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2.  Neonatal Neurobehavioral and Neuroanatomic Correlates of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure 
Complex methodologic challenges face researchers studying the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant outcome. These include unavoidable imprecision in ascertaining the gestational timing and dose of cocaine to which the fetus was exposed and difficulties in identifying and quantifying the confounding, mediating, and moderating variables. Review of research on neonatal behavioral and cranial ultrasound findings following in utero cocaine exposure is used to illustrate these issues. We conclude that there are measurable but not dramatic dose-related effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant central nervous system structure and function. The effects of dose of prenatal cocaine exposure on later child development remain to be determined. Such research would be facilitated by a scientific consensus delineating relative doses of prenatal cocaine exposure.
PMCID: PMC2423320  PMID: 9668396
3.  Stress-Induced Neuroendocrine Modulation of Viral Pathogenesis and Immunitya 
Physical restraint (RST) was used to examine the interactions among the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HFA) axis, sympathetic nervous system, and the immune response to infection. In these studies, mice were infected with either herpes simplex virus (HSV) or influenza A/PR8 virus so that the impact of neuroendocrine activation could be assessed on disease pathophysiology and anti-viral immunity. RST suppressed lymphadenopathy in draining lymph nodes, reduced mononuclear cellular infiltration in the lungs, and suppressed virus-specific cytokine and cytolytic T-cell responses. Blockade of type II glucocorticoid receptors (by RU486) restored cellularity and cytokine responses to both organs in restraint-stressed, infected mice. Thus, the HPA axis modulated cell trafficking and T-cell cytokine responses. However, RU486 treatment failed to restore cytolytic T-cell responses. Blockade of ╬▓-adrenergic receptors (by nadolol), in combination with RU486 treatment, fully restored cytolytic T-cell responses, suggesting that catecholamines were involved in suppressing the virus-specific CD8+ cytolytic T-cell response. RST also modulated the local development or expression of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in the lungs draining lymph nodes, and spleen following infection of restrained mice. RST significantly suppressed the number of virus-specific ASC (IgM, IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a) in the lungs, mediastinal (MLN) lymph nodes and spleen, while it enhanced the responses in the superficial cervical (SCV) lymph nodes. This observation of differential modulation of ASC responses in the MLN and SCV lymph nodes supports the concept of tissue-specific immunoregulation in response to stress.
PMCID: PMC1351103  PMID: 9629306

Results 1-3 (3)