Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of plant confinement, soil type, watering practices, stage of seed germination, inoculum level, and method of applying inoculum on stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) infection of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings grown in soil. Results indicated that (i) confining seedlings together with the nematodes in small vials offered no advantage over growing plants in large flats, (ii) a very fine sandy-loam soil was superior to a fine sand for stem-nematode penetration, (iii) nematodes penetrated seedlings more readily if the soil was not watered immediately after planting and inoculation, (iv) germinating seeds with a radicle length of 0.6-1.3 cm had the highest nematode penetration, and (v) highest penetration occurred when the nematodes were placed directly upon germinating seeds. The optimum inoculum level was 50 nematodes per seedling.
Foliar applications of ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate (phenamiphos) or S-methyl 1-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioformimidate (oxamyl) retarded infection of sugarbeets by the sugarbeet nematode, Heterodera schachtii under greenhouse conditions. Maximum nematode control was obtained when treatments were applied previous to, or at the time of, inoculation of plants with the nematode. Consecutive foliar applications inhibited nematode development, with four applications giving greatest inhibition of maturation. A treatment with either phenamiphos or oxamyl at 2,000 μg/ml (ppm) resulted in the greatest increase in plant growth, and 4,000 μg/ml gave the best nematode control. A treatment of 4,000 μg/ml of either phenamiphos or oxamyl was phytotoxic. However, this was due to container confinement of the chemical since phytotoxicity at this rate has not been observed under field conditions.
Beta vulgaris; multiple treatment
The sugar-flotation-sieving (SFS) and Baermann-funnel (BF) methods were compared for nematode extraction efficiency. The SFS method recovered nematodes from more trophic groups whereas greater total numbers of individuals were recovered by BF. In a test to validate the efficiency of SFS, virtually 100% of the nematodes added to desert soil prior to extraction were recovered by four consecutive SFS washings of each soil sample. Estimations of nematode biomass in desert soils based on numbers of nematodes extracted by the two methods were similar unless there was large reserve of eggs in the soil. The biomass of nematodes from a Colorado desert soil was 0.9 g/m² as determined by both methods, whereas BF gave 0.17 g/m² for nematodes from a Mojave desert soil as compared to 0.9 g/m² with SFS.
Seedlings of tobacco cultivars resistant (NC95) and susceptible (McNair 30) to Meloidogyne incognita were grown in 15-cm diameter clay pots containing steamed soil infested with 0, l, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 eggs of M. incognita per 1.5 cm³ soil. Plants were maintained in the greenhouse for 3 weeks, and then transferred to the field for 12 weeks. Growth of tobacco was expressed separately as dry weight of leaves and as plant height. Least squares regression analysis showed that tobacco growth-nematode density interactions are in agreement with Seinhorst's exponential model Y = m + (l-m) czp. Tobacco growth was not affected significantly as nematode density was increased from 0 to tolerance levels, which were approximately 2 and 1 eggs per 1.5 cm³ soil for the resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. As nematode density was increased beyond tolerance level, tobacco growth decreased sharply until a minimum yield was approached. The minimum leaf weights and plant heights of the resistant cultivar at the highest nematode density were greater than those of the susceptible cultivar.
Initial nematode density; resistant and susceptible cultivars; exponential function
Studies were conducted on the behak, ior of the nematode, Rhabditis pellio, in the earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoides, from southern California. Juvenile and adult nematodes were found in the bladders and tubules of the metanephridia of the host. Similar nematodes that entered the coelom were encapsulated and incorporated into multiple capsules ("brown bodies"). It was demonstrated that this host response is an effective defense reaction since dead and dying nematodes, as well as living forms, were found in the capsules.
nematode; defense reaction
Growing cotton in a greenhouse with 12-h of supplemental light [8,608 lux (800 ft-c) from combination of mercury and Lucalux® lamps] resulted in 2 × to > 3 × greater reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and Belonolaimus longicaudatus as compared to natural light alone. Rate of increase of Hoplolaimus galeatus was affected little in this experiment. In a second experiment under controlled conditions in a phytotron, light source and intensity had greater influence on the reproduction of Heterodera glycines and Pratylenchus penetrans on soybean than on B. longicaudatus. Fluorescent plus incandescent and metal halide light sources resulted in the greatest nematode reproduction. Lucalux lamps resulted in much lower rates of nematode increase than other light sources. Rates of nematode increase on soybean under the different light sources in the phytotron generally were positively related to plant growth.
Gossypium hirsutum; Glycine max
Seedlings of Meloidogyne incognita-resistant (N.C. 95) and -susceptible (McNair 30) tobacco cultivars were grown aseptically for 55 days inside isolator chambers in autoclaved soil infested with 0 or 3,000 axenized eggs of M. im ognita per 500 cc of soil. Healthy and infected plants were compared. Dry root weights of infected plants of resistant and susceptible cultivars were 16% and 84%, respectively, less than the controls. Sixteen amino acids, including those precursors for nicotine, and nicotine, increased significantly in infected roots of both cultivars. Increases in amino acids in infected roots ranged from 28% for valine to 103% for tyrosine in the resistant N.C. 95, and from 30% for leucine to 148% for tyrosine in lhe susceptible McNair 30. Nicotine content (dry weight basis) increased 42% and 62% in infected roots of resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Nematode infection increased nicotine by 112% in leaves of N.C. 95, and decreased it by 56% in leaves of McNair 30. Root damage by M. incognita probably decreased nicotine movement into leaves of McNair 30. In N.C. 95, nicotine movement into leaves apparently was not adversel b affected due to lack of significant root damage.
root-knot nematode; Nicoliana tahacum
Four field populations of Heterodera glycines tested for ability to reproduce on three host differentials were each classified into one of the recognized races. A fifth population represented a new race. Genetic analysis indicated that the designated races are actually field populations that differ from each other primarily in the frequencies of three groups of genes (genes for parasitism) that act quantitatively and control the ability of the nematode to reproduce on resistant P.I. 88788, Pickett, and P.I. 90763 soybeans. Populations of race-3 have none of these genes for parasitism, or they have some in low frequency that results in an index of parasitism of less than 10 on any one of the resistant soybeans. Race-1 has a high frequency of one group of genes that enable it to reproduce on P.I. 88788. Race-2 has two groups of genes for parasitism in high frequency; one for P.I. 88788, and one for Pickett. Based on these findings, it was assumed that race-4 has three groups of genes for parasitism; one for P.I. 88788, one for Pickett, and one for P.I. 90763. Additional races may be recognized when new genes are identified, or when new gene combinations are discovered. The ability to reproduce on P. I. 88788 is inherited independently from the ability to reproduce on Pickett. Although the genetic structure of field populations does not provide a solid foundation for race designation, recognizing races under the present system may be useful when it clearly characterizes the behavior of field populations. Race designations, however, should be regarded as provisional since gene frequencies change with time in response to selection forces and, therefore, the race status of a population may change accordingly.
index of parasitism; genes for parasitism; cyst nematodes
Elimination of Paratylenchus neoamblvcephalus from soil by fumigation with 1,2-dibromoethane stimulated the growth of Myrobalan seedlings grown in it. Addition of a suspension of P. neoamblycephalus to Myrobalan seedlings inhibited their growth as compared to noninoculated controls. When nematodes were removed from the suspension by settling, and the supernatant liquid was used as inoculum, no stunting occurred. Roots of Myrobalan seedlings inoculated with surface-sterilized P. neoamblycephalus were smaller, darker, and had fewer feeder roots than those of noninoculated controls. Nematodes were observed feeding ectoparasitically, but with heads embedded in roots as deep as the cortex. They were associated with small lesions and dead lateral roots. Clusters of nematodes were common at ruptures in the epidermis, and where lateral roots emerged. Limitation of Myrobalan growth by P. neoamblvcephalus was greater at 20 and 27 C than at 30 C, and was not affected by pH over the range 4.5 to 6.5. Rose, apricot, peach, and all selections and hybrids of Prunus cerasffera tested were hosts for P. neoamblrcephalus. The nematode could not be cultured on various herbaceous plants nor on Myrobalan callus tissue.
pathogenicity; temperature; hydrogen-ion; feeding sites; culture; host-range; rose; apricot; peach
Differences between light reflectance from leaves of cotton (Gossypiurn hirsutum) plants grown with a low- or no-nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) population (nonstressed), and from leaves grown with a high nematode population (stressed) were measured in field and greenhouse experiments. Reflectance was measured spectrophotometrically in the laboratory on single leaves and spectroradiometrically in the field on plant canopies. Nematode-stressed cotton plants were stunted with fewer, smaller, and darker-green leaves than nonstressed plants. Over the 0.5- to 2.5-/μm waveband, stressed leaves had lower reflectance than nonstressed leaves of the same chronological age for both field- and greenhouse-grown plants. Reflectance differences between stressed and nonstressed leaves in the visible (0.5 to 0.75 μm), near-infrared (0.75 to 1.35 μm) and infrared water absorption (1.35 to 2.5 μm) regions were primarily caused by differences in leaf chlorophyll concentration, mesophyll structure, and water content, respectively. Results indicate the potential for remotely sensing nematode-infested plants to distinguish them from normal plants.
stressed and nonstressed leaves; remote sensing; chlorophyll content
Aqueous solutions of 5-500 μg/ml aldicarb inhibited hatching of Heterodera schachtii. Addition of hatching agents, zinc chloride, or sugarbeet root diffusate, to the aldicarb solutions did not decrease the inhibition of hatching. When cysts were removed from the aldicarb solufions and then treated for 4 wk in sugarbeet root diffusate, larvae hatched and emerged. Treatments of newly hatched larvae of H. schachtii with 5-100 μg/ml aldicarb depressed later development of larvae on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar treatments with aldicarb sulfoxide had less effect on larval development, and aldicarb sulfone had no effect. Numbers of treated larvae that survived and developed were inversely proportional to concentration (0.1-5.0 μg/ml) and duration (0-14 days) of aldicarb treatments. Development of H. schachtii on sugarbeet grown in aldicarb-treated soil was inversely proportional to the concentration of aldicarb in the tested range of 0.75 - 3.0 μg aldicarb/g of soil. Transfer of nematode-infected plants to soil with aldicarb retarded nematode development, whereas transfer of plants first grownin treated soil to nematode-infested soil only slightly suppressed nematode development. Development of H. schachtii was inhibited in slices of storage roots of table beet (B. vulgaris), sugarbeet and turnip, (Brassica rapa), that had grown in soil treated with aldicarb.
sugarbeet nematode; culture; diffusate
Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae were reared on callus and roots developed from citrus leaves. Callus formed best when leaf petioles were immersed in Astatula fine sand and the leaves were sprayed daily with 4 ppm 2,4-D solution and maintained at 25 or 30 C. The nematodes completed one generation in 20 days at 25 C. Highest populations of R. similis (1,127) occurred after 50 days, and the highest for P. coffeae (619) after 70 days. Leaf-callus cultures from R. similis-resistant citrus rootstocks showed the same degree of infection as susceptible rough lemon callus after 30 days.
Maturation of the mermithid nematode Reesimermis nielseni to the adult stage began by the tenth day after emergence of the nematodes from their hosts at ambient temperatures (24-27 C). Most postparasitic males and females reached the adult stage after 50 and 70 days, respectively. The first females exhibiting egg development and oviposition were observed 25-30 days after emergence, but some oviposition was still taking place 150 days later. Reesimermis nielseni laid an average 2,480 eggs per female over an 18-day oviposition period. A majority of the mature eggs hatched within 7 h after the cultures were flooded. The preparasites are short-lived, and only a few were able to infect exposed hosts after 72 h.
Biological control; oviposition; postparasites; life cycle; hatching
Gas-liquid chromatography was used to detect movement of the nematicide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), in soil columns containing top- and subsoil of Astatula fine sand. Topsoil contained 1.4-1.6% organic matter and subsoil 0.20-0.25%. DBCP was applied at various rates as aqueous drenches. Depth of penetration was controlled by organic matter in topsoil and varied with the amount of water applied. Maximum DBCP penetration after 14 days was 28 cm; maximum water infiltration, 115 cm. Maximum depth of penetration was obtained with a water emulsion of 30 μg/ml of DBCP applied in 15 cm of water. DBCP applied in 5 cm of water to soils containing 2.0% and 0.125% organic matter penetrated 6 cm and 60 cm, respectively.
DBCP penetration; nematicide
In lraq, treatment of producing citrus trees with a 75% emulsifiable formulation of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), applied in irrigation water at rates of 66-88 kg (a.i.)/hectare, gave excellent control of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) greatly improved tree vigor, and increased the fruit yield for at least 3 years after treatment. Applications made during the spring gave much better results than those made in the fall.
nematode control; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
The alfalfa race of Ditylenchus dipsaci parasitized and caused characteristic symptoms on nonhost seedlings of sweet clover, onion, tomato, sugarbeet, and wheat in controlled growth-chamber studies. Although the nematode was unable to reproduce on any of the cultivars, it caused plant mortality ranging from 20% on sugarbeet and tomato to 100% on onion.
alfalfa stem nematode; onion; sweet clover; tomato; sugarbeet; wheat; temperature; mortality; reproduction
Four new species of the genus Hemicriconemoides (H. californianus n.sp., H. taiwanensis n.sp., H. annulatus n. sp., and H. nitida n.sp.) are described. The range of total length of H. mangiferae is increased on the basis of specimens collected in Israel, Observations on H. mangiferae and H. litchi support the validity of H. litchi as distinct from H. mangiferae.
The susceptibility of 18 species of mosquitoes to the infective stage of the mermithid nematode Reesimermis nielseni was compared to that of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. Thirteen species were more susceptible, with three Anopheles species and Culiseta inornata the most susceptible. Aedes triseriatus, Culex territans, and Psorophora ferox were highly resistant. Resistance to R. nielseni appeared to be behavioral, physical, or physiological, and some host species exhibited one or more types of defense mechanisms. No noticeable differences were apparent in the degree of susceptibility of a native-and a laboratory strain of C. p. quinquqfasciatus to R. nielseni.
parasitism; biological control; host resistance
Soreshin of cotton was more severe from combined infections of Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita than from either organism alone, when both critical soil temperature and inoculum concentrations were present. Optimum soil temperatures for disease development from combined infections were 18 and 21 C. Either 2,500 or 5,000 M. incognita larvae per plant, combined with R. solani, increased seedling disease severity over that caused by R. solani alone. When 100 or 500 larvae per plant were added with R. solani, disease severity did not change. Disease severity increased with the highest level of R. solani inoculum either alone or combined with M. incognita.
interaction; nematode; fungus; Gossypium hirsutum
The adsorption characteristics of two soils for aldicarb sulfoxide were similar to that described by the Freundlich equation, The adsorption constant for the Holtville clay was 3.3, and that of the Buren silt loam, 0.34. Planting beds in a field of Holtville clay and another of Buren silt loam were side-dressed at 25 kg and 50 kg/ha 10% aldicarb (Temik® 10G). Comparison of field measurements of aldicarb concentrations with previous laboratory determinations of aldicarb effects on Heterodera schachtii allowed predictions of soil zones in which hatching, infectivity, and orientation of males to females would be affected. Aldicarb in the soil water of Holtville clay sufficient to interfere with male orientation extended through most of the bed profile to a depth of 46 cm 1 week after the first irrigation. Orientation could be affected in only the top 20 cm of the bed 37 days after treatment and application of 712 mm of irrigation water. In Buren silt loam, disorientation of males was estimated to occur throughout the bed 42 days after treatment and 600 mm irrigation water. Aldicarb persisted in extensive areas of the bed at concentrations sufficient to prevent infection. In small areas of the profile, aldicarb sufficient to inhibit hatching persisted. Amounts of aldicarb in soil water samples obtained directly from beds agreed well with those from the analysis of the air dried soil samples.
nematicide; adsorption isotherm; movement; persistence