Head shape and stylet morphology of males of 90 populations of M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica from geographic regions of the world were compared by light microscopy (LM). In addition, stylets of one population each of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica and three different chromosomal forms of M. hapla race A and two of race B were excised and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Differences among species occurred in both head and stylet morphology. Head morphology differed in size and shape of the head cap, annulation of the head region, and width of the head region relative to the first body annule. Differences in stylets occurred in size and shape of the cone, shaft, and knobs. All populations of M. hapla, except one, had similar head morphology, but stylet morphology was different between cytological races A and B. Populations of M. javanica varied with respect to the presence of head annulations. Head shape and stylet morphology of males are recommended as additional characters useful in the identification of root-knot nematodes.
Meloidogyne arenaria; M. hapla; M. incognita; M. javanica; root-knot nematodes; cytological races; intersexes; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy
Pathogenesis of M. chitwoodi associated with potato (Solanum tuberosura cv. Russet Burbank) followed a pattern characteristic of root-knot nematodes. Giant ceils developed in the phloem tissues of roots, stolons, and tubers and appeared to arise by hypertrophy and karyokinesis rather than cellular fusion. Gall formation was a function of parasite density and developed by hypertrophy of cortical cells. Brownish lesions which are symptomatic of tuber infection resulted from lignification of cortical cell walls in contact with egg matrix.
M. Chitwoodi; potato (Solanum tuberosum); histopathology; pathogenesis
The possible effectiveness of atmospheric transport of nematode forms (dry larvae or eggs) as a means for introducing new species to a given environment is examined. Given the measured sedimentation velocities for a range of forms (0.1 ≥ Ws ≥ 0.6 mps), the necessary conditions on the wind speed required for natural erosion are defined. With these results scenarios for lofting, transport, and diffusion of these forms are examined using relevant gaussian plume models. Results indicate that on rare occasions individuals can be deposited up to 40 km from their original location. Redepositions up to 5 km per erosion event should be fairly common occurances when dry loose soil conditions or dry tillage operations combine with optimal atmospheric conditions and the presence of significant numbers of nematodes at the surface.
wind dissemination; terminal velocities; model calculations
Heterorhabditis heliothidis is reared monoxenically on an artificial medium consisting of commercially available nutrient broth, yeast extract, and vegetable oil. These components are cooked with flour and coated onto polyether polyurethane sponge, autoclaved, inoculated with a suspension of the bacterial symbiont of the nematode, and incubated at 25 C for 3 d. The bacterial garden on sponge provides an excellent rearing medium. Up to 10 million infective juveniles are produced per 250 ml rearing flask in one month.
greater wax moth; Galleria mellonetla; bacteria; insects; Xenorhabdus luminescens
Three new species of Heteroderoidea are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. Second-stage juveniles of Thecavermiculatus crassicrustata, n. sp., differ from those of T. gracililancea Robbins by having longer stylets (40-45 μm vs 19-22 μm). The female of T. crassicrustata has a longer neck, a more posterior excretory pore, and lacks a posterior protuberance. Meloidodera eurytyla, n. sp., differs from other Meloidodera spp. in that second-stage juveniles have longer stylets (32-35 μm) and much more massive stylet knobs, while males have a longitudinally striated basal head annule. Meloidogyne subarctica, n. sp., can be separated from other Meloidogyne spp. by combinations of the following characteristics: perineal pattern with large oval areas in the tail region devoid of striae, arch with few unbroken striae; female excretory pore 1.5-2.5 × the stylet length from the anterior end; haploid chromosome number = 18; the spermatheca filled with sperm; stylet length of second-stage juveniles 13.5-15.4 μm.
endoparasites; taxonomy; cystoid nematode; root-knot nematode
The development of postparasitic stages of Romanomermis culicivorax was studied under various concentrations of oxygen and carhon dioxide. The nematode developed poorly if only nitrogen was supplied; only one-third molted and all died eventually. In the presence of 5% CO₂ - 95% N₂, development was normal; most nematodes molted and oviposited with respective mean developmental times of 32 and 50 d. Addition of 0.2% O₂ stimulated development; molting and oviposition commenced at days 18 and 41, respectively. There was an additional stimulation of development by increasing amounts of O₂ up to 1%, but concentrations greater than 1% produced no additional stimulation. Carbon dioxide was required for development after exsheathment under anaerobic conditions or O₂ concentrations less than 1%. Oxygen or CO₂ were not required for embryological development or egg hatch. It is suggested that post-parasitic stages function as facultative anaerobes,
Mermithidae; nematoda; oxygen; carbon dioxide; biological control
Ecological studies on soil nematodes were made in a tropical rice field and pasture. Parasitic species were more diversified in the pasture than in the rice field. Eighty-six and sixty percent of total nematodes occurred in the top 10 cm in rice field and pasture, respectively. Nematodes were not randomly or uniformly dispersed but aggregated. Parasitic forms were most abundant and correlated with root biomass in the 0-15-cm soil layer, the greatest number usually occurring at the 10-15-cm depth at both sites. In summer, however, they were densest at the 15-30-cm depth. Microbivores were most frequent in the top 5 cm of both sites. Micellaneous feeders (food sources uncertain) usually occurred in highest densities at the 15-30-cm depth. Predators showed no distinct depth preference. Temperature and moisture of the soil apparently played an important role in regulating nematode population. Peak densities of 31.3 × 10⁴/m² and 21.6 × 10⁴/m² at a 30-cm depth occurred in January, while minimum densities of 5.0-5.3 × 10⁴/m² and 4.1 × 10⁴/m² occurred in July-October and April in rice field and pasture, respectively. Monthly mean biomass of nematodes was 23.8 ± 4.5 mg/m² in rice field and 11.5 ± 1.5 mg/m² in pasture.
ecology; Hirschmaniella mucronata; Orientylus orientylis; population dynamics
A biological assay system for studying the nematicidal activity of chemicals has been devised using a model consisting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Long Marketer) seedlings growing in the diSPo® growth-pouch apparatus. Meloidogyne incognita was used as the test organism. The response was quantified in terms of the numbers of galls produced. Statistical procedures were applied to estimate the ED50 values of currently available nematicides. This system permits accurate quantification of galling and requires much less space and effort than the currently used methods.
nematicides; Meloidogyne; assay; screening; and growthpouch
Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus is redescribed and illustrated from N. A. Cobb's original specimens collected in 1910. In 1955 M. W. Allen established a neotype from specimens collected near Cathedral City, California. Recently Cobb's original sketches, line drawings, and balsam slides were rediscovered and examined. The specimens collected by Cobb were compared with the neotype established by Allen and with other collections of nominal T. cylindricus. Differences in morphology of the Cathedral City (Allen) and Los Patos (Cobb) populations were observed. Collections of males and females from Cathedral City, California; Mosida, Utah; and Kings County, California; were similar to each other except for some variation in female tail shape. Females in Cobb's collection and in a collection from a beach near Ensenada, Mexico, were similar to each other but differed morphologically from other collections. We consider all collections to represent a range of variation within the species. A lectotype and an allolectotype were selected to establish the taxonomic base for the genus. A ruling has been requested from the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature on the disposition of the neotype.
taxonomy; morphology; grass
Citrus rootstocks which significantly limited the reproduction of Tylenchulus semipenetrans (Cobb) "Citrus" and "Poncirus" biotypes responded to infection by producing a hypersensitive-type response in the root hypodermis, wound periderm and/or cavities in the root cortex, and/or abnormal vacuoles in nurse cell cytoplasm. Rootstocks which limited nematode reproduction also had significantly fewer nematodes in the rhizoplane within 8 d of inoculation than did rootstocks which did not limit reproduction. Germplasm sources of the cellular responses which limited citrus nematode reproduction were identified.
histology; germplasm; rhizoplane; citrus nematode
Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla were pathogenic to both roots and tubers of Russet Burbank potato. Both species affected root growth at 15, 20, and 25 C, but not 30 C. Meloidogyne chitwoodi reprotluced best at 15, 20, and 25 C and M. hapla at 25 and 30 C. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi was reduced at 30 C; reproduction of M. hapla was reduced at 15 C and less at 20 C. The reproductive potential of M. chitwoodi was higher than that of M. hapla at 15, 20, and 25 C. M. hapla reproduced better at 30 C than did M. chitwoodi. M. chitwoodi infected potato tubers in higher numbers than did M. hapla.
The effects of oxygen and temperature on the activity and survival of infective forth-stage juveniles of Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne were examined in aqueous suspension. Rate of movement was not affected by a wide range of O₂ concentration (0.8-8.6 ppm). Activity decreased below 0.8 ppm 0 2, and at 0.15 ppm O₂ nematodes became motionless. Activity increased as a linear function of temperature up to a thermal optimum of 24 C; beyond 24 C activity decreased. Survival was greatly prolonged at low temperature. At 23 C, 50% mortality occurred within 7 d, whereas at 4 C, 70% survived after 98 d.
oxygen; temperature; activity; survival; Nothanguina phyllobia; biological control of weeds
The susceptibility of certain species of lepidopterous pupae occurring in different ecological situations to the entomogenous nematode, Neoaplectana carpocapsae, was tested. Soil- or litter-pupating lepidopterous insects were not highly susceptible to N. carpocapsae. The most susceptible insect pupating in the soil was Spodoptera exigua with 63% pupal mortality, while Harrisinia brillians, which pupates in litter, had 55% mortality. Other soil- and litter-pupating insects had mortalities of less than 25%. Some insect species that pupate above ground were highly susceptible (> 84% mortality) to N. carpocapsae infection.
biological control; nematode infection; pupal mortality
Mermithid nematodes are common parasites of black flies and play a significant role in the natural regulation of these medically important insects. Infection levels tend to he moderate and perennial, with epizootics rare and highly localized. Mermithid parasitism almost invariably results in the death of the black fly, and thus considerable attention has focused on the potential of these nematodes as biocontrol agents. Early instar black fly larvae appear most susceptible to infection, and integumental penetration hy mermithid preparasites is the only known mode of entry. Postparasitic nematodes typically emerge before host pupation. However, carryover of parasitism into adult simuliids is an important mechanism for local dispersal and recolonization of upstream areas. Following emergence, the mermithids molt to the adult stage. Copulation ensues, the females then laying eggs which eventually give rise to the next generation of infective preparasites. The number of described species is conservatively estimated at 35-40, with most species within the genera Mesomermis, Gastromermis, and Isomermis. The taxonomy of this group of mermithids is a challenging and little explored area. Host-specificity statements, therefore, must be made cautiously because of these systematic problems and others within the Simuliidae. In most instances, temporal and spatial factors limit the host range of these mermithids among simuliid species. Differential susceptibilities anmng larvae concurrently present within the same microhabitat probably reflect varying degrees of host attractiveness and behavioral-physiological resistance. Effects of parasitism on the host may include prevention of metamorphosis, sterility, intersexual development, and behavior modification. Evaluation of the technical feasibility of mermithid control of black flies has been stymied by the limitations of current inoculum-production technology. Continued advances in in vivo and in vitro culture methods are required to accelerate the research process.
Mermithidae; bionotnics; systematics; host specificity; host-parasite relationship; biological control; Mesomermis; Gastromermis; Isomermis
Populations of plant-parasitic nematodes in an Iowa cornfield were studied along north- and west-facing toposequences. Samples were collected monthly during the growing season. The greatest biomass for Xiphinema americanum occurred at the footslope on the north face. Paratylenchus microdorus had its greatest biomass at the summit position, generally more in the west- than in the north-facing slope. Pratylenchus spp. in the roots peaked at the toeslope in the north-facing slope, but at the footslope in the west-facing slope. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus peaked at the backslope and the toeslope along the north- and west-facing slopes, respectively. Diversity, as computed for each plot by the Shannon-Weiner diversity index, was highest at the backslope in both toposequences.
Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; Paratylenchus microdorus; Pratylenchus spp.; Xiphinema americanum
Numbers of Pratylenchus penetrans in alfalfa and timothy, and to a lesser extent P. crenatus in timothy, increased substantially as temperature increased from about l0 C to 30 C. However, P. crenatus in alfalfa decreased in number as temperature increased. Mobility of P. crenatus in vertical soil columns decreased as temperature increased from 9.5 C to 28.5 C. Raising the soil pH from 5.0 to 6.9 in which alfalfa was grown increased the numbers of P. penetrans and greatly reduced the numbers of P. crenatus. The numbers of both nematode species in timothy were reduced significantly as soil pH was increased. The optimum soil pH for movement of P. penetrans was 6.0. Pratylenchus crenatus moved equally well over a range of pH 5.0 to 7.0.
root-lesion nematodes; population size; movement
Gossypium arboreum 'Nanking CB 1402' possessed a high level of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis. Within 16 h, the nematode penetrated roots of resistant and susceptible cottons equally. After 36 h, significantly fewer nematodes were found in resistant roots. Larvae fed in either an endodermal or pericyclic cell and had no specificity for root tissue of a particular age. In roots of resistant G. arboreum '1402,' wall breakdown of pericyclic cells was evident after 3 d, endodermal and cortical cells collapsed, and the hypertrophied pericyclic cells disintegrated within 12 d. Cell walls immediately adjacent to the nematode's head were thickened and more safranin positive in resistant than in susceptible cotton cultivars. Several other cultivars of G. arboreum were also resistant to R. reniformis, based on nematode fecundity and percent egg reduction.
cotton; histopathology; nematode reproduction
The effects of soil temperature and initial inoculum density (Pi) of Meloidogyne incognito and M. javanica on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Anza) and nematode reproduction were studied in controlled temperature baths in the glasshouse. Nematode reproduction was directly proportional to temperature between 14 and 30 C for M. incognita and between 18 and 26 C for M. javanica. Reproduction rates (Pf/Pi, where Pf = final number of eggs) for Pi's of 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000 eggs/plant were greatest at each temperature when Pi = 3,000. Maximum M. incognita reproduction rate (Pf/Pi = 51.12) was at 30 C. At 26 C, M. javanica reproduction (Pf/Pi = 14.82, 9.02, and 4.23 for Pi = 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000, respectively) was about half that of M. incognita when Pi = 3,000 or 9,000 but similar when Pi = 30,000. Reproduction of both species was depressed between 14 and 18 C. Shoot and root growth and head numbers were inversely related to soil temperature between 14 and 30 C but were not affected by the Pi of M. incognita when 7 d old seedlings were inoculated. When newly germinated seedlings were inoculated with M. incognita or M. javanica, the Pi did not affect shoot and root fresh weights, shoot/root ratio, and tillering, but it did reduce root dry weight (M. javanica at 26 C) and increase shoot dry weight (M. incognita at 18-22 C). The optimum temperature range is lower for wheat growth than for nematode reproduction. Wheat cv. Anza is a good host for M. incognita and M. javanica, but it is tolerant to both species.
temperature; root-knot nematodes; tolerance; population dynamics