Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. is described and illustrated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) originally collected from Quincy, Washington, USA. This new species resembles M. hapla, but its perineal pattern is basically round to oval with distinctive and broken, curled, or twisted striae around and above the anal area. The vulva is in a sunken area devoid of striae. Vesicles or vesicle-like structures are present in the median bulb of females. The larva tail, being short and blunt with a hyaline tail terminal having little or no taper to its rounded terminus, is distinctively different from M. hapla. SEM observations revealed the nature of the perineal pattern and details of the head of larvae and males, and showed the spicules to have dentate tips ventrally. Hosts for M. chitwoodi n. sp. include potato, tomato, corn, and wheat but not strawberry, pepper, or peanut. The latter three crops are excellent hosts for M. hapla. The known distribntion of this new root-knot species presently involves certain areas of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. The common name "Columbia root-knot nematode" is proposed for M. chitwoodi n. sp.
taxonomy; morphology; Meloidogyne; root-knot; new species; SEM ultrastructure; potato; Solarium tuberosum; hosts
A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.
Mermis nigrescens; Neoaplectana spp.; Romanomermis culicivorax; Deladenus siricidicola; Tetradonema plicans
Simultaneous inoculations of alfalfa with Meloidogyne hapla larvae and Ditylenchus dipsaci at 16, 20, 24, and 28 C did not depress penetration of either nematode in 'Nev Syn XX' -a selection resistant to M. hapla and D. dipsaci, 'Vernal 298' -a selection resistant to M. hapla and susceptible to D. dipsaci, 'Lahontan' -a cultivar resistant to D. dipsaci and susceptible to M. hapla, and 'Ranger' -a cultivar susceptible to both M. hapla and D, dipsaci. Infection with D. dipsaci depressed growth of susceptible 'Vernal 298' and 'Ranger' at all soil temperatures, except for 'Vernal 298' at 16 C. Infection with M. hapla alone did not depress growth of any of the alfalfas. A combination of M. hapla and D. dipsaci resulted in a synergistic weight depression on 'Ranger' at all soil temperatures. Inoculation of the four alfalfas with D. dipsaci 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk before inoculation with M. hapla at 16, 20, 24, and 28 C did not influence the resistance or susceptibility of 'Nev Syn XX,' 'Lahontan,' or 'Ranger.' However, galling of 'Vernal 298' by M. hapla was affected by soil temperature, plant age, and inoculation with D. dipsaci.
concomitant species; root-knot nematode; alfalfa stem nematode; soil temperature; attraction; penetration; root galling
Yields of 'McNair 800' soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., were significantly increased with ethylene dibromide + chloropicrin, DBCP, phenamiphos, and aldicarb applied at-planting and with phenamiphos, aldicarb, and DBCP applied postplant to soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Yields of 'GaSoy 17' were significantly increased with ethylene dibromide + chloropicrin, DBCP, phenamiphos, and aldicarb applied, preplant and with DBCP, carbofuran, phenamiphos, aldicarb, and DBCP applied postplant to soil infested with Hoplolaimus columbus Sher. In several instances, preplant or at-planting treatments plus postplant treatments with the same or different chemicals were more effective than either treatment alone. Generally, the fumigants were more effective than the nonfumigants when they were applied at-planting to M. incognita-infested soil and preplant to H. columbus-infested soil. Phenamiphos, aldicarb, and DBCP were about equally effective when they were applied postplant in M. incognita-infested soil, but DBCP was more effective than carbofuran. Carbofuran, phenamiphos, aldicarb, and DBCP were about equally effective when applied postplant to H. columbus-infested soil.
Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; Hoplolaimus columbus; Columbia lance nentatode; Glycine max; soybean; chemical control
Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae Woll., to nondamaging levels. The potential of these nematophagous fungi as biocontrol agents is discussed.
Catenaria auxiliaris; Nematophthora gynophila; Lagenidiaceous fungus; Heterodera spp.; "decline phenomenon"; biocontrol
Field-collected Dendroctonus frontalis were reared in a controlled environment. Male-female beetle pairs retrieved from galleries 1, 2, or 5 wk after introduction into pine bolts were examined for nematode parasites. Data were obtained for each pair on gallery length, egg niche construction, egg viability, and progeny survival. In a separate study, beetle pairs were reared under laboratory conditions for 10 wk. The number of emerged adult progeny of each pair was recorded. Contortylenchus brevicomi, a nematode parasite, was found in 25% of all beetles that established galleries. After 2 and 3 wk, female beetles infected with the nematode had produced fewer eggs and shorter galleries than did uninfected females. Uninfected females mated with nematode-infected males showed similar trends, although the differences in the 2- and 3-wk tests were not significant. Progeny survival or egg viability was not affected by nematode parasitism of either parent beetle. Unikaryon minutum, a microsporidian parasite found in 65% of all colonizing beetles, had no effect on measured variables. The lower fecundity of beetles parasitized by C. brevicomi continued throughout the insect's reproductive cycle. After 10 wk, nematode-infected beetle pairs produced fewer emerged adult progeny than did uninfected pairs.
Dendroctonus frontalis; population dynamics; nematode-insect interaction
The presence of two biotypes of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) in Italian citrus and olive orchards has been confirmed by comparing host specificity. Host reaction to California biotypes C1 and C3 and to three populations from Arizona, Texas, and Florida indicates that of these five United States biotypes, all except C3 consistently fit biotype C1. These findings, and the results of host-range studies in other countries, show that four biotypes of T. semipenetrans are distributed worldwide: the "Poncirus biotype," the "Citrus biotype," the "Mediterranean biotype," and the "Grass biotype."
citrus-root nematode; host specificity; olive tree; Citrus spp.; Poncirus trifoliata
Population increase of Pratylenchus hexincisus on corn was tested over 3 months at 15, 20, 25, and 30 C in Marshall silt loam, Clarion silt loam, Buckner coarse sand, and Haig silty clay loam soils. The optimum temperature for increase was 30 C in all soils. The nematode population was significantly larger in Buckner coarse sand than in other soil types at 50 C. The recovered P. hexincisus populations equaled or exceeded initial inoculum levels at the two higher temperatures in Marshall silt loam and Haig silty clay loam and at 30 C in Clarion silt loam and Buckner coarse sand. P. hexincisus required 32,400 heat units in Haig silty clay loam and more than 40,000 heat units in the three other soil types to reach a level that is known to cause significant height and biomass reduction in corn under controlled condition.
lesion nematode; physical factors; heat units
The fungal antagonists of nematodes consist of a great variety of organisms belonging to widely divergent orders and families of fungi. They include the nematode-trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, parasites of nematode eggs and cysts, and fungi which produce metabolites toxic to nematodes. The diversity, adaptations, and distribution of nematode-destroying fungi and taxonomic problems encountered in their study are reviewed. The importance of nemato-phagous fungi in soil biology, with special emphasis on their relationship to populations of plant-parasitic nematodes, is considered. While predacious fungi have long been investigated as possible biocontrol agents and have often exhibited spectacular results in vitro, their performance in field studies has generated little enthusiasm among nematologists. To date no species has demonstrated control of any plant pest to a degree achieved with nematicides, but recent studies have provided a much clearer concept of possibilities and problems in the applied use of fungal antagonists. The discovery of new species, which appear to control certain pests effectively under specific conditions, holds out some promise that fungi may be utilized as alternatives to chemical control after a more thorough and expanded study of their biology and ecology.
Nematode-trapping fungi; nematode-destroying fungi; nematode egg parasites; nematode antagonists; nematode parasites; nematophagous fungi
Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particularly with the genus Pasteuria, are considered. Also discussed are other soil bacterial species that are potential biocontrol agents. Products of their bacterial fermentation in soil are toxic to nematodes, making them effective biocontrol agents.
Duboscqia; Pasteuria ramosa; Pseudomonas denitrificans; Clostridium butyricum; Desulfovibrio desulfuricans; Bacillus thuringiensis; rickettsia
The external morphology of female heads of three populations of each of two cytological races of Meloidogyne hapla (race A-meiotic, race B-mitotic) and single populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was compared by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Perineal patterns of all nine populations were observed with a LM and then examined with a SEM. In addition, female stylets of each population were excised, viewed with a SEM, and compared with observations made with a LM. Head morphology of the females, including shape of medial and lateral lips, expression of sensilla, and head annulation, was distinct for each species, each race of M. hapla, and each population of M. hapla race A. The morphology of a given perineal pattern appeared similar with the SEM and the LM. The SEM emphasized surface details, whereas the LM revealed subcuticular structure as well. Stylet morphology was unique for each species but similar in all populations of M. hapla. There were differences between species in the shape of the cone, shaft, and knobs and in the distance of the dorsal esophageal gland orifice from the stylet knob base. Several of the morphological characters first detected in the SEM were seen subsequently with the LM and are helpful in species identification.
cytological races; root-knot nematodes; Meloidogyne hapla; M. arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; scanning electron microscopy
Seventy-three Ohio fields comprising ca. 440 ha of cv Superior potatoes were surveyed in 1977 for plant-parasitic nematodes. Of eight genera of plant-parasitic nematodes, Pratylenchus was found most frequently, occurring in 65% of the soil samples and 84% of the root samples. Populations of Pratylenchus were consistently higher than populations of the other nematode genera. The six species of Pratylenchus extracted from potato roots, in descending order of frequency, were P. crenatus, P. penetrans, P. scribneri, P. alleni, P. thornei, and P. neglectus. Prevalence of these Pratylenchus species in Ohio potato fields suggests that they could be involved with vascular wilt fungi in premature death of cv Superior potato vines known in Ohio as "early dying."
root-lesion nematodes; Pratylenchus crenatus; P. penetrans; disease interaction
Nematology on a world basis has experienced phenomenal growth during the last 25 years. Major influences responsible for this growth are discussed. Education of nematologists has been most evident in only a few developed nations. Some developing countries are now beginning to train nationals as nematologists. Research programs in developed countries are more intensive than in developing nations, largely because of available resources and priorities given to solving nematological problems. Developed nations have been able to take advantage of technological advances almost immediately, whereas in developing nations the lack of resources and constraints imposed by certain social or political conditions has made this difficult. Indications are that emphasis in training nematologists in developed countries may have reached a plateau, while in developing nations provisions for training and research are on the increase.
education; scientific societies and journals; philanthropic agencies
Two different defined growth media were used to culture aseptically the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on excised roots of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv 'Marglobe.' One of these media, STW, was a formulation by Skoog, Tsui, and White and the other, MS, a formulation by Murashige and Skoog. From 1 through 4 weeks, inoculated tissues were fractured to observe root infection, giant-cell formation, and nematode development with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Four weeks after inoculation, the fresh weights of roots and developmental stages of nematodes were recorded. SEM observations indicated that roots cultured on the STW medium had normal growth and infection sites with galls that supported the development of mature females by 4 weeks. Roots cultured on the MS medium were less vigorous and had infection sites with galls containing only one to four syncytialike cells that did not support the development of mature females. Eighty percent of the larvae infecting roots cultured on the MS medium failed to develop into mature females. To determine which factor(s) affected root growth and nematode development, inoculated and uninoculated roots were grown on media consisting of different combinations of the organic and inorganic fractions of the STW and MS formulations. These experiments indicated that the organic fraction of STW was essential for normal root growth; however, the inorganic fraction of MS inhibited normal gall formation and nematode development. Further testing of the inorganic fractions revealed that the high concentration of ammonium nitrate in the MS medium was a factor that inhibited giant-cell formation and nematode development.
ammonium inhibition; Meloidogyne incognita
Rotylenchus robustus, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, and Hemicycgiophora conida were observed feeding over a range of temperatures on perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) seedlings grown on agar plates. R. robustus fed between 0.5 and 42.5 C, X. diversicaudatum between 5.0 and 37.0 C and H. conida between 5.0 and 34.0 C. Between 10 and 25 C there was a direct relationship between temperature and rate of esophageal bulb contractions. Above 25 C the number of esophageal contractions/min did not increase at the same rate and eventually decreased. At the extremes of temperature range, abnormal feeding behaviour was observed. Rates of esophageal bulb contraction did not differ in the different nematode life stages and sexes, or at different feeding sites on the roots.
Perennial rye-grass; Lolium perenne; esophageal bulb contraction
Some aspects of current fundamental nematological research and teaching in agriculture, soil zoology, biology and medicine, and parasitology are explored as they relate to the Society of Nematologists and the science of nematology in its broadest sense.
The main components of the decision process in nematode pest management are the value of the predicted damage and the cost of the management alternative. The relationships involved are affected by such environmental parameters as soil texture and physiographic region. There is a general intuitive understanding of the nature of the relationships and of the effects of the environmental parameters. Some nematode damage functions have been developed through quantitative research. A conceptual framework is developed herein which promotes rational use of available experimental results, supplemented by intuitive understanding of nematodes and crops, in arriving at a pest management decision. Gaps in available data point the need for additional research within the framework. The approach allows and encourages immediate implementation. Interactive computer programs are seen as a potential vehicle for weighting the variables involved in the decision and for storing, manipulating, and delivering the necessary data funcand information.
pest management; population dynamics; economics; damage tions; control costs
Larval and adult life stages are described for Contortylenchus brevicomi (Massey) Rühm parasitizing a Mississippi population of Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle. Fourth-stage larvae and free-living adult females of this species are identified and described for the first time. The life cycle of C. brevicomi can be reconstructed from this study. The adult female nematode lays eggs in a mature beetle. Larval development progresses within the hemocoel until fourth-stage larvae exit the host. Mating occurs in beetle galleries and only females enter an immature beetle host.
nematode-insect interaction; Scolytidae
Peach tree mortality was 75% five years after planting on a site associated with peach tree short life and receiving no nematicide treatment, no lime, and with cultivation for weed control. Mortality was reduced to 29% by preplanting plus postplanting applications of DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) and with herbicidal weed control. Preplanting applications of nematicides alone did not effectively reduce tree mortality or increase yield. Lime applications increased yield but did not affect tree growth or survival. Survival was higher with weed control by a herbicide than with control by disk cultivation. Populations of Macroposthonia xenoplax were correlated positively with tree mortality and negatively with yield. The other nematode consistently present at the site, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was not associated with either tree mortality or yield.
Integrated pest management (IPM) is an interdisciplinary science dealing with the development, evaluation, and implementation of pest control strategies that result in favorable economic, ecologic, and sociologic consequences. IPM has received considerable attention during the past few years, and this has led to recommendations directly related to the growth of the science of hematology. This report describes the current state of IPM in relation to the role of hematology, with special emphasis on scientific personnel requirements. All current indications are that IPM will continue to grow, very likely at an increased rate. This will place additional research, extension, and teaching demands on current hematology programs and should result in an expended resource base for nematology.
Field population densities of Ditylenchus dipsaci associated with shoot tissue of Phlox subulata were monitored during two consecutive growing seasons and intervening periods of overwintering and plant storage. The population density increased significantly through four peaks during the first growing season, and decreased significantly during storage at 5-7 C or overwintering in the field. During the second growing season, there was only a single increase to a moderate population density, followed by a severe population decline associated with the poor physiological condition of the host. A simple model is proposed to explain the population dynamics of D. dipsaci during the first growing season.
ground phlox; moss pink; Michigan
Uromyces phaseoli, the causal agent of bean rust, suppressed shoot and root growth of three bean cultivars, reducing root weight more than shoot weight. The greatest suppression of root weight was on the cultivar that appeared most susceptible by visual ratings of shoot symptoms. Meloidogyne incognita suppressed shoot and root growth of all test cultivars; root weight reductions differed among cultivars identical in susceptibility to this pathogen in root-gall rating tests. Infection of plants with both pathogens suppressed plant weights significantly more than did infection by either pathogen alone, evidencing an additive effect. U. phaseoli and M. incognita on the same plant influenced the reproduction of one another, presumably through effects on the host. Fungal uredia were reduced in size and sporulation capacity; M. incognita produced fewer root galls, and fewer eggs per egg mass.
bean rust; root knot; Phaseolus vulgaris