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1.  Caloric Intake and Aging 
The New England journal of medicine  1997;337(14):986-994.
PMCID: PMC2851235  PMID: 9309105
2.  THE SLEEP OF LONG-HAUL TRUCK DRIVERS 
The New England journal of medicine  1997;337(11):755-761.
Background
Fatigue and sleep deprivation are important safety issues for long-haul truck drivers.
Methods
We conducted round-the-clock electrophysiologic and performance monitoring of four groups of 20 male truck drivers who were carrying revenue-producing loads. We compared four driving schedules, two in the United States (five 10-hour trips of day driving beginning about the same time each day or of night driving beginning about 2 hours earlier each day) and two in Canada (four 13-hour trips of late-night-to-morning driving beginning at about the same time each evening or of afternoon-to-night driving beginning 1 hour later each day).
Results
Drivers averaged 5.18 hours in bed per day and 4.78 hours of electrophysiologically verified sleep per day over the five-day study (range, 3.83 hours of sleep for those on the steady 13-hour night schedule to 5.38 hours of sleep for those on the steady 10-hour day schedule). These values compared with a mean (±SD) self-reported ideal amount of sleep of 7.1±1 hours a day. For 35 drivers (44 percent), naps augmented the sleep obtained by an average of 0.45±0.31 hour. No crashes or other vehicle mishaps occurred. Two drivers had undiagnosed sleep apnea, as detected by polysomnography. Two other drivers had one episode each of stage 1 sleep while driving, as detected by electroencephalography. Forty-five drivers (56 percent) had at least 1 six-minute interval of drowsiness while driving, as judged by analysis of video recordings of their faces; 1067 of the 1989 six-minute segments (54 percent) showing drowsy drivers involved just eight drivers.
Conclusions
Long-haul truck drivers in this study obtained less sleep than is required for alertness on the job. The greatest vulnerability to sleep or sleep-like states is in the late night and early morning.
PMCID: PMC2430925  PMID: 9287232

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