Starving Aphelenchus avenae survived 3-4 weeks in microaerobic and anaerobic environments, but Caenorhabditis sp. survived less than 80 hr. Aerobically, both nematodes metabolize neutral lipid reserves: there was no microaerobic ( <5% O₂) or anaerobic neutral lipid catabolism. Early in anaerobiosis both nematodes utilized endogenous glycogen. Caenorhabditis sp. depleted the glycogen and died. A. avenae under oxygen stress longer than 120 hr entered cryptobiosis, during which there was neither measurable O₂ uptake nor glycogen or neutral lipid utilization, Only when re-aerated, did A. avenae recover and resume "'normal" metabolism.
Aeration; Glycogen metabolism; Neutral lipid catabolism; Aphelenchus avenae; Caenorhabditis sp.; Cryptobiosis
The effects of electric shock on Panagrellus redivivus adults and larvae and Meloidogyne incognita acrita larvae were studied. The nematodes were placed in tap water between two stainless steel electrodes, spaced 2 mm apart and cemented to a glass slide. Electric potentials of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 vdc/mm and vac/mm were applied for periods of 1 sec to 5 rain at 0.05 to 77 ma. The results demonstrated that ac or dc electric shocks as low as 5 v/mm for larvae and 10 v/mm for adults can be lethal. Some larvae and eggs within the body of P. redivivus females were not affected at 600 v/ram. Potentials of 20 and 60 vdc/mm for 2-sec stimulated hatch of Meloidogyne eggs.
Nematode; Electrocution; Panagrellus redivivus; Meloidogyne incognita acrita; Hatch
The primary source of plant parasitic nematodes in irrigation waterways in the Columbia Basin Project of eastern Washington is irrigation runoff returned into the irrigation system. This has contributed to the rapid spread of plant parasitic nematodes observed during eight years of study.
Ditylenchus dipsaci; Paratylenchas; Meloidogyne; Pratylenchus; Tylenchorhynchus; Xiphinema; Irrigation; Nematode distribution
Respiration of selected nematode species was measured relative to CO₂ level, temperature, osmotic pressure, humidity, glucose utilization and high ionic concentrations of sodium and potassium.
In general, respiration was stimulated most by the dominant environmental factors at levels near those expected in the nematode's "natural" habitat. Soil-inhabiting nematodes utilized O₂, most rapidly with high (1-2%) CO₂ whereas a foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi) did so with 0.03% CO₂, the concentration typically found in air. Temperature optima for respiration corresponded closely to those for other activities. Ditylenchus dipsaci and Pratylenchus penetrans adults and Anguina tritici and A. agrostis second-stage larvae respired within the range of osmotic pressures from 0 to 44.8 arm and respiration of their drought-resistant stages was stimulated by increasing osmotic pressure which accompanies the onset of drought. Rehydration of A. tritici and A. agrostis larvae with RH as low as 5% stimulated measurable respiration. Glucose utilization from liquid medium by A. tritici larvae or A. ritzembosi was not detectable. Supplemental Na⁺ stimulated respiration of Anguina tritici, K⁺ did not.
Respiration; Temperature; CO₂ concentration; Osmotic concentration; Relative humidity; Ionic composition; Anguina tritici; Anguina agrostis; Pratylenchus penetrans; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi
Panagrellus redivivus (L.) T. Goodey reproduced amphimictically; the sexual primordia of males had nine chromosomes, those of females had ten. Eggs contained five chromosomes, sperm four or five. There were four molts, all after hatching. The sexes could be separated at the second molt by development of a lobe of somatic cells in the gonad, anteriorly in males, posteriorly in females. The lobe in males reflexed posteriorly at the third molt and joined the rectum at the fourth molt. Third molt females had a thickened vaginal primordium and at the fourth molt the spermathecal and uterine primordia were evident. The uterus elongated enormously in the adult. The 15 ventral chord nuclei between esophagus and rectum in the first stage increased to approximately 63 during the first molt; specialized nuclei, not evident until the third molt, participate in vaginal lining formation in fourth molt females. Sperm were first produced at the late fourth molt. Eggs, not produced until after copulation, hatched within the uterus.
Panagrellus redivivus; Chromosome number; Reproduction; Development; Morphogenesis
In a greenhouse pot experiment on the pathogenicity and interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, M. hapla and Pratylenchus brachyurus on four cultivars o f tobacco the cultivars 'Hicks' and 'NC 2326' were susceptible to each nematode and "NC 95' and 'NC 2512' resistant only to M. incognita.
Mean heights of susceptible plants were depressed but fresh weight of tops did not differ significantly. Meloidogyne spp. increased fresh weight of susceptible (but not the resistant) roots.
Reproduction of M. incognita was decreased in the presence of P. brachyurus in one case. M. hapla reproduction was less with either of the other nematodes in five out of eight cases. In 12 combinations involving P. brachyurus, reproduction of this species was depressed in seven, not affected in four and increased in one.
Mechanisms involved in associative interactions were not identified but appeared to be indirect and to involve individual host-nematode responses.
Meloidogyne; Pratylenchus; Root-knot nematode; Lesion nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; Tobacco; Interaction; Mixed populations
Cytological study revealed that maturation of oocytes of Heterodera betulae is by regular meiosis and reproduction is by parthenogenesis. Restoration of the somatic chromosome number occurs after telophase II and before egg pronucleus formation, in the absence of a mitotic apparatus through a type of endomitotic division. The haploid chromosome number is 12 (2n = 24) in 95% of the female nematodes studied and 13 in the remaining 5%. The phylogenetic relationship of H. betulae with most other Heterodera species having n = 9 is not clear.
Oogenesis; Reproduction; Chromosomes; Heterodera betulae
The saprozoic nematode, Pristionchus lheritieri ingested cells of four species of unicellular Chlorophyceae (grass-green algae) including Chlamydomonas reinhardi and unidentified species of Ankistrodesmus, Chlamydornonas and Scenedesmus. Additional tests with Ankistrodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp., indicated cells of Ankistrodesmus survived passage through the alimentary canal and were subsequently cultured, while viable cells of Chlarnydomonas were only occasionally recovered.
Pristionchus lheritieri; Ingestion; Survival; Chlorophyceae; Algae; Chlamydomonas reinhardi; Chlamydomonas sp.; Ankistrodesmus sp.; Scenedesmus sp.
New information is reported on the parasitism of Heterotylenchus autumnalis upon its principal known host, Musca autumnalis. Black to brown spots are produced on the cuticle of all infected host larvae where the nematode penetrated. The principal damage to the host is castration of the female. In laboratory tests nematode larvae were not infective and did not leave the hosts before the female fly was 1 1 days old. Nematode larvae removed from infected male flies infected other hosts, but it is believed that in nature these larvae are unable to leave the host.
Parasitism; Heterotylenchus autumnalis; Face Fly; Musca autumnalis
In a field experiment, nematicides controlled the disease of sugarbeets caused by Heterodera schachtii and Fusarium oxysporum. Biocides that were both fungicidal and nematicidal also controlled the disease, but sugar yields were no higher than those obtained with the plain nematicides. In greenhouse experiments, the interaction between H. schachtii and F. oxysporam was disadvantageous to the nematode. Damage to sugarbeets was less when the fungus and the nematode were present than when only the nematode was present. The fungus inhibited nematode invasion and development in sugarbeet seedlings, thereby decreasing the number of nematodes that matured about 3-fold.
Heterodera schachtii; Fusarium oxysporum; Antagonism; Interaction; Sugarbeet
The DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae Weiser (Steinernematidae) after spray application to pine bark in 0.1% Formalin plus wetting agent entered pine bark beetle tunnels and killed 44% of the brood and adults of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann at 18 and 26 C, 60% relative hummidity and at ambient temperatures and humidities.
Neoaplectana carpocapsae; Dendroctonus frontalis; Southern pine bark beetles; Temperature; Humidity; Achromobacter nematophilus
Stem nematode-susceptible 'Atlantic' and resistant 'Lahontan' alfalfa seedlings, grown in sand and watered with complete nutrient solutions containing 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0 mM Ca⁺⁺/liter, were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (the stem nematode) 5-6 days after emergence. Approximately equal numbers of nematodes entered the tissues of each variety/Ca⁺⁺ concentration within 2 days. Penetration was reduced at 12 mM Ca⁺⁺/liter. Reproduction during 21 days following inoculation yielded 3-fold, or greater, nematode increases in 'Atlantic' buds at all Ca⁺⁺ concentrations, in 'Atlantic' cotyledons at the four lower concentrations, in 'Lahontan' buds at the lowest concentration and in 'Lahontan' cotyledons at the two lowest concentrations. Reproduction was lower at the higher Ca⁺⁺ concentrations.
Increased nutrient Ca⁺⁺ concentrations resulted in increased Ca⁺⁺ content, decreased Na⁺ and K⁺ content, and unchanged Mg⁺⁺ content of buds and cotyledons. Accordingly, increased nutrient Ca⁺⁺ resulted in increased divalent/monovalent cation ratios (Ca⁺⁺ + Mg⁺⁺/Na⁺ + K⁺ ). Resistance to reproduction was correlated more closely with the divalent/monovalent cation ratio than with Ca⁺⁺ content of tissue, At the four higher nutrient Ca⁺⁺ concentrations, 'Lahontan' buds had higher ratios than 'Atlantic,' and infected buds had higher ratios than noninfected buds. Although cation balance modifies disease expression, the basic resistance mechanism remains unknown.
Ditylenchus dipsaci; Stem nematode; Alfalfa; Medicago sativa; Resistance; Reproduction; Calcium; Magnesium; Potassium; Sodium
This generic level taxonomic review of the nematode superfamily Aphelenchoidea is based upon a study of specimens from 24 of the 28 described genera. The diagnoses of these genera are presented, and some are emended with new information. One new genus, Huntaphelenchoides, and five new combinations are proposed. The families Paraphelenchidae and Anomyctidae are placed in synonymy with Aphelenchidae and Aphelenchoididae, respectively. The genera Asteroaphelenchoides and Pseudaphelencboides are placed in synonymy under the genus Aphelenchoides. Rare male and/or female specimens of Peraphelenchus, Anomyctus, Laimaphelenchus, Aphelenchus, Cryptaphelenchoides, Megadorus, Tylaphelenchus, and Entaphelenchus, are redescribed and illustrated. Four plates, containing 106 original drawings of the males, females, stylets, and spicules of representatives of 22 aphelenchoid genera, are presented.
Taxonomic review; Aphelenchoidea
Water from a major irrigation canal and water from a deep well was used to irrigate plants growing in methyl bromide fumigated screenhouse ground beds. Nematode populations in these beds were compared during three seasons of continuous cropping to alfalfa, bean, eggplant, mint, sugarbeet, or wheat. Beds irrigated with canal water became heavily infested with a variety of plant parasitic nematodes while those receiving well water did not.
Ditylenchus dipsaci; Paratylenchus; Meloidogyne; Pratylenchus; Tylenchorhynchus; Alfalfa; Bean; Eggplant; Mint; Sugarbeet; Wheat
The somatic musculature of Trichodorus porosus is transversely striated, and that of Criconemoides similis is obliquely striated. The species also differ in configuration of the myofibrils, arrangement of the filaments within the myofibrils, and abundance of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Both species are platymyarian and meromyarian. The muscle cells are composed of myofibrils, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and various organelles. The myofibrils of both species contain actin and myosin filaments.
Trichodorus porosus; Criconemoides similis; Somatic musculature; Ultrastructure
Rates of reproduction of root-knot nematodes on corn varied with Meloidogyne species, with different populations of certain species, and with corn cultivars. M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica reproduced at varying rates on all corn cultivars tested. None of the three selections of M. hapla reproduced on corn. Most of the Meloidogyne populations increased more rapidly on 'Coker' and 'Pioneer' hybrids than on 'McNair' hybrids or on open-pollinated varieties or inbreds. Nematodes often reduced root growth, but the differences within given nematode-cultivar treatments were not usually significant. Root growth of 'Coker 911,' which supported a high rate of reproduction, was affected less than 'Pioneer 309B' which supported a low rate of nematode reproduction.
Host suitability; Corn; Cultivars; MeloMogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; Nematode populations; Reproduction
The influence of electric shock on hatch of Meloidogyne incognita acrita from egg masses taken from roots of 'Acala SJ-I' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was studied. Egg masses in tap water were individually placed between the tips of needle electrodes 1 mm apart and exposed to potentials of l, 10, 20, and 60 vdc/mm at 1, 1, 1, and 86 milliamperes dc, respectively, for periods of 2 and 60 seconds. Hatched larvae were counted at five-day intervals for 60 days. Of the eight treatment combinations used, six gave a greater egg hatch than the control. The largest hatch, 520 percent greater than the control, resulted from exposure to 1 vdc/mm for 60 seconds; 60 vdc/mm for 2 and 60 sec decreased egg hatch 11 and 94 percent of the untreated control. Hatched larvae from all treatments except the 60 vdc/mm, 60-second exposure were infective and reproduced on young cotton plants in a glasshouse.
Meloidogyne incognita acrita; Hatch; Electrostimulation; Egg masses
Water was evaporated from infective Haemonchus contortus larvae suspended in tap, distilled and triple-distilled water, and the nematodes were then exposed to 50% and 75% relative humidity (RH) at 20, 30, 40, and 50 C. Sample groups were rehydrated 4 hr daily in similar quality water, observed for motility, then returned to the same RH and temperature and re-evaporated. This was continued until all motility ceased. Longest survival was 80 days at 20 C and 75% RH. In all temperature and RH combinations control (non-desiccated) and desiccated larvae survived longer in distilled or triple-distilled water than in tap water.
Haemonchus contortus; Moisture stress; Survival; Larvae
Disc-electrophoretic separation of soluble proteins from whole nematode homogenates yielded band profiles useful for distinguishing selected species of Meloidogyne and Ditylenchus, and the genera Heterodera, and Aphelenchus. Certain protein bands were common to all the species of Meloidogyne, whereas other bands were specific. Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines shared some protein similarities, but other genera differed distinctly. Protein profiles of Meloidogyne spp. were not significantly altered by the host on which the nematode was cultured.
Disc-electrophoresis; Protein composition; chemotaxonomy; Meloidogyne javanica; M. incognita; M. arenaria; M. hapla; Ditylenchus dipsaci; D. triformis; Heterodera glycines; Aphelenchus avenae
Three populations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Gainesville, Fuller's Crossing, and Sanford, all in Florida, were tested for parasitism on Citrus jambhiri (rough lemon), Arachis hypogaea ('Early Runner' peanut), Fragaria sp. ('Florida 90' hybrid strawberry), and Lycopersicon esculentum ('Rutgers' tomato). The three populations were found to be three different physiological races because: (i) the Fuller's Crossing population reproduced well on and caused injury to rough lemon and tomato but not strawberry; (ii) the Gainesville population reproduced well on and caused injury to peanut, strawberry and tomato but not on rough lemon; (iii) the Sanford population reproduced well on and caused injury to peanut, reproduced well on tomato, but neither reproduced upon nor caused injury to strawberry or rough lemon. Morphologically, females of the Sanford population have a lower "c" value and a greater number of tail annules than those of the Gainesville and Fuller's Crossing populations. Females and males of the Fuller's Crossing population had higher "a" values than those of the other two populations.
Belonolaimus Iongicaudatus; Sting nematode; Physiological races; Tomato; Strawberry; Citrus; Peanuts
Applications of ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate, O,O-diethyl O-((p-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl) phosphorothioate, and O,O-diethyl S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyll phosphorotbioate effectively controlled Trichodorus christiei on centipede grass. Populations of Pratylenchus spp. and Xiphinema americanum were significantly reduced with a mixture of methanesulfonic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenyl ester and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate and O,O-diethyl O-((p-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl phosphorothioate significantly suppressed populations of Pratylenchus spp., and the latter reduced populations of X. arnericanum. Ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate and O,O-diethyl O-((p-methylsulfinyl) phenyl) phosphorothioate significantly reduced populations of Criconemoides ornatus. Increased seed production was correlated with nematode control.
Organophosphates; Centipede grass; Nematicides; Turf; Seed production