The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral reduced nematode egg viability in vitro. Benzaldehyde was 100% efficacious as a nematicide against juveniles, whereas citral reduced juvenile viability to less than 20% at all rates tested. Benzaldehyde increased tomato seed germination and root weight, whereas citral decreased both. High rates of pine bark or chitin reduced plant growth but not seed germination, whereas low rates of chitin increased shoot length, shoot weight, and root weight; improved root condition; and reduced galling. The combination of chitin and benzaldehyde significantly improved tomato transplant growth and reduced galling. While each of the bacterial isolates contributed to increased plant growth in combination treatments, only Brevibacterium iodinum applied alone significantly improved plant growth.
benzaldehyde; Brevibacterium iodinum; chitin; citral; hemicellulose; Lycopersicon esculentum; phytochemicals; pine bark; Pseudomonas fluorescens; rhizobacteria; root-knot nematode; Serratia marcescens; tomato; transplants
The transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Monochamus alternatus males to Pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds has been determined. Nematode-infested males, with mandibles fixed experimentally to prevent feeding, were placed for 48 hours with pine bolts containing oviposition wounds that had been made by nematode-free females. After removal of the nematode-infested males, the pine bolts were held for 1 month and then examined for the presence of nematodes. Reproducing nematode populations were recovered from pine bolts that were exposed to male beetles carrying a high number of nematodes. No reproducing nematode population could be recovered from pine bolts exposed to beetles with a small number of nematodes. Nematode reproduction in the pine bolts was not related to the number of oviposition wounds per bolt. Fourth-stage dispersal B. xylophilus juveniles, collected from beetle body surfaces, were inoculated on pine bolt bark 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm away from a single artificial, small hole. These dauer juveniles successfully entered some bolts. The probability of successful nematode reproduction decreased with increased distance between inoculation point and artificial hole. The results indicated that B. xylophilus can move a significant distance to oviposition wounds along the bark surface and enter a tree via the wounds. The new transmission pathway is considered important for the nematode to persist in pine forests such as in North America where pine wilt disease does not occur.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; Monochamus alternatus; multiple infection; nematode movement; oviposition wound; Pinus densiflora; transmission
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is a major yield-limiting pathogen in most soybean production areas worldwide. Field populations of H. glycines exhibit diversity in their ability to develop on resistant soybean cultivars. Since 1970, this diversity has been characterized by a bioassay used to assign a race classification to a population. The value of the race scheme is reflected in the number and quality of resistant soybean cultivars that have been developed and released by soybean breeders and nematologists working in concert. However, the race scheme also has been misapplied as a means of studying H. glycines genotypes, in part due to the use of the term "race." For fungal and bacterial pathogen species, "race" can theoretically be applied to individuals of a population, thus allowing inference of individual genotypes. Application of a race designation to an individual egg or second-stage juvenile (J2) of H. glycines is not possible because a single J2 cannot be tested on multiple hosts. For other nematode species, "race" is defined by host ranges involving different plant species, whereas the H. glycines race test involves a set of lines of the same plant species. Nonetheless, because H. glycines populations vary in genetic diversity, and this variation has implications for management strategies, a mechanism is needed for documenting and discussing population differences. The HG Type scheme described herein avoids the implication of genetic uniformity or predictability in contrast to the way the race scheme has been used.
Heterodera glycines; HG type; nematode; races; soybean cyst nematode
Transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to glyphosate herbicide in maturity groups V and VI, were evaluated for tolerance to the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, in field experiments conducted in 1998 and 1999. Treatment with 43 liter/ha of 1,3-dichloropropene was effective in suppressing H. columbus population densities in a split-plot design. Fumigation increased soybean yield, but a significant cultivar × fumigation interaction indicated variation in cultivar response to H. columbus. A tolerance index (yield of nontreated ÷ yield of treated × 100) was used to compare cultivar differences. Two cultivars in maturity group VI and one cultivar in maturity group V had a tolerance index greater than 90, indicating a high level of tolerance.
Columbia lance nematode; crop loss; fumigant nematicide; Glycine max; glyphosate; herbicide-resistant crops; Hoplolaimus columbus; host-plant tolerance; nematode; soybean
The free-living marine nematode Dracognomus simplex (Gerlach, 1954) Allen &Noffsinger, 1978 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of males and females is described and illustrated in detail. In addition to the typical and modified adhesion tubes, a new type of posterior adhesion tube was discovered. A neotype is proposed for Dracognomus simplex, and D. simplex sensu Decraemer &Gourbault, 1986 is renamed as Dracognomus americanum n. sp. Additionally, a key toward the Dracognomus species is proposed.
Dracognomus americanum n. sp.; Dracognomus simplex; Draconematidae; identification; key; marine nematode; morphology; new species; Prochaetosomatinae; SEM observation; taxonomy
Entomopathogenic nematodes are lethal insect parasites that reproduce exclusively inside their hosts in nature. Infection decisions made by the free-living infective-stage juveniles have an impact on reproductive success, but it is likely that mating decisions are made by adults while inside their host. We investigated sexual communication between male and female adult stages of Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) to assess whether mating is chemically mediated during the adult stage or results from incidental encounters between adults inside the insect host. To assess chemical communication, we measured the behavioral response of adult male S. carpocapsae to several different potential sources of chemical information. Male S. carpocapsae responded to virgin females only and were not influenced by mated conspecific females, conspecific males, or heterospecific females. These results show that species-specific communication takes place between adult entomopathogenic nematodes within the host cadaver just prior to mating.
behavior; entomopathogenic nematode; insect; mating; parasite; pheromone; reproductive isolation; Steinernema
Morphological identification and detailed observation of nematodes usually requires permanent slides, but these are never truly permanent and often prevent the same specimens to be used for other purposes. To efficiently record the morphology of nematodes in a format that allows easy archiving, editing, and distribution, we have assembled two micrographic video capture and editing (VCE) configurations. These assemblies allow production of short video clips that mimic multifocal observation of nematode specimens through a light microscope. Images so obtained can be used for training, management, and online access of "virtual voucher specimens" in taxonomic collections, routine screening of fixed or unfixed specimens, recording of ephemeral staining patterns, or recording of freshly dissected internal organs prior to their decomposition. We provide an overview of the components and operation of both of our systems and evaluate their efficiency and image quality. We conclude that VCE is a highly versatile approach that is likely to become widely used in nematology research and teaching.
computer applications; database; image editing; methods; microscopy; morphology; type collections; video; World Wide Web
A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 µm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 µm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 µm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 µm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular midbody pattern zig-zag, cysts ambifenestrate, well-developed underbridge with finger-like projections, bullae present, vulva slit measuring 44-48 µm long. Males are absent, and females have heavy punctations on the cuticle. Its relationship to H. graminophila described from Florida and Louisiana and H. leuceilyma described from Florida are discussed. The present known distribution is restricted to Alexandria, Egypt. Its economic importance in rangeland grasses and cultivated crops such as rice is not known.
Alexandria; cyst nematode; Egypt; Heterodera graminophila; H. leuceilyma; morphology; Panicum coloratum; Qasabagrass roots; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy
Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops.
cover crops; crop rotation; green manure; nematode control
Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled—structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recovery was correlated with healthy roots. In both 1997 and 1998, P. penetrans populations peaked about day 150 (end of May) and then declined. The decline in numbers corresponded to changes in total strawberry root weight and root type distribution. The loss of nematode habitat resulted from loss of roots due to disease and the transition from structural to suberized perennial roots. Meloidogyne hapla juvenile recovery peaked around 170 days (mid June) in 1997 and at 85, 147, 229, and 308 days (late March, late May, mid August, and early November, respectively) in 1998. There appear to be at least four generations per year of M. hapla in Connecticut. Diagnostic samples from an established strawberry bed may be most reliable and useful when they include feeder roots taken in late May.
black root rot; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne hapla; population dynamics; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; root-knot nematode; strawberry
Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide and host resistance were compared for managing the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in pepper. Three pepper cultivars (Carolina Cayenne, Keystone Resistant Giant, and California Wonder) that differed in resistance to M. incognita were grown in field plots that had been fumigated with methyl bromide (98% CH₃Br : 2% CCl₃NO₂ [w/w]) before planting or left untreated. Carolina Cayenne is a well-adapted cayenne-type pepper that is highly resistant to M. incognita. The bell-type peppers Keystone Resistant Giant and California Wonder are intermediate to susceptible and susceptible, respectively. None of the cultivars exhibited root galling in the methyl bromide fumigated plots and nematode reproduction was minimal (<250 eggs/g fresh root), indicating that the fumigation treatment was highly effective in controlling M. incognita. Root galling of Carolina Cayenne and nematode reproduction were minimal, and fruit yields were not reduced in the untreated plots. The root-galling reaction for Keystone Resistant Giant was intermediate (gall index = 2.9, on a scale of 1 to 5), and nematode reproduction was moderately high. However, yields of Keystone Resistant Giant were not reduced in untreated plots. Root galling was severe (gall index = 4.3) on susceptible California Wonder, nematode reproduction was high, and fruit yields were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in untreated plots. The resistance exhibited by Carolina Cayenne and Keystone Resistant Giant provides an alternative to methyl bromide for reducing yield losses by southern root-knot nematodes in pepper. The high level of resistance of Carolina Cayenne also suppresses population densities of M. incognita.
Capsicum annuum; Meloidogyne incognita; methyl bromide alternatives; nematode management; nematode resistance; pepper; root-knot nematodes
Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs.
antagonist; biological control; Meloidogyne spp.
Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species.
18S; Globodera; Meloidogyne spp.; Nacobbus; nematode; phylogeny; rDNA; root-knot nematode; SSU; Subanguina; Zygotylenchus
Bioassays and whole-plant experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Phytophthora nicotianae. Both organisms are parasites of the citrus fibrous root cortex. Nematode-infected and non-infected root segments were excised from naturally infected field roots and placed on water agar in close proximity to agar plugs of P. nicotianae and then transferred to a Phytophthora-selective medium. At 10 and 12 days, 50% fewer nematode-infected segments were infected by P. nicotianae than non-infected segments. In whole-plant experiments in glass test tubes, sour orange seedlings were inoculated with two densities (8,000 or 80,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles) of T. semipenetrans, and after establishment of infection were inoculated with two densities (9,000 and 90,000 zoospores) of P. nicotianae. In the first experiment, fungal protein was 53% to 65% lower in the roots infected by both organisms than in roots infected by the fungus only. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot weights were 33% to 50% greater (P ≤ 0.05) in plants infected by both parasites, regardless of inoculum density. Fibrous and tap root weights were 5% to 23% and 19% to 34% greater (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, in nematode-fungus combination treatments compared to the fungus alone. A second experiment was conducted, where plants were infected by the fungus, the nematode, both organisms, or neither organism. The soil mixture pH for 50% of the plants was adjusted from 4.5 to 7.0 to favor nematode infection. A higher rate of nematode infection of plants growing at pH 7.0 compared to pH 4.5 resulted in greater suppression of fungal development and greater inhibition of fungal damage to the plant. Compared to plants infected only by P. nicotianae, shoot and root weights were 37% and 33% greater (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, in plants infected by both parasites. These experiments have revealed antagonism between T. semipenetrans and P. nicotianae in citrus.
citrus; competition; interspecific interactions; Phytophthora nicotianae; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Dried ground plant tissues from 20 leguminous species were mixed with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil at 1, 2 or 2.5, and 5% (w/w) and incubated for 1 week at room temperature (21 to 27°C). Tomato ('Rutgers') seedlings were transplanted into infested soil to determine nematode viability. Most tissues reduced gall numbers below the non-amended controls. The tissue amendments that were most effective include: Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria retusa, Indigofera hirsuta, I. nummularifolia, I. spicata, I. suffruticosa, I. tinctoria, and Tephrosia adunca. Although certain tissues reduced the tomato dry weights, particularly at the higher amendment rates (5%), some tissues resulted in greater dry weights. These non-traditional legumes, known to contain bioactive phytochemicals, may offer considerable promise as soil amendments for control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Not only do these legumes reduce root-knot nematodes but some of them also enhance plant height and dry weight.
bioactive; genetic resources; legumes; root-knot nematode; soil amendment
Entomopathogenic nematodes are potent biopesticides that can be mass-produced by in vitro or in vivo methods. For in vivo production, consistently high infection rates are critical to efficiency of the process. Our objective was to optimize in vivo inoculation of Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor by determining effects of inoculation method, nematode concentration, and host density. We found immersing hosts in a nematode suspension to be approximately four times more efficient in time than pipeting inoculum onto the hosts. The number of hosts exhibiting signs of nematode infection increased with nematode concentration and decreased with host density per unit area. This is the first report indicating an effect of host density on inoculation efficiency. We did not detect an effect of nematode inoculum concentration on nematode yield per host or per gram of host. Yield was affected by host density in one of the four nematode-host combinations (S. carpocapsae and T. molitor). We conclude that optimization of inoculation parameters is a necessary component of developing an in vivo production system for entomopathogenic nematodes.
culture; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; in vivo; production; Steinernema carpocapsae
Rearing conditions have been shown to affect several aspects of entomopathogenic nematode biology, including dispersal behavior and infectivity. The present study explores the differences in development rate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae when infective juveniles (IJ) were collected in water using the standard White trap method vs. natural emergence from cadavers into sand. We exposed Galleria mellonella to IJ entompopathogenic nematodes treated in one of three ways: collected in a White trap, allowed to emerge directly into sand, or collected in a White trap and treated with a cadaver homogenate. When S. carpocapsae IJ were allowed to emerge from cadavers directly into sand and then allowed to infect new hosts, they developed into adults at a faster rate than IJ that were collected with White traps. The difference in development was not due to differential infection rates. No difference in development stages was detected amount the same H. bacteriophora treatments.
entomopathogenic nematodes; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; host; rearing conditions; Steinernema carpocapsae
Reproduction of reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis on 139 soybean lines was evaluated in a greenhouse in the summer of 2001. Cultivars and lines (119 total) were new in the Arkansas and Mississippi Soybean Testing Programs, and an additional 20 were submitted by C. Overstreet, Louisiana State Extension Nematologist. A second test of 32 breeding lines and 2 cultivars from the Clemson University soybean breeding program was performed at the same time under the same conditions. Controls were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, susceptible Braxton, and fallow infested soil. Five treatment replications were planted in sandy loam soil infested with 1,744 eggs and vermiform reniform nematodes, grown for 10 weeks in 10 cm-diam.- pots. Total reniform nematodes extracted from soil and roots was determined, and a reproductive factor (final population (Pf)/ initial inoculum level (Pi)) was calculated for each genotype. Reproduction on each genotype was compared to the reproduction on the resistant cultivar Forrest (RF), and the log ratio [log₁₀(RF + 1) is reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest (log ratio) were not suitable hosts, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered suitable hosts. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode and to select useful breeding lines as parent material for future development of reniform nematode resistant cultivars and lines.
breeding lines; cultivars; Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
The effects of inundative releases of entomopathogenic Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae infective juveniles and applications of the biological control fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (RootShield) on Pratylenchus penetrans and strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae were determined in field microplots and small plots. Entomopathogenic nematodes were applied as a soil drench at rates of 7.4 or 14.8 billion per ha in May or August for 3 years. RootShield was applied as crown dips at planting or later as a soil drench. There were no differences in P. penetrans from plants drenched with water alone or with S. carpocapsae or S. feltiae nematodes, averaged over rates and timing. The nematode species applied and the rate or timing of application had no effect on lesion nematodes. Our results suggest that P. penetrans exposure to living or heat-killed S. feltiae and associated bacteria resulted in temporary lack of motility. A progressively increasing proportion of P. penetrans became active again and, after 8 days, had infected tomato roots in similar numbers to unexposed P. penetrans. In laboratory assays and field plots or microplots, S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae did not permanently affect P. penetrans in tomato or strawberry.
black root rot; entomopathogenic nematodes; Galleria mellonella; motility; Pratylenchus penetrans; repellence; Rhizoctonia fragariae; Rootsheild; Steinernema carpocapsae; S. feltiae; strawberry; Trichoderma harzianum
The spatial distribution of 138 Dorylaimid and Mononchid species collected in a natural area from the Southeast Iberian Peninsula was studied. A chorological classification was used to examine distribution patterns shared by groups of species. Eighty species were classified into 14 collective and 16 individual chorotypes. The geographical projections of several collective chorotypes are illustrated along with their corresponding distribution maps. The importance of this analysis to nematological study is briefly discussed.
biogeography; chorotypes; Dorylaimids; Iberian Peninsula; Mononchids; spatial distribution
Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations.
biological control; entomopathogenic nematodes; Thripinema nicklewoodi; western flower thrips
The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Our objective was to determine virulence and reproductive potential of six commercially available nematode species in C. nenuphar larvae and adults. Nematodes tested were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb strain), H. marelatus (Point Reyes strains), H. megidis (UK211 strain), Steinernema riobrave (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (All strain), and S. feltiae (SN strain). Survival of C. nenuphar larvae treated with S. feltiae and S. riobrave, and survival of adults treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave, was reduced relative to non-treated insects. Other nematode treatments were not different from the control. Conotrachelus nenuphar larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae infection than were adults, but for other nematode species there was no significant insect-stage effect. Reproduction in C. nenuphar was greatest for H. marelatus, which produced approximately 10,000 nematodes in larvae and 5,500 in adults. Other nematodes produced approximately 1,000 to 3,700 infective juveniles per C. nenuphar with no significant differences among nematode species or insect stages. We conclude that S. carpocapsae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for controlling adults, whereas S. feltiae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for larval control.
biological control; Conotrachelus nenuphar; entomopathogenic nematode; Heterorhabditis; reproduction; Steinernema; virulence
In recent years, the productivity of cotton in Brazil has been progressively decreasing, often the result of the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. This species can reduce crop productivity by up to 40%. Nematodes can be controlled by nematicides but, because of expense and toxicity, application of nematicides to large crop areas may be undesirable. In this work, a methodology using geostatistics for quantifying the risk of nematicide application to small crop areas is proposed. This risk, in economic terms, can be compared to nematicide cost to develop an optimal strategy for Precision Farming. Soil (300 cm³) was sampled in a regular network from a R. reniformis-infested area that was a cotton monoculture for 20 years. The number of nematodes in each sample was counted. The nematode number per volume of soil was characterized using geostatistics, and 100 conditional simulations were conducted. Based on the simulations, risk maps were plotted showing the areas where nematicide should be applied in a Precision Farming context. The methodology developed can be applied to farming in countries that are highly dependent on agriculture, with useful economic implications.
conditional simulations; cotton; geostatistics; kriging; precision farming; Rotylenchulus reniformis; semivariogram
Previous studies indicated that Tylenchulus semipenetrans infection reduced concentrations of inorganic osmolytes, (Na⁺, Cl⁻, K⁺), in roots, along with leaf K⁺ in citrus. However, infection increased leaf Na⁺ and Cl⁻, along with carbohydrates in roots. Pruning of roots also increased carbohydrates in intact roots, whereas shoot pruning increased carbohydrates in shoots. Carbohydrates are translocated as reducing sugars, which collectively form organic osmolytes. Because changes in concentrations of osmolytes regulate osmotic potential in plant cells, we hypothesize that increasing concentrations of organic osmolytes in an organ displaces inorganic osmolytes. We measured the osmotic potentials of young citrus trees under nematode infection, stem girdling, and root pruning at two salinity levels. All treatments reduced leaf osmotic potentials at four sampling times. At harvest, 16 days after pruning and girdling treatments, organs with higher carbohydrates had lower inorganic osmolytes and vice versa, regardless of the treatment. Pruning simulated effects of nematode infection, whereas girdling reduced the effects of nematodes. Results suggested that high organic osmolytes in roots displace inorganic osmolytes, thereby avoiding very low osmotic potentials.
carbohydrates; chloride; citrus nematode; osmolyte; potassium; root pruning; sodium; stem girdling; Tylenchulus semipenetrans