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1.  Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm 
Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.
PMCID: PMC3163399  PMID: 21904441
2.  Synlabia after Severe Monilia Infections: A Case Report 
Case. A 25-year-old woman presented with acute urine retention with overflow 6 months after an inadequate treatment of severe monilia infections. Examination revealed complete adhesion between both labia majora. Division of adhesion was done with reconstruction by labial mucocutaneous flap. Complete recovery was achieved with good cosmetic outcome. Conclusion. Labial adhesions whatever their severity is can be surgically divided with complete correction by locally designed flap to reconstruct the introuitus with rapid recovery, good healing, and good cosmetic outcome.
PMCID: PMC3082850  PMID: 21528112
3.  Elevated Levels of IL-10 and G-CSF Associated with Asymptomatic Malaria in Pregnant Women 
In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 25) pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF) associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group (P = .031 and .041, resp.). The median ratios of IL-1β:5, IL-1β:10, IL-1β:G-CSF, IL-1β:Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.
PMCID: PMC2913525  PMID: 20706538
4.  Pregnancy Complicated by Ludwig's Angina Requiring Delivery 
At 33 weeks of gestation, a 24-year-old developed Ludwig's angina that worsened despite aggressive therapy. This is the first reported case of Ludwig's Angina in pregnancy that required an emergent cesarean section for fetal indications. Delivery may have contributed to improvement in the mother's health status.
PMCID: PMC2901606  PMID: 20628589
5.  Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient 
Background. Although tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA) on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb). Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.
PMCID: PMC2834956  PMID: 20224814
6.  Novel Influenza H1N1 in Pregnancy: A Report of Two Cases 
Background. Pregnant women are a high-risk group for morbidity and mortality from influenza. During the current pandemic of H1N1 influenza, few cases of H1N1 have been reported in pregnancy. Cases. We report two cases of H1N1 influenza which occurred in single institution in the course of one month. The first patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, required intubation, and eventually died. The second patient had influenza H1N1 that did not have any major sequela. Conclusion. H1N1 influenza in pregnancy can be associated with severe complications. Widespread vaccination, when available, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment with antiviral medications when infection occurs are required.
PMCID: PMC2817864  PMID: 20148081
7.  Familial Tuberculosis Mimicking Advanced Ovarian Cancer 
Genital TB may present as on abdominopelvic mass mimicking ovarian malignancy because clinical and laboratory findings are similar. Family history is very important and should be considered for differential diagnosis. Three cases of genital TB with presentation of abdominopelvic masses and with no signs and symptoms of TB were presented. Two of them had positive family history of pulmonary TB. Tissue diagnosis was the best method for diagnosis of genital TB, but it should be reminded that if positive family history of TB was present, mini laparotomy should be done to take biopsy and to make rapid diagnosis before treatment.
PMCID: PMC2801018  PMID: 20052396
8.  Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Complicating Early Pregnancy 
Background. The goal of this case is to review the zoonotic infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, presenting with pyrexia. Case. A 22-year-old multigravid female presented to the emergency department with a painful skin rash, high fever, and severe myalgias. The patient underwent a diagnostic evaluation for zoonotic infections due to her geographical and seasonal risk factors. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was successful though the patient spontaneously aborted presumably due to the severity of the acute illness. Conclusion. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in pregnancy presents unique challenges. Management of pyrexia during pregnancy is limited to external cooling in the setting of thrombocytopenia and elevated aminotransferases. Extensive counseling regarding teratogenic potential of medications allows the patient to weigh the pros and cons of treatment.
PMCID: PMC2396214  PMID: 18509484
9.  Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Young Pregnant Female: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management 
Background. With the world becoming a global village, tuberculosis is no longer limited to endemic areas. Our case emphasizes the impact of immigration on infectious disease epidemiology and challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment in pregnancy. Case. A 21-year-old Hispanic female presented in preterm labor and was found to be hypoxic. Chest X-ray revealed a paratracheal mass which a CT scan confirmed. PPD test was positive. Bronchoalveolar lavage did not reveal acid-fast bacilli and biopsy revealed caseating granulomas. Diagnosis and treatment were challenging due to constraints in radiological investigations, lack of initial evidence of acid-fast bacilli, and toxic profile of medications. Due to her high risk, she was started on antituberculosis regimen. The diagnosis was confirmed on Day 26 when Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated by DNA probe. Conclusion. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize the changing face and disease spectrum of tuberculosis and initiate treatment for better outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2276602  PMID: 18382614
10.  Tubercular Sinus of Labia Majora: Rare Case Report 
Tuberculosis of the female external genitalia is unusual and primary infection is rare. We report a 50-year-old female patient admitted to Department to Surgery with swelling over left inguinal area with discharging sinus from labia majora to left inguinal crease which was found to be tubercular sinus on histopathology.
PMCID: PMC2248239  PMID: 18301724
11.  Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy 
Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.
PMCID: PMC2531199  PMID: 18784844
12.  Hydatidosis of the Pelvic Cavity: A Big Masquerade 
We report and discuss a case of primary hydatidosis of the pelvic cavity in a woman who presented with severe weight loss and abdominal pain. This unusual presentation was initially considered as a tumor process until surgical exploration and microscopic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The gynecologists should be aware of possibility of primary hydatid cyst of the pelvic cavity and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pelvic masses, especially in areas where the disease is endemic.
PMCID: PMC2526177  PMID: 18769555
13.  Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Originating from a Bartholin's Abscess 
Background. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL-)producing Staphylococcus aureus is emerging as a serious problem worldwide. There has been an increase in the incidence of necrotizing lung infections in otherwise healthy young people with a very high mortality associated with these strains. Sporadic severe infectious complications after incision of Bartholin's abcesses have been described but involvement of S. aureus is rare. Case report. We present a 23-year-old apparently healthy female patient without any typical predisposing findings who developed severe sepsis with necrotizing pneumonia and multiple abscesses following incision of a Bartholin's abscess. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus harbouring Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes were cultured from the abscess fluid, multiple blood cultures and a postoperative wound swab. Aggressive antibiotic therapy with flucloxacillin, rifampicin and clindamycin, drainage and intensive supportive care lead finally to recovery. Conclusions. S. aureus, in particular PVL-positive strains, should be considered when a young, immunocompetent person develops a fulminant necrotizing pneumonia. Minor infections—such as Bartholin's abscess—can precede this life-threating syndrome. Bactericidal antistaphylococcal antibiotics are recommended for treatment, and surgical procedures may become necessary.
PMCID: PMC2492175  PMID: 18682803
14.  Morbidly Obese Woman Unaware of Pregnancy until Full-Term and Complicated by Intraamniotic Sepsis with Pseudomonas 
A 32-year-old Caucasian woman of body mass index (BMI) 46 presented with urinary symptoms to accident and emergency (A&E). Acute pyelonephritis was the diagnosis. Transabdominal scan revealed a live term fetus. Both the partners were unaware of the ongoing pregnancy until diagnosed. She underwent emergency cesarean under general anaesthesia (GA) for nonreassuring CTG, severe chorioamnionitis, and moderate preecclampsia. A live male baby weighing 4400 grams delivered in poor condition. Placental tissue on culture exhibited scanty growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chorioamnionitis due to pseudomonas is rare, with high neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is mostly reported among preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). Educating the community especially morbidly obese women if they put on excessive weight or with irregular periods should seek doctor's advice and exclude pregnancy. For the primary care provider, it is of great importance to exclude pregnancy in any reproductive woman presenting with abdominal complaints. This case also brings to clinicians notice that pseudomonas can be community-acquired and can affect term pregnancies with intact or prolonged rupture of membranes.
PMCID: PMC2246062  PMID: 18301713
15.  Lemierre's Syndrome Complicating Pregnancy 
Lemierre's syndrome is an anaerobic suppurative thrombophlebitis involving the internal jugular vein secondary to oropharyngeal infection. There is only one previous case report in pregnancy which was complicated by premature delivery of an infant that suffered significant neurological damage. We present an atypical case diagnosed in the second trimester with a live birth at term. By reporting this case, we hope to increase the awareness of obstetricians to the possibility of Lemierre's syndrome when patients present with signs of unabating oropharyngeal infection and pulmonary symptoms.
PMCID: PMC1939918  PMID: 17710241
16.  Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: A Challenging Imitator of Endometrial Carcinoma 
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a distinguished histopathological entity affecting several organs, predominantly the kidney and gallbladder. So far, only a small number of cases of xanthogranulomatous inflammation occurring in female genital tract have been described, most frequently affecting the endometrium and histologically characterized by replacement of endometrium by xanthogranulomatous inflammation composed of abundant foamy histiocytes, siderophages, giant cells, fibrosis, calcification and accompanying polymorphonuclear leucocytes, plasma cells and lymphocytes of polyclonal origin. We present a case of a 69-year-old female complained of post menopausal bleeding and weight loss. Clinical preliminary diagnoses were endometrial carcinoma or hyperplasia and ultrasound was supposed to be endometrial malignancy, hyperplasia or pyometra by radiologist. Histopathological examination of uterus revealed xanthogranulomatous endometritis. Since xanthogranulomatous endometritis may mimic endometrial malignancy clinically and pathologically as a result of the replacement of the endometrium and occasionally invasion of the myometrium by friable yellowish tissue composed of histiocytes, knowledge of this unusual inflammatory disease is needed for both clinicians and pathologists.
PMCID: PMC1939916  PMID: 17710239
17.  Blastomyces Antigen Detection for Monitoring Progression of Blastomycosis in a Pregnant Adolescent 
Although disseminated blastomycosis is a rare complication in pregnancy, delay in diagnosis and treatment can be fatal. We investigate the use of the Blastomyces urine antigen in diagnosis following disease progression in the intrapartum, postpartum, and neonatal periods. We describe a case of disseminated blastomycosis in a pregnant adolescent and review the pertinent literature regarding treatment and monitoring blastomycosis in pregnancy and the neonatal periods. This is the first reported case in which the Blastomyces urine antigen is utilized as a method of following disease activity during pregnancy confirming absence of clinically evident disease in a neonate. Urine antigen detection for blastomycosis can be useful for following progression of disease in patients with disseminated blastomycosis in both the intrapartum and postpartum periods.
PMCID: PMC1906866  PMID: 17641724
18.  The Superinfection of a Dermoid Cyst 
Mature cystic teratoma may be complicated by torsion, rupture, and malignant change, but is rarely complicated by infection. Here we report the case of a patient who presented with a tubo-ovarian abscess following a dilation and curettage (D&C) procedure in the setting of an ovarian dermoid cyst.
PMCID: PMC1906865  PMID: 17641723
19.  Postmenopausal Tuberculosis Endometritis 
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, primarily in developing countries with inadequate health services. A significant portion of tuberculosis in these settings is extrapulmonary, including tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract. Patients with genital tuberculosis are usually young women detected during work up for infertility. After menopause, tuberculosis of the endometrium is a rare possibility probably because of the decreased vascularity of the tissues. We present a case of endometrial tuberculosis with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.
PMCID: PMC1874669  PMID: 17541465
20.  Pneumococcal Meningitis during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of Literature 
Background. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency for which prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative to reducing the rate of death and long-term neurologic compromise. Few cases of meningitis have been reported during pregnancy, many of which had devastating outcomes for mother, neonate, or both. Case. A 38-year-old multigravida at 35 weeks of gestation presented with mental status changes, fever, and preterm contractions. Lumbar puncture revealed gram positive cocci consistent with S. pneumoniae. Patient was intubated and admitted to ICU where she was given antibiotics and adjunctive therapy with dexamethasone. Continuous fetal monitoring was utilized throughout her course of her hospitalization. Patient was discharged home after ten days in the hospital and had an uncomplicated vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) at 38 weeks. Both she and the infant are doing well with no permanent neurologic sequelae. Conclusion. A review of literature indicates only isolated cases of pneumococcal meningitis being described during pregnancy. An extended period of time between onset of maternal illness and delivery appears to reduce the risk of neonatal transmission and improve both maternal and fetal outcomes.
PMCID: PMC1852901  PMID: 17485820
21.  Abdominal Wall Mycetoma Presented as Obstructed Incisional Hernia of Cesarean Section in Eastern Sudan 
Mycetoma a worldwide disease frequently occurs in the tropics with the highest prevalence being in Africa. Madurella mycetomatis is the main causative organism of human eumycetoma in Sudan. The legs and feet were commonly the sites of the infection. A 22-year-old lady was presented with painful abdominal swelling around a previous caesarian section scar. A provisional diagnosis of obstructed incisional hernia was put. Histopathological examination revealed macroscopically four masses of soft tissue. Microscopic sections showed grains of Madurella mycetomatis.
PMCID: PMC1847505  PMID: 17485822
22.  Eikenella Corrodens, Cause of a Vulvar Abscess in a Diabetic Adult 
We report a case of Eikenella corrodens causing vulvar abscess in a diabetic patient. Eikenella corrodens is a slow growing, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus which is commensal of the oral cavity, intestinal and genital tracts. The most common clinical sources of this organism are human bite wounds, head and neck infections and respiratory tract infections. In our knowledge, the presented case is the first report of Eikenella corrodens causing vulvar abscess in a diabetic patient.
PMCID: PMC1791056  PMID: 17485819
23.  Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen 
Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01% − 0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.
PMCID: PMC1581470  PMID: 17485806
24.  Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra 
Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01−0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy). Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.
PMCID: PMC1581463  PMID: 17093350
25.  Unilateral Twin Ectopic Pregnancy in a Patient With a History of Multiple Sexually Transmitted Infections 
Background. The incidence of unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition. Several factors increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy, the most important of which is pelvic inflammatory disease, followed by operative trauma, congenital anomalies, tumors, and adhesions resulting in anatomically distorted fallopian tubes. We present a case of a woman with a history of four confirmed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2, and Treponema pallidum. The case illustrates the potential impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on the risk of a twin ectopic pregnancy. Case. A 24-year-old primigravida, presented with an unknown last menstrual period, lower abdominal pain, watery vaginal discharge, and vaginal spotting. During this hospitalization, serum β-HCG testing was 263 mIU/mL and transvaginal ultrasonographic examination suggested a nonviable unilateral twin ectopic pregnancy. At exploratory laparotomy, a 10 cm mass involving the right fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Pathological evaluation of the specimen identified a monochorionic, diamnionic twin ectopic pregnancy within the fallopian tube. Conclusions Patients with a history of multiple (STIs) are known to be at risk for the development of chronic pelvic infection and postinflammatory scarring. The resulting distortion of the normal tubal anatomy leads to an increased risk of an uncommon presentation of ectopic pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC1581458  PMID: 17485794

Results 1-25 (30)