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1.  Diagnostic Probes Targeting the Major Sperm Protein Gene That May Be Useful in the Molecular Identification of Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):414-421.
Discrimination of closely related nematode species is typically problematic when traditional identification characteristics are prone to intraspecific variation. In this study, a molecular approach that can distinguish Pratylenchus penetrans and P. scribneri is described. The approach uses universal primers in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify equivalent fragments of the major sperm protein (msp) gene from any nematode. This gene fragment typically includes an intron of variable sequence. The presence of this highly variable segment in an otherwise conserved gene sequence allows P. penetrans and P. scribneri to be distinguished by either a species-specific amplification or by dot-blot hybridization. The approach is potentially of general utility in species-specific identification of nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2619710  PMID: 11542511
identification; intron; lesion nematode; molecular biology; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Pratylenchus scribneri; sperm protein
2.  Control of Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus seimipenetrans, with Cadusafos 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):624-628.
Granular (Rugby 10G) and liquid (Rugby 100 ME) formulations of cadusafos were evaluated for the control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans on mature lemon trees in a commercial citrus orchard at Yuma, Arizona. Three applications of cadusafos, with 2 months between applications, at the rate of 2 g a.i./m² reduced nematode populations to undetectable levels and increased the yield and rate of fruit maturity of 'Rosenberger' lemons. Yields were increased 12,587 kg/ha with Rugby 100ME and 8,392 kg/ha with Rugby 10G. Nematode populations were suppressed for at least 12 months after the last application.
PMCID: PMC2619740  PMID: 19277185
cadusafos; chemical control; citrus nematode; lemon; management; Rugby; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
3.  Methyl Bromide: Effective Pest Management Tool and Environmental Threat 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):586-589.
Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destroying insects and rodents. However, methyl bromide has been identified as a significant ozone-depleting substance, resulting in regulatory actions being taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations Environment Program (Montreal Protocol). The science linking methyl bromide to ozone depletion is strong and was reinforced by the 1994 UNEP Montreal Protocol Science Assessment on Ozone Depletion, which states, "Methyl bromide continues to be viewed as a significant ozone-depleting compound." Identifying efficacious and viable alternatives in the near term is critical.
PMCID: PMC2619743  PMID: 19277178
environment; fumigant; methyl bromide; nematicide; ozone depletion; pest management; policy
4.  Effect of Planting Date on Population Densities of Hoplolaimus columbus and Yield of Soybean 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):569.
During the 1991 and 1992 soybean growing seasons, field plots were established in South Carolina to study the effect of planting date on at-planting nematode densities and subsequent yield losses caused by Hoplolaimus columbus. The susceptible and intolerant soybean cv. Braxton was planted on five dates from to May to 28 June in 1991 and from 12 May to 28 June in 1992. Nematodes were recovered from soil samples collected before nematicide treatment with 1,3-D (Pi), at 6 weeks after planting (Pm), and at harvest (Pf). Initial nematode population densities did not differ among the five dates of planting in either year. The increase in numbers of nematodes from planting to 6 weeks after planting (Pm/Pi) and from planting to harvest (Pf/Pi) were not different among the five planting dates in either year. Root samples also were collected at 6 weeks after planting and at harvest, but planting date did not affect the number of nematodes extracted from roots on any sample date in either year. Altering planting dates between early May and late June was not effective in preventing yield suppression due to H. columbus.
PMCID: PMC2619720  PMID: 19277176
1,3-D; chemical control; ecology; Glycine max; Hoplolaimus columbus; lance nematode; nematode management; pest management; population dynamics; soybean
5.  Changes in Plant-Parasitic Nematode Populations in Pineapple Fields Following Inter-Cycle Cover Crops 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):546-556.
The use of plant-covers oat (Arena sativa L.), rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and marigold (Tagetes patula L.) during pineapple inter-cycle planting periods was investigated at two sites (Kunia and Whitmore, Oahu, HI) as a potential means to reduce population densities of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Paratylenchus spp. Clean fallow and fallow covered with pineapple-plant residues (mulch) were the controls without plant-cover. Regardless of treatments, population densities of R. reniformis declined with time at both sites to low residue levels by the end of the 6-month period. Treatment means of R. reniformis population densities in the plant-cover treatments were lower than the controls' (P = 0.05). The plant-cover treatments also effected higher rates of R. reniformis population decline at both sites during the period, being 2.0 to 2.2 times that of the mulch control and 1.2 to 1.4 times that of the fallow control. Plant-covers' effect on H. dihystera during the same period at both sites was variable, resulting in decreased, unchanged, or increased population densities. The change was especially obvious in the oat-cover treatment, where H. dihystera population densities increased 9 to 15-fold at both sites. Population of Paratylenchus spp. was absent or present at low levels at the sites throughout the period. Biological activities antagonistic to R. reniformis at Kunia were estimated at the end of 6 months by comparing the extent of nematode's reproduction (on cowpea seedlings) in the treatment soils that had been subjected to autoclaving or freezing temperature. Although higher indices of antagonistic activities were observed in soils with prior plant-cover treatments than in soils from the controls, none of the treatments resulted in conferring soils the increased ability to suppress re-introduced R. reniformis populations or enhance subsequent pineapple-plant growth.
PMCID: PMC2619719  PMID: 19277173
Ananas comosus; antagonistic plant; fallow; freezing soil; Helicotylenchus dihystera; marigold; nematode management; oat; Paratylenchus; plant-cover; rhodesgrass; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
6.  Seasonal Biochemical Changes in Eggs of Heterodera glycines in Missouri 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):442-450.
Changes in the carbohydrate (glucose, trehalose, and glycogen) and total protein contents of eggs retained within Heterodera glycines cysts were monitored monthly in a field microplot experiment conducted from March 1993 to March 1995. Treatments included two near-isogenic lines of soybean cv. Clark differing for date of maturity, and one corn hybrid. The soybean lines were planted in microplots infested with H. glycines at a high average initial population density (Pi) (23,810 eggs/100 cm³ soil), and the corn was planted in microplots infested at high (24,640) and low (5,485) Pi. Soil temperatures at 15 cm depth and rainfall were monitored. Carbohydrate contents varied in the same pattern, with the highest levels measured before planting (May) and after harvest (October) in both years. Neither Pi nor soybean isoline had an effect on any measured response, but the carbohydrate contents of eggs from corn and soybean microplots differed during the overwinter (October-May) periods (P < 0.0001). Trehalose accumulation was negatively correlated with soil temperature (r = -0.78 and r = -0.84, P = 0.0001, July through November 1993 and 1994, respectively), which reflects its role as a cryoprotectant. In contrast to the pattern for carbohydrates, total protein was lowest before planting and after harvest, and highest (>20 μg/1,000 eggs) June through October. Protein content was unaffected by plant cultivar or species. Protein and carbohydrate levels in H. glycines eggs showed seasonal changes that appeared to be primarily temperature-dependent.
PMCID: PMC2619715  PMID: 19277162
biochemistry; dormancy; Glycine max; hatching; Heterodera glycines; soybean cyst nematode; trehalose
7.  Sequential Decision Rules for Managing Nematodes with Crop Rotations 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):457-474.
A dynamic model of nematode populations under a crop rotation that includes both host and nonhost crops is developed and used to conceptualize the problem of economic control. The steady state of the dynamic system is used to devise an approximately optimal decision policy, which is then applied to cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) control in a rotation of sugarbeet with nonhost crops. Long-run economic returns from this approximately optimal decision rule are compared with results from solution of the exact dynamic optimization model. The simple decision rule based on the steady state provides long-run average returns that are similar to the fully optimal solution. For sugarbeet and H. schachtii, the simplified rule can be calculated by maximizing a relatively simple algebraic expression with respect to the number of years in the sequence of nonhost crops. Maximization is easy because only integers are of interest and the number of years in nonhost crops is typically small. Solution of this problem indirectly yields an approximation to the optimal dynamic economic threshold density of nematodes in the soil. The decision rule requires knowledge of annual nematode population change under host and nonhost crops, and the relationship between crop yield and nematode population density.
PMCID: PMC2619718  PMID: 19277164
crop rotation; cyst nematode; decision rule; dynamic control; economics; economic threshold; Heterodera schachtii; optimization; sugarbeet
8.  Avermectin B1, Isazofos, and Fenamiphos for Control of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius Infesting Poa annua 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):687.
Avermectin B₁, isazofos, and fenamiphos were evaluated in greenhouse experiments for efficacy against two common turfgrass parasites, Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius. Treatments in all experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design and replicated four times. In the first experiment, avermectin B₁ at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 kg a.i./ha and isazofos at rates of 2.3 and 23 kg a.i./ha significantly reduced populations of both species of parasitic nematodes compared to controls at 14 and 28 days after treatment (P ≤ 0.01). In the second experiment, the greatest reductions in both nematode populations occurred at 28 and 56 days after treatment, where 23 kg a.i./ha of isazofos was applied (P ≤ 0.01). These reductions, however, were not different from reductions of H. galeatus at 28 and 56 days after treatment (P ≤ 0.01) or T. dubius at 56 days after treatment (P ≤ 0.01), where 0.2- and 0.4-kg a.i./ha rates of avermectin B₁ were mixed throughout the soil. In the third experiment, the greatest population reduction of H. galeatus was observed with a 0.4-kg a.i./ha treatment of avermectin B₁ at 56 days after treatment (P ≤ 0.05). T. dubius populations were reduced by the 0.4-kg a.i./ha rate of avermectin B₁ at 28 (P ≤ 0.01), 56 (P ≤ 0.05), and 70 (P ≤ 0.01) days after treatment. In the fourth and fifth experiments, avermectin B₁ at rates of 7.5 and 15.2 kg a.i./ha consistently reduced nematode populations compared to controls and performed as well or better than fenamiphos (P ≤ 0.01).
PMCID: PMC2619729  PMID: 19277196
avermectin; chemical control; fenamiphos; Hoplolaimus galeatus; isazofos; nematode; Poa annua; turfgrass; Tylenchorhynchus dubius
9.  Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):648-654.
The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index and plant dry weight. A second experiment tested ratios of rapeseed green manure to urea resulting in rates of 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg soil on viability ofM. incognita eggs and degree of galling on squash test plants. A third experiment examined combinations of velvetbean green manure and urea resulting in rates of 100, 200, and 300 mg N/kg soil on viability of M. incognita eggs. When applied at rates of 200, 300, and 400 mg N/kg soil, rapeseed green manure was more effective than velvetbean green manure at reducing galling of squash roots caused by M. arenaria. Decreased viability of M. incognita eggs was observed from treatments that received rates ≥ 1200 mg N/kg soil with higher percentages of N from urea.
PMCID: PMC2619734  PMID: 19277190
alginate; ammonia; Brassica napus; Cucurbita pepo; green manure; Meloidoyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Mucuna deeringiana; nitrogen; organic amendment; rapeseed; root-knot nematode; squash; velvetbean
10.  Hatch and Emergence of Heterodera glycines in Root Leachate from Resistant and Susceptible Soybean Cultivars 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):501-509.
Egg hatch and emergence of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines races 3 and 4 from cysts exposed to soybean root leachate of cv. Fayette (resistant to H. glycines) and H. glycines-susceptible cultivars A2575, A3127, and Williams 82 were determined in three sets of experiments. In the first experiment, cysts of both race 3 and race 4 were exposed to leachate of 8-week-old plants for a 2-week period. In the second experiment, cysts from populations of races 3 and 4 were raised on cultivars A2575, A3127, and Williams 82. Cysts then were exposed to leachate from 8-week-old plants for a 2-week period in all possible race-per-cultivar combinations. In the third experiment, cysts of races 3 and 4 were exposed at 4-day intervals to leachate from plants as the plants developed 7 to 59 days after planting. In experiments 1 and 2, leachate from 8-week-old Williams 82 and A3127 stimulated more hatch and emergence of H. glycines than leachate from A2575, Fayette, or the control. In the first experiment, cumulative hatch and emergence were greater for race 3 than for race 4. In experiment 2, no apparent relationship developed between leachate from a cultivar and the population developed on that cultivar in terms of stimulation of hatch and emergence. In the third experiment, A2575 stimulated more hatch and emergence of both race 3 and race 4 than A3127, Fayette, and Williams 82. Leachate from Fayette stimulated less hatch and emergence of both race 3 and race 4. Hatch and emergence were greatest during the initial 12 days of the experiment.
PMCID: PMC2619728  PMID: 19277168
diapause; emergence; Glycine max; hatch; Heterodera glycines; nematode race; resistance; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
11.  Frequency and Geographical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Cotton in Georgia 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):661-667.
A survey was conducted to examine the geographical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia cotton fields. A total of 778 fields in 11 Georgia counties were sampled from 1 September through 15 December 1995. Four nematode genera parasitic on cotton were found in this survey: Meloidogyne spp., Rotylenchulus sp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Belonolaimus sp. Meloidogyne spp. was present in 9% to 56% of the fields in individual counties. Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 10 counties, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 6 counties, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 2 counties. From all of the samples collected for this survey, Meloidogyne spp. were found in 31% of the samples, Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 14%, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 7%, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 0.3%. Burke County had the greatest number of fields infested by at least one of these genera (67%) and the greatest number of fields above Georgia's action thresholds (38%). Laurens County had the fewest fields where these genera were present (13%), and only 3% of fields had nematode populations above threshold levels. Data from samples collected from cotton fields and submitted by county agents from 1993 through 1994 were compiled to provide historical information about nematode distribution and population density. The results from this survey show that the major nematodes damaging to cotton are not present in all counties in Georgia. Counties in which cotton has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Meloidogyne spp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops. Counties in which soybean has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Hoplolaimus sp. and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops.
PMCID: PMC2619744  PMID: 19277192
Belonolaimus; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Hoplolaimus; Meloidogyne; nematode distribution; Rotylenchulus; survey
12.  Impact of Soil Texture on the Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):527-536.
The effects of soil type and initial inoculum density (Pi) on the reproductive and damage potentials of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in microplot experiments from 1991 to 1993. The equilibrium nematode population density for R. reniformis on cotton was much greater than that of M. incognita, indicating that cotton is a better host for R. reniformis than M. incognita. Reproduction of M. incognita was greater in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured soils, whereas R. reniformis reproduction was greatest in a Portsmouth loamy sand with intermediate percentages of clay plus silt. Population densities of M. incognita were inversely related to the percentage of silt and clay, but R. reniformis was favored by moderate levels of clay plus silt (ca. 28%). Both M. incognita races 3 and 4 and R. reniformis effected suppression of seed-cotton yield in all soil types evaluated. Cotton-yield suppression was greatest in response to R. reniformis at high Pi. Cotton maturity, measured as percentage of open bolls at different dates, was affected by the presence of nematodes in all 3 years.
PMCID: PMC2619723  PMID: 19277171
cotton; ecology; edaphic factor; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; plant-disease loss; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; yield
13.  Characterization of Pratylenchus penetrans from Ten Geographically Isolated Populations Based on Their Reaction on Potato 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):520-526.
Single female cuhures of Pratylenchus penetrans were established from soil and root samples collected from 10 geographically isolated locations in North America. The resultant isolates were used to evaluate nematode egression from and multiplication on roots of potato clones to distinguish intraspecific differences among isolates. The 10 nematode isolates were statistically separated into four groups based on percentage of nematodes that egressed from the P. penetrans-resistant potato done L 118-2. The Cornell (CR), Wisconsin (WI), Long Island (LI), and Adirondack (AD) isolates, selected as representative isolates of each of the four groups, exhibited 53%, 39%, 25%, and 10% egression from L118-2, respectively. Reproduction of these four isolates was measured on three potato cultivars (Russet Burbank, Butte, and Hudson) and two breeding lines (NY85 and L118-2). The LI and AD isolates reproduced well on all five potato clones. The CR isolate reproduced well on Russet Burbank and NY85 but significantly less on Butte, Hudson, and L118-2. Reproduction of the WI isolate was less than the LI and AD isolates but more than the CR isolate on all potato clones tested except Russet Burbank. Reproduction of the WI isolate on Russet Burbank was less than the other three isolates. Based on these results, four distinct intraspecific variants of P. penetrans are proposed: Cornell, Wisconsin, Long Island, and Adirondack.
PMCID: PMC2619724  PMID: 19277170
biotype; egression; lesion nematode; pathotype; potato; Pratylenchus penetrans; reproduction; resistance; Solanum tuberosum
14.  Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):590-598.
Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines that corresponded to races 1, 3, and 4. The original race classification of some cyst populations shifted after repeated culture on susceptible 'Lee 68' soybean. Most of the cyst-resistant soybean cultivars tested were susceptible to M. arenaria and M. javanica. Exceptionally large galls were induced by M. arenaria on roots of Asgrow 5979, Hartwig, and CNS soybean. Hartwig soybean and PI 437654 were resistant to all cultured field populations of cyst nematodes in a first greenhouse test. In the second test, cyst indices of 11.3% and 19.4% were observed on roots of PI 437654 and Hartwig, respectively, when infected with an inbred line (OP50) of H. glycines corresponding to race 4. The cyst-resistant soybean germplasm tested, including Hartwig and PI 437654, supported only low numbers of reniform nematodes. The most severe soybean root necrosis observed, however, was associated with reniform nematode infection.
PMCID: PMC2619738  PMID: 19277179
Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; M. arenaria; M. javanica; reniform nematode; resistance; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
15.  Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):636-638.
Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. The remaining plants were intermediate in response. The identification of additional M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in nematode management in nurseries and landscapes.
PMCID: PMC2619739  PMID: 19277187
Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; nonhost; ornamental; perennial; resistance; root-knot nematode
16.  Standardization of Reporting Procedures for Nematicide Efficacy Testing: A Research and Extension Perspective 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):575-585.
Nematicide tests reported in the Annals of Applied Nematology from 1991 to 1995 were reviewed and evaluated for 24 criteria. Most criteria such as soil type, nematode density, cultivar planted, test location, and nematicide applied were reported in more than adequate detail. Soil moisture content and temperature conditions during the test, field history of pesticide use, agronomic-horticultural production practices, and measurements of yield were reported less adequately. Many reports dealing with fumigant nematicides and application by irrigation had inadequate descriptions of rates and application methodology, Although areas for improvement exist, overall the published works in Annals of Applied Nematology are well-reported experiments. Pressure exists from several elements of hematology to "standarize" reporting procedures and test practices. Due to the diversity of crops, nematodes, nematicides, edaphic and environmental conditions that affect nematicide fate, nematode activity, plant growth, and subsequently nematicide efficacy, creation of a completely standardized format is improbable. More accurate reporting of some test criteria rather than standardization will allow better comparison between tests when results do not concur and allow future researchers to duplicate application rates and methodologies to determine the sources of discrepancies between tests, including environmental variations.
PMCID: PMC2619741  PMID: 19277177
application; calibration; dosage; experimental design; nematicide; nematode control agent; nematode management
17.  Seasonal Dynamics and Yield Relationships of Pratylenchus spp. in Corn Roots 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):676-681.
The seasonal distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in seminal and adventitious roots and the relationship of maize yield variables to nematode densities were examined for irrigated maize in sandy soil in 1994 and 1995. Nematode populations in seminal roots were stable or declined (P ≤ 0.05) during the growing season, whereas total numbers of nematodes in adventitious root systems increased in both years of the study. Late-season nematode densities in adventitious roots were better related to midseason densities in seminal than adventitious roots. Seed test weights were negatively related to Pratylenchus spp. densities in seminal roots in both years (P ≤ 0.05) but inconsistently related to adventitious root populations. Maize yield was inversely related to early-season nematode densities in seminal roots in 1995 (P ≤ 0.03). Regression analyses indicated a 1% loss in seed test weight for each 10-fold increase in nematode density and a 1% loss in seed yield for each 1,000 nematodes/g root.
PMCID: PMC2619733  PMID: 19277194
lesion nematode; maize; population dynamics; Pratylenchus neglectus; Pratylenchus scribneri; yield loss; Zea mays
18.  Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):643-647.
Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program for the management of M. hapla in organic soil.
PMCID: PMC2619742  PMID: 19277189
Canada; host range; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; northern root-knot nematode; organic soil; weeds
19.  Resistance to the Reniform Nematode in Selected Soybean Cultivars and Germplasm Lines 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):612-615.
Reproduction indices from multiple tests were conducted to show the suitability of several soybean cultivars and germplasm lines as hosts of the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. Sixteen soybean germplasm lines of 45 reported as resistant to soybean cyst nematode were also resistant to reinform nematode. Cultivars Peking and Pickett, and PI 90763, used as differentials in the standardized soybean cyst nematode race determination test, were resistant to reniform nematode. The differential PI 88788 and the soybean cyst nematode susceptible test standard cv. Lee were susceptible. The 16 soybean cultivars most commonly grown in Arkansas in 1992 were susceptible, whereas cv. Cordell, with PI 90763 in its parentage, and cv. Hartwig, with PI 437654 in its parentage, were resistant.
PMCID: PMC2619735  PMID: 19277183
breeding; germplasm; Glycines max; reniform nematode; reproductive index; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; susceptibility
20.  Population Growth of a Rhabditid Nematode on Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Potato Tubers and Rhizosphere Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):682-686.
Nine bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere and(or) tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) at a field site on Prince Edward Island were assessed as food sources for a bacteria-feeding nematode species tentatively identified as Diplogaster lheritieri. This species was the most common rhabditid nematode recovered from soil around potato roots at the same site. In laboratory feeding trials, an isolate of Comamonas testosteroni recovered from soil was an excellent food source for D. lheritieri. This bacterial isolate also increased the fresh weight and number of microtubers of tissue culture plantlets in the laboratory. Two endophytic bacterial isolates recovered from potato tubers, an Agrobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens, were also good nutritional sources for the nematode. Diplogaster lheritieri spread bacteria over agar surfaces in petri plates.
PMCID: PMC2619747  PMID: 19277195
Agrobacterium sp.; bacteria; Comaraonas testosteroni; culture regenerated plantlet; diet; Diplogaster lheritieri; nematode; plant growth promotion; potato; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Rhabditida; rhizosphere; Solanurn tuberosum; tissue culture
21.  Molecular and Biochemical Diversity Among Isolates of Radopholus spp. from Different Areas of the World 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):422-430.
Eleven isolates of Radopholus similis from various banana-growing areas around the world and one isolate of R. bridgei from turmeric in Indonesia were compared using DNA and isoenzyme analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a fragment of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), comprising the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in this rDNA fragment were used to compare the 10 isolates. The analysis of this rDNA region revealed little variation among the isolates tested. However, data also were obtained by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of total DNA, and a hierarchical cluster analysis of these data arranged the R. similis isolates into two clusters. The first cluster consisted of isolates from Nigeria, Cameroon, Queensland, and Costa Rica; the second was comprised of isolates from Guinea, Guadeloupe, the Ivory Coast, Uganda, and Sri Lanka. The isolate of R. bridgei from turmeric in Indonesia appeared to be more divergent. This grouping was consistent with that obtained when phosphate glucose isomerase (PGI) isoenzyme patterns were used to compare the R. similis isolates. The results from both RAPD analysis and PGI isoenzyme studies indicate that two gene pools might exist within the R. similis isolates studied. No correlation could be detected between the genomic diversity as determined by RAPD analysis and either geographic distribution of the isolates or differences in their pathogenicity. The results support the hypothesis that R. similis isolates have been spread with banana-planting material.
PMCID: PMC2619711  PMID: 19277160
biochemical systematics; biodiversity; burrowing nematode; isoenzyme; PCR; Radopholus similis; RAPD; rDNA; RFLP
22.  Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):565-568.
Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619726  PMID: 19277175
Carya illinoensis; C. ovata; detection; esterase; hickory; isozyme phenotype; Juglans hindsii; J. regia; malate dehydrogenase; Meloidogyne partityla; pecan; root-knot nematode; walnut
23.  Hatching Behavior of Potato Cyst Nematodes from the Canary Islands 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):451-456.
The present work investigated early hatching differences in naturally occuring field populations and newly reared populations of potato cyst nematodes from the Canary Islands. Hatching behavior of the two species appears to be distinct, with more juveniles hatched from G. pallida that hatch earlier and over a shorter time than G. rostochiensis. The hatching rate of 3-year-old PCN populations was more than double (mean 44.5% ñ 1) that shown by newly reared populations (mean 19.1% ñ 12.5), and those that could be classified as pathotype Pa 1 (Pa 1 and P 13) were found to hatch particularly poorly. Significant differences were also observed in the juveniles released in tap water between newly reared populations of both species, with mean hatch significantly higher for G. rostochiensis. The results are discussed in relation to the implication that these findings may have for competition between the two species of PCN in the field.
PMCID: PMC2619727  PMID: 19277163
Canary Islands; Globodera pallida; G. rostochiensis; hatch; persistance; potato cyst nematode
24.  Effects of Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris on Development of Meloidogyne Species 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):485-491.
Use of resistant Phaseolus vulgaris germplasm has a potential role in limiting damaging effects of Meloidogyne spp. on bean production. Effects of two genetic resistance systems in common bean germptasm on penetration and development of Meloidogyne spp. were studied under growth room conditions at 22°C to 25°C. Nemasnap (gene system 1) and G1805 (gene system 2) were inoculated with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita race 2 and M. arenaria race 1, respectively; Black Valentine was used as the susceptible control. Up to 7 days after inoculation, there were no differences in numbers of M. incognita J2 penetrating roots of Black Valentine and Nemasnap; subsequently, more nematodes were present in Black Valentine roots (P < 0.05). More nematodes reached advanced stages of development in Black Valentine than in Nemasnap roots (P < 0.05). Total numbers of M. arenaria were greater in Black Valentine than in G 1805 roots from 14 days after inoculation (P < 0.05). Advanced stages of development occurred earlier and in greater numbers in Black Valentine plants than in G1805 plants. In these studies, resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. arenaria race 1 in bean germplasm, which contain gene system 1 and gene system 2, respectively, was expressed by delayed nematode development rather than by differential penetration compared with susceptible plants.
PMCID: PMC2619713  PMID: 19277166
common bean; development; gene system; Meloidogyne spp.; nematode; penetration; Phaseolus vulgaris; resistance; root-knot nematode
25.  Glucuronidase Expression in Transgenic Tobacco Roots with a Parasponia Promoter on Infection with Meloidogyne javanica 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):407-413.
The expression of a g-us reporter gene linked to a Parasponia andersonii hemoglobin promoter has been studied in transgenic tobacco plants after infection by Meloidogyne javanica. Transgenic roots were harvested at different times after nematode inoculation, and stained histochemically for expression of the gus gene. During the early stages of infection (0-2 weeks) there was little expression in giant cells, in contrast to other cells of the root. In later stages of infection (3-6 weeks) there was strong gus expression in giant cells, with virtually no expression in other cells of the root. The Parasponia hemoglobin promoter therefore appears to direct down-regulation of linked genes on induction of giant cells, but up-regulation in mature giant cells. This reflects different metabolic activities in the giant cells depending on their stage of development. The Parasponia hemoglobin promoter may respond to oxygen tension in giant cells. This suggests that oxygen tension may be limited in the metabolically active giant cells that are associated with egg-laying females.
PMCID: PMC2619725  PMID: 19277159
down-regulation; gene expression; glucuronidase; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; Parasponia andersonii; root-knot nematode; tobacco; up-regulation

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