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1.  Interacting epidemics? sleep curtailment, insulin resistance and obesity 
In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5 to 2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06655.x
PMCID: PMC3418485  PMID: 22827862
sleep; obesity; insulin resistance; diabetes; appetite
2.  Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity 
In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5–2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways, leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite, and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine, and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real-life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep, with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06655.x
PMCID: PMC3418485  PMID: 22827862
sleep; obesity; insulin resistance; diabetes; appetite
3.  The Brain and Obesity Lectures Series – the beginning of a new field? 
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06721.x
PMCID: PMC3464363  PMID: 22882313

Results 1-3 (3)