after infection for a total of four doses. The course of infection was monitored by collecting cervical–vaginal swabs and isolation in HeLa 229 cell culture. To determine whether the drug affected T helper type 1 or T helper type 2 immune response polarization, immunoglobulinG(IgG) subclass antibody responses were assessed at day 56 after infection.
Results: There was no significant difference in the course of infection when imiquimod-treated mice were compared with sham-treated controls, regardless of whether the drug was administered orally or vaginally. IgG subclass antibody responses, and by extension, T helper type 1 to T helper type 2 immune response polarization, were also unaffected.
Conclusions: Imiquimod has no efficacy in controllingC. trachomatis (MoPn) infection in the murine model.
PMCID: PMC1852278  PMID: 14627213
5.  Maternal and Neonatal Infection With Salmonella heidelberg : A Case Report 
Maternal and neonatal infections with Salmonella typhi have been well documented. There are only two previous case reports of intrauterine infection with non-typhoidal species. This paper presents a third case of maternal septicemia followed by neonatal sepsis with Salmonella heidelberg.
PMCID: PMC2364676  PMID: 18476206

Results 1-5 (5)