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1.  Silencing Sexually Transmitted Infections: Topical siRNA-Based Interventions for the Prevention of HIV and HSV 
The global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is significant. The sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been especially difficult to control. To date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these STIs. Although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their widespread use for prevention purposes may be more limited. Microbicides might provide an attractive alternative option to reduce their spread. In particular, topically applied small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to not only block transmission of viral STIs to mucosal tissues both in vitro and in vivo, but also confer durable knockdown of target gene expression, thereby circumventing the need to apply a microbicide around the time of sexual encounter, when compliance is mostly difficult. Despite numerous clinical trials currently testing the efficacy of siRNA-based therapeutics, they have yet to be approved for use in the treatment of viral STIs. While several obstacles to their successful implementation in the clinic still exist, promising preclinical studies suggest that siRNAs are a viable modality for the future prevention and treatment of HSV and HIV.
doi:10.1155/2014/125087
PMCID: PMC3913465  PMID: 24526828
2.  HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy 
High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2) and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.
doi:10.1155/2013/540850
PMCID: PMC3762170  PMID: 24023507
3.  Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases 
To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis); there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.
doi:10.1155/2013/752852
PMCID: PMC3723080  PMID: 23935259
4.  Preconception and Contraceptive Care for Women Living with HIV 
Women living with HIV have fertility desires and intentions that are similar to those of uninfected women, and with advances in treatment most women can realistically plan to have and raise children to adulthood. Although HIV may have adverse effects on fertility, recent studies suggest that antiretroviral therapy may increase or restore fertility. Data indicate the increasing numbers of women living with HIV who are becoming pregnant, and that many pregnancies are unintended and contraception is underutilized, reflecting an unmet need for preconception care (PCC). In addition to the PCC appropriate for all women of reproductive age, women living with HIV require comprehensive, specialized care that addresses their unique needs. The goals of PCC for women living with HIV are to prevent unintended pregnancy, optimize maternal health prior to pregnancy, improve maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy, prevent perinatal HIV transmission, and prevent HIV transmission to an HIV-uninfected sexual partner when trying to conceive. This paper discusses the rationale for preconception counseling and care in the setting of HIV and reviews current literature relevant to the content and considerations in providing PCC for women living with HIV, with a primary focus on well-resourced settings.
doi:10.1155/2012/604183
PMCID: PMC3477542  PMID: 23097595
5.  Trichomoniasis and Lactoferrin: Future Prospects 
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan which infects the urogenital tract and requires iron as an essential nutrient. Iron is known to upregulate various adhesins required for cytoadherance and other factors involved in pathogenesis. At mucosal surfaces, iron is chelated by lactoferrin resulting in low levels of free iron. However, pathogens have evolved mechanisms for an increased uptake of iron. The present review highlights the role of iron in survival of Trichomonas during fluctuating concentrations of iron at mucosal surfaces during the menstrual cycle. Future prospects in terms of new drug and vaccine targets related to iron and its receptors have also been described.
doi:10.1155/2012/536037
PMCID: PMC3439953  PMID: 22988421
6.  Improving Adherence to Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Systematic Review 
Background. Evidence suggests adherence to clinical guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosis and management is suboptimal. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies describing strategies to improve the adherence to PID clinical guidelines. Methods. The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE, and reference lists of review articles were searched from January 2000 to April 2012. Only studies with a control group were included. Results. An interrupted time-series study and two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The interrupted time-series found that following a multifaceted patient and practitioner intervention (practice protocol, provision of antibiotics on-site, written instructions for patients, and active followup), more patients received the recommended antibiotics and attended for followup. One RCT found a patient video on PID self-care did not improve medication compliance and followup. Another RCT found an abbreviated PID treatment guideline for health-practitioners improved their management of PID in hypothetical case scenarios but not their diagnosis of PID. Conclusion. There is limited research on what strategies can improve practitioner and patient adherence to PID diagnosis and management guidelines. Interventions that make managing PID more convenient, such as summary guidelines and provision of treatment on-site, appear to lead to better adherence but further empirical evidence is necessary.
doi:10.1155/2012/325108
PMCID: PMC3437626  PMID: 22973085
7.  Contraception for the HIV-Positive Woman: A Review of Interactions between Hormonal Contraception and Antiretroviral Therapy 
Background. Preventing unintended pregnancy in HIV-positive women can significantly reduce maternal-to-child HIV transmission as well as improve the woman's overall health. Hormonal contraceptives are safe and effective means to avoid unintended pregnancy, but there is concern that coadministration of antiretroviral drugs may alter contraceptive efficacy. Materials and Methods. We performed a literature search of PubMed and Ovid databases of articles published between January 1980 and February 2012 to identify English-language reports of drug-drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). We also reviewed the FDA prescribing information of contraceptive hormone preparations and antiretrovirals for additional data and recommendations. Results. Twenty peer-reviewed publications and 42 pharmaceutical package labels were reviewed. Several studies of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) identified decreased serum estrogen and progestin levels when coadministered with certain ARVs. The contraceptive efficacy of injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) were largely unaffected by ARVs, while data on the contraceptive patch, ring, and implant were lacking. Conclusions. HIV-positive women should be offered a full range of hormonal contraceptive options, with conscientious counseling about possible reduced efficacy of COCs and the contraceptive implant when taken with ARVs. DMPA and the LNG-IUS maintain their contraceptive efficacy when taken with ARVs.
doi:10.1155/2012/890160
PMCID: PMC3426212  PMID: 22927715
8.  Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male): A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination 
HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.
doi:10.1155/2012/587651
PMCID: PMC3423871  PMID: 22927714
9.  Syphilis Infection during Pregnancy: Fetal Risks and Clinical Management 
Congenital syphilis is still a cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Untreated maternal infection leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including early fetal loss, stillbirth, prematurity, low birth weight, neonatal and infant death, and congenital disease among newborns. Clinical manifestations of congenital syphilis are influenced by gestational age, stage of maternal syphilis, maternal treatment, and immunological response of the fetus. It has been traditionally classified in early congenital syphilis and late congenital syphilis. Diagnosis of maternal infection is based on clinical findings, serological tests, and direct identification of treponemes in clinical specimens. Adequate treatment of maternal infection is effective for preventing maternal transmission to the fetus and for treating fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital syphilis includes noninvasive and invasive diagnosis. Serological screening during pregnancy and during preconception period should be performed to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis.
doi:10.1155/2012/430585
PMCID: PMC3398589  PMID: 22829747
10.  Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora 
A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.
doi:10.1155/2012/287849
PMCID: PMC3362838  PMID: 22675241
11.  Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy 
Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.
doi:10.1155/2012/385697
PMCID: PMC3332182  PMID: 22566740
12.  Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview 
Objective. Preterm birth (PTB) remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n = 26) or meta-analysis (n = 5) for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.
doi:10.1155/2012/157159
PMCID: PMC3296158  PMID: 22505797
13.  Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.
doi:10.1155/2011/959816
PMCID: PMC3253449  PMID: 22235165
14.  Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), one of the most common infections in nonpregnant women of reproductive age, remains an important public health problem. It is associated with major long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In addition, treatment of acute PID and its complications incurs substantial health care costs. Prevention of these long-term sequelae is dependent upon development of treatment strategies based on knowledge of the microbiologic etiology of acute PID. It is well accepted that acute PID is a polymicrobic infection. The sexually transmitted organisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, are present in many cases, and microorganisms comprising the endogenous vaginal and cervical flora are frequently associated with PID. This includes anaerobic and facultative bacteria, similar to those associated with bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract mycoplasmas, most importantly Mycoplasma genitalium, have recently also been implicated as a cause of acute PID. As a consequence, treatment regimens for acute PID should provide broad spectrum coverage that is effective against these microorganisms.
doi:10.1155/2011/561909
PMCID: PMC3249632  PMID: 22228985
15.  Are Dual-Method Messages Undermining STI/HIV Prevention? 
Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.
doi:10.1155/2011/691210
PMCID: PMC3227437  PMID: 22144850
16.  Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Control Programs: Lessons Learned and Implications for Vaccine Development 
Chlamydia trachomatis control efforts that enhance detection and treatment of infected women may paradoxically increase susceptibility of the population to infection. Conversely, these surveillance programs lower incidences of adverse sequelae elicited by genital tract infection (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy), suggesting enhanced identification and eradication of C. trachomatis simultaneously reduces pathogen-induced upper genital tract damage and abrogates formation of protective immune responses. In this paper, we detail findings from C. trachomatis infection control programs that increase our understanding of chlamydial immunoepidemiology and discuss their implications for prophylactic vaccine design.
doi:10.1155/2011/754060
PMCID: PMC3227443  PMID: 22144851
17.  Progesterone Interactions with the Cervix: Translational Implications for Term and Preterm Birth 
The uterine cervix plays a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and an equally important role in allowing parturition to occur. Progesterone, either endogenously produced or supplied exogenously, supports the function of the cervix in sustaining intrauterine pregnancy, and the withdrawal of progesterone, either through natural processes or pharmacologic intervention, leads to delivery which underscores the importance of the progesterone's biological activities manifest in normal gestation and pregnancy that ends prematurely. Research crossing many scientific disciplines has demonstrated that progesterone is a pleotropic compound that affects the cervix through cytoplasmic and membrane receptors with profound effects on cellular and molecular functions that influence inflammatory cascades and extracellular matrix, both of which have consequences for parturition. Beyond the local cell and molecular biology of progesterone, it has systemic effects of relevance to pregnancy as well. This paper examines the biology of the cervix from its gross to cellular structure and biological activities of its cell and molecular processes that may be affected by progesterone. The implications of these processes for preterm birth are explored, and direction of current research is in relation to translational medicine implications for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches to threatened preterm birth.
doi:10.1155/2011/353297
PMCID: PMC3206389  PMID: 22114461
18.  Antichlamydial Antibodies, Human Fertility, and Pregnancy Wastage 
Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) continue to be a worldwide epidemic. Immune response to chlamydia is important to both clearance of the disease and disease pathogenesis. Interindividual responses and current chlamydial control programs will have enormous effects on this disease and its control strategies. Humoral immune response to C. trachomatis occurs in humans and persistent antibody levels appear to be most directly correlated with more severe and longstanding disease and with reinfection. There is a close correlation between the presence of antichlamydial antibodies in females and tubal factor infertility; the closest associations have been found for antibodies against chlamydial heat shock proteins. The latter antibodies have also been shown to be useful among infertile patients with prior ectopic pregnancy, and their presence has been correlated with poor IVF outcomes, including early pregnancy loss. We review the existing literature on chlamydial antibody testing in infertile patients and present an algorithm for such testing in the infertile couple.
doi:10.1155/2011/525182
PMCID: PMC3178110  PMID: 21949601
19.  Nonhuman Primate Models Used to Study Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis 
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a global health concern that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. Throughout history animals have been used for anatomical studies and later as models of human disease. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have permitted investigations of human disease in a biologically, physiologically, and anatomically similar system. The use of NHPs as human PID models has led to a greater understanding of the primary microorganisms that cause disease (e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorroheae), the pathogenesis of infection and its complications, and the treatment of people with PID. This paper explores historical and contemporary aspects of NHP modeling of chlamydial PID, with an emphasis on advantages and limitations of this approach and future directions for this research.
doi:10.1155/2011/675360
PMCID: PMC3160047  PMID: 21869858
20.  Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Biomedical Tools to Prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, and Unintended Pregnancies 
Statistics clearly show an unmet need for highly effective contraception, especially in less developed countries. Many of these countries are at the core of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and show very high prevalence rates for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as that caused by HSV-2. A woman at risk of unintended pregnancy due to unprotected intercourse is also at risk for HIV/STI. Owing to their causative interrelationship, combining protection against these conditions will result in enhanced prevention and health benefits. Existing multipurpose prevention modalities such as condoms and physical barriers, albeit efficacious, face cultural hurdles that have so far hindered their widespread use. Success has recently been demonstrated in large clinical trials, demonstrating proof of concept of microbicides in reducing the incidence of HIV-1 and HSV-2 among at-risk populations. The challenge heretofore is to refine these products to make them more potent, convenient, accessible, and acceptable. Potent antiviral drugs released topically in the female reproductive tract by innovative delivered systems and formulations will provide safe, effective, and acceptable multipurpose prevention tools. This paper provides an overview of existing and novel approaches to multipurpose prevention strategies.
doi:10.1155/2011/429403
PMCID: PMC3152961  PMID: 21836811
21.  Screening for Cytomegalovirus during Pregnancy 
The epidemiology and pathogenesis of CMV infections among pregnant women have been intensely studied over the last three decades. This paper highlights recent developments that make either universal or limited serologic screening for CMV during pregnancy potentially attractive. The developments include an understanding of the pathogenesis of CMV infections, a knowledge of high-risk women, the availability of accurate methods for the serologic diagnosis of a primary CMV infection using either single or serial blood samples, accurate methods for the diagnosis of fetal infection via amniotic fluid, sensitive fetal and placental indicators for neonatal outcomes, and the availability of potentially effective interventions.
doi:10.1155/2011/942937
PMCID: PMC3152970  PMID: 21836812
22.  Do Women Using Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Reduce Condom Use? A Novel Study Design Incorporating Semen Biomarkers 
Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective against pregnancy. A barrier to their widespread promotion can include the concern they will lead reduced condom use and, thus, will put couples at higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We review evidence from previous studies of condom “migration” associated with the use of LARC and propose a novel study design to address the two main methodological issues that have limited these earlier studies. Namely, we propose to use a randomized controlled trial design and to use a biological marker of semen exposure for measuring changes in condom use.
doi:10.1155/2011/107140
PMCID: PMC3154387  PMID: 21845022
23.  A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 
The diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is usually based on clinical criteria and can be challenging for even the most astute clinicians. Although diagnostic accuracy is advocated, antibiotic treatment should be instituted if there is a diagnosis of cervicitis or suspicion of acute PID. Currently, no single test or combination of diagnostic indicators have been found to reliably predict PID, and laparoscopy cannot be recommended as a first line tool for PID diagnosis. For this reason, the clinician is left with maintaining a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis as he/she evaluates the lower genital tract for inflammation and the pelvic organs for tenderness in women with genital tract symptoms and a risk for sexually transmitted infection. This approach should minimize treating women without PID with antibiotics and optimize the diagnosis in a practical and cost-effective way.
doi:10.1155/2011/753037
PMCID: PMC3148590  PMID: 21822367
24.  Aspects of Prophylactic Vaccination against Cervical Cancer and Other Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers in Developing Countries 
Cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus- (HPV-) related cancers are preventable, but preventive measures implemented in developing countries and especially in low-income rural regions have not been effective. Cervical cancer burden derived from sexually transmitted HPV infections is the heaviest in developing countries, and a dramatic increase in the number of cervical cancer cases is predicted, if no intervention is implemented in the near future. HPV vaccines offer an efficient way to prevent related cancers. Recently implemented school-based HPV vaccination demonstration programmes can help tackle the challenges linked with vaccine coverage, and access to vaccination and health services, but prevention strategies need to be modified according to regional characteristics. In urban regions WHO-recommended vaccination strategies might be enough to significantly reduce HPV-related disease burden, but in the rural regions additional vaccination strategies, vaccinating both sexes rather than only females when school attendance is the highest and applying a two-dose regime, need to be considered. From the point of view of both public health and ethics identification of the most effective prevention strategies is pivotal, especially when access to health services is limited. Considering cost-effectiveness versus justice further research on optional vaccination strategies is warranted.
doi:10.1155/2011/675858
PMCID: PMC3140204  PMID: 21785556
25.  Chlamydia trachomatis Vaccine Research through the Years 
Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexual transmitted infections (STIs). World Health Organization figures estimated that over 90 million new cases of genital C. trachomatis infections occur worldwide each year. A vaccination program is considered to be the best approach to reduce the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections, as it would be much cheaper and have a greater impact on controlling C. trachomatis infections worldwide rather than a screening program or treating infections with antibiotics. Currently, there are no vaccines available which effectively protect against a C. trachomatis genital infection despite the many efforts that have been made throughout the years. In this paper, the many attempts to develop a protective vaccine against a genital C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed.
doi:10.1155/2011/963513
PMCID: PMC3124257  PMID: 21747646

Results 1-25 (60)