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Year of Publication
1.  Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Responsive to Interleukin-1β Inhibition 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(6):581-592.
BACKGROUND
Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease is characterized by fever, urticarial rash, aseptic meningitis, deforming arthropathy, hearing loss, and mental retardation. Many patients have mutations in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) gene, encoding cryopyrin, a protein that regulates inflammation.
METHODS
We selected 18 patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (12 with identifiable CIAS1 mutations) to receive anakinra, an interleukin-1–receptor antagonist (1 to 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day subcutaneously). In 11 patients, anakinra was withdrawn at three months until a flare occurred. The primary end points included changes in scores in a daily diary of symptoms, serum levels of amyloid A and C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate from baseline to month 3 and from month 3 until a disease flare.
RESULTS
All 18 patients had a rapid response to anakinra, with disappearance of rash. Diary scores improved (P<0.001) and serum amyloid A (from a median of 174 mg to 8 mg per liter), C-reactive protein (from a median of 5.29 mg to 0.34 mg per deciliter), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased at month 3 (all P<0.001), and remained low at month 6. Magnetic resonance imaging showed improvement in cochlear and leptomeningeal lesions as compared with baseline. Withdrawal of anakinra uniformly resulted in relapse within days; retreatment led to rapid improvement. There were no drug-related serious adverse events.
CONCLUSIONS
Daily injections of anakinra markedly improved clinical and laboratory manifestations in patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, with or without CIAS1 mutations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069329.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055137
PMCID: PMC4178954  PMID: 16899778
2.  Association Between Body Mass Index and Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms in Both Normal Weight and Overweight Women 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;354(22):2340-2348.
Background
Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An association between body mass index (BMI) and GERD symptoms among normal weight individuals has not been demonstrated.
Methods
In 2000, a supplemental questionnaire was used to determine the frequency, severity, and duration of GERD symptoms among randomly-selected participants of the Nurses’ Health Study. After categorizing women by BMI as measured in 1998, we used logistic regression models to study the association between BMI and GERD symptoms.
Results
Among 10,545 women who completed the questionnaire (86% response rate), 2,310 (22%) reported experiencing symptoms at least once a week (55% of whom described their symptoms as moderate in severity). We observed a dose-dependent relationship between increasing BMI and frequent reflux symptoms (multivariate P for trend <0.001). Compared to women with BMI 20–22.49 kg/m2, the multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 1.38 (95% CI 1.13–1.67) for BMI 22.5–24.9; 2.20 (95% CI 1.81–2.66) for BMI 25–27.4; 2.43 (95% CI 1.96–3.01) for BMI 27.5–29.9; 2.92 (95% CI 2.35–3.62) for BMI 30–34.9, 2.93 (95% CI 2.24–3.85) for BMI ≥35, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.48–0.93) for BMI <20. Even among women with normal baseline BMI, weight gain between 1984 and 1998 was associated with increased risk of frequent reflux symptoms (OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.63–4.82) for BMI increase >3.5).
Conclusion
BMI is associated with GERD symptoms in both normal weight and overweight individuals. Our findings suggest that even modest weight gain among normal weight individuals may cause or exacerbate reflux symptoms.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa054391
PMCID: PMC2782772  PMID: 16738270
3.  Prevention of Antigenically Drifted Influenza by Inactivated and Live Attenuated Vaccines 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(24):2513-2522.
BACKGROUND
The efficacy of influenza vaccines may decline during years when the circulating viruses have antigenically drifted from those included in the vaccine.
METHODS
We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines in healthy adults during the 2004–2005 influenza season and estimated both absolute and relative efficacies.
RESULTS
A total of 1247 persons were vaccinated between October and December 2004. Influenza activity in Michigan began in January 2005 with the circulation of an antigenically drifted type A (H3N2) virus, the A/California/07/2004-like strain, and of type B viruses from two lineages. The absolute efficacy of the inactivated vaccine against both types of virus was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 92) as measured by isolating the virus in cell culture, 75% (95% CI, 42 to 90) as measured by either isolating the virus in cell culture or identifying it through real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 67% (95% CI, 16 to 87) as measured by either isolating the virus or observing a rise in the serum antibody titer. The absolute efficacies of the live attenuated vaccine were 57% (95% CI, −3 to 82), 48% (95% CI, −7 to 74), and 30% (95% CI, −57 to 67), respectively. The difference in efficacy between the two vaccines appeared to be related mainly to reduced protection of the live attenuated vaccine against type B viruses.
CONCLUSIONS
In the 2004–2005 season, in which most circulating viruses were dissimilar to those included in the vaccine, the inactivated vaccine was efficacious in preventing laboratory-confirmed symptomatic illnesses from influenza in healthy adults. The live attenuated vaccine also prevented influenza illnesses but was less efficacious. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00133523.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa061850
PMCID: PMC2614682  PMID: 17167134
4.  Intensive Insulin in Intensive Care 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;354(5):516-518.
doi:10.1056/NEJMe058304
PMCID: PMC2287193  PMID: 16452564
5.  TCF7L2 Polymorphisms and Progression to Diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(3):241-250.
Background
Common polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7–like 2 gene (TCF7L2) have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined whether the two most strongly associated variants (rs12255372 and rs7903146) predict the progression to diabetes in persons with impaired glucose tolerance who were enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program, in which lifestyle intervention or treatment with metformin was compared with placebo.
Methods
We genotyped these variants in 3548 participants and performed Cox regression analysis using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors. We assessed the effect of genotype on measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity at baseline and at one year.
Results
Over an average period of three years, participants with the risk-conferring TT genotype at rs7903146 were more likely to have progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes than were CC homozygotes (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.20 to 2.01; P<0.001). The effect of genotype was stronger in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.70; P = 0.004) than in the metformin and lifestyle-intervention groups (hazard ratios, 1.62 and 1.15, respectively; P for the interaction between genotype and intervention not significant). The TT genotype was associated with decreased insulin secretion but not increased insulin resistance at baseline. Similar results were obtained for rs12255372.
Conclusions
Common variants in TCF7L2 seem to be associated with an increased risk of diabetes among persons with impaired glucose tolerance. The risk-conferring genotypes in TCF7L2 are associated with impaired beta-cell function but not with insulin resistance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004992.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa062418
PMCID: PMC1762036  PMID: 16855264
6.  Coronary Intervention for Persistent Occlusion after Myocardial Infarction 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(23):2395-2407.
BACKGROUND
It is unclear whether stable, high-risk patients with persistent total occlusion of the infarct-related coronary artery identified after the currently accepted period for myocardial salvage has passed should undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in addition to receiving optimal medical therapy to reduce the risk of subsequent events.
METHODS
We conducted a randomized study involving 2166 stable patients who had total occlusion of the infarct-related artery 3 to 28 days after myocardial infarction and who met a high-risk criterion (an ejection fraction of <50% or proximal occlusion). Of these patients, 1082 were assigned to routine PCI and stenting with optimal medical therapy, and 1084 were assigned to optimal medical therapy alone. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial reinfarction, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure.
RESULTS
The 4-year cumulative primary event rate was 17.2% in the PCI group and 15.6% in the medical therapy group (hazard ratio for death, reinfarction, or heart failure in the PCI group as compared with the medical therapy group, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.45; P = 0.20). Rates of myocardial reinfarction (fatal and nonfatal) were 7.0% and 5.3% in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.00; P = 0.13). Rates of nonfatal reinfarction were 6.9% and 5.0%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.16; P = 0.08); only six reinfarctions (0.6%) were related to assigned PCI procedures. Rates of NYHA class IV heart failure (4.4% vs. 4.5%) and death (9.1% vs. 9.4%) were similar. There was no interaction between treatment effect and any subgroup variable (age, sex, race or ethnic group, infarct-related artery, ejection fraction, diabetes, Killip class, and the time from myocardial infarction to randomization).
CONCLUSIONS
PCI did not reduce the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or heart failure, and there was a trend toward excess reinfarction during 4 years of follow-up in stable patients with occlusion of the infarct-related artery 3 to 28 days after myocardial infarction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004562.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066139
PMCID: PMC1995554  PMID: 17105759
7.  Evaluation of Patients Treated with Natalizumab for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;354(9):924-933.
Background
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was reported to have developed in three patients treated with natalizumab. We conducted an evaluation to determine whether PML had developed in any other treated patients.
Methods
We invited patients who had participated in clinical trials in which they received recent or long-term treatment with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, or rheumatoid arthritis to participate. The clinical history, physical examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and testing of cerebrospinal fluid for JC virus DNA were used by an expert panel to evaluate patients for PML. We estimated the risk of PML in patients who completed at least a clinical examination for PML or had an MRI.
Results
Of 3417 patients who had recently received natalizumab while participating in clinical trials, 3116 (91 percent) who were exposed to a mean of 17.9 monthly doses underwent evaluation for PML. Of these, 44 patients were referred to the expert panel because of clinical findings of possible PML, abnormalities on MRI, or a high plasma viral load of JC virus. No patient had detectable JC virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. PML was ruled out in 43 of the 44 patients, but it could not be ruled out in one patient who had multiple sclerosis and progression of neurologic disease because data on cerebrospinal fluid testing and follow-up MRI were not available. Only the three previously reported cases of PML were confirmed (1.0 per 1000 treated patients; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 2.8 per 1000).
Conclusions
A detailed review of possible cases of PML in patients exposed to natalizumab found no new cases and suggested a risk of PML of roughly 1 in 1000 patients treated with natalizumab for a mean of 17.9 months. The risk associated with longer treatment is not known.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa054693
PMCID: PMC1934511  PMID: 16510746
8.  Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for the Diagnosis of TB 
The New England journal of medicine  2006;355(15):1539-1550.
BACKGROUND
New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Rapid, sensitive detection of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in sputum has been demonstrated in proof-of-principle studies of the microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay, in which broth cultures are examined microscopically to detect characteristic growth.
METHODS
In an operational setting in Peru, we investigated the performance of the MODS assay for culture and drug-susceptibility testing in three target groups: unselected patients with suspected tuberculosis, prescreened patients at high risk for tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and unselected hospitalized patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. We compared the MODS assay head-to-head with two reference methods: automated mycobacterial culture and culture on Löwenstein–Jensen medium with the proportion method.
RESULTS
Of 3760 sputum samples, 401 (10.7%) yielded cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sensitivity of detection was 97.8% for MODS culture, 89.0% for automated mycobacterial culture, and 84.0% for Löwenstein–Jensen culture (P<0.001); the median time to culture positivity was 7 days, 13 days, and 26 days, respectively (P<0.001), and the median time to the results of susceptibility tests was 7 days, 22 days, and 68 days, respectively. The incremental benefit of a second MODS culture was minimal, particularly in patients at high risk for tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Agreement between MODS and the reference standard for susceptibility was 100% for rifampin, 97% for isoniazid, 99% for rifampin and isoniazid (combined results for multidrug resistance), 95% for ethambutol, and 92% for streptomycin (kappa values, 1.0, 0.89, 0.93, 0.71, and 0.72, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
A single MODS culture of a sputum sample offers more rapid and sensitive detection of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis than the existing gold-standard methods used.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055524
PMCID: PMC1780278  PMID: 17035648

Results 1-8 (8)