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1.  High-Throughput Screening Identifies a Bisphenol Inhibitor of SV40 Large T Antigen ATPase Activity 
Journal of biomolecular screening  2011;17(2):194-203.
The authors conducted a high-throughput screening campaign for inhibitors of SV40 large T antigen ATPase activity to identify candidate antivirals that target the replication of polyomaviruses. The primary assay was adapted to 1536-well microplates and used to screen the National Institutes of Health Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network library of 306 015 compounds. The primary screen had an Z value of ~0.68, signal/background = 3, and a high (5%) DMSO tolerance. Two counterscreens and two secondary assays were used to prioritize hits by EC50, cytotoxicity, target specificity, and off-target effects. Hits that inhibited ATPase activity by >44% in the primary screen were tested in dose–response efficacy and eukaryotic cytotoxicity assays. After evaluation of hit cytotoxicity, drug likeness, promiscuity, and target specificity, three compounds were chosen for chemical optimization. Chemical optimization identified a class of bisphenols as the most effective biochemical inhibitors. Bisphenol A inhibited SV40 large T antigen ATPase activity with an IC50 of 41 μM in the primary assay and 6.2 μM in a cytoprotection assay. This compound class is suitable as probes for biochemical investigation of large T antigen ATPase activity, but because of their cytotoxicity, further optimization is necessary for their use in studying polyomavirus replication in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3731742  PMID: 21948801
SV40; chemistry; large T antigen; HTS; antivirals
2.  High-Throughput Screening of a 100,000 Compound Library for Inhibitors of Influenza A virus (H3N2) 
Journal of biomolecular screening  2008;13(9):879-887.
Using a highly reproducible and robust cell-based HTS assay, the authors screened a 100,000 compound library at 14 and 114 μM compound concentration against influenza strain A/Udorn/72 (H3N2). The “hit” rates (>50% inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect) from the 14 and 114 μM screens were 0.022% and 0.38%, respectively. The hits were evaluated for their antiviral activity, cell toxicity and selectivity in dose response experiments. The screen at the lower concentration yielded three compounds, which displayed moderate activity (SI50 = 10-49). Intriguingly, the screen at the higher concentration revealed several additional hits. Two of these hits were highly active with an SI50 > 50. Time of addition experiments revealed one compound that inhibited early and four other compounds that inhibited late in the virus life cycle; suggesting they affect entry and replication, respectively. The active compounds represent several different classes of molecules such as carboxanilides, 1-benzoyl-3-arylthioureas, sulfonamides and benzothiazinones, which have not been previously identified as having anti-viral/anti-influenza activity.
PMCID: PMC2782602  PMID: 18812571
influenza; HTS; high-throughput screening; antivirals

Results 1-2 (2)