Plant residues of broccoli, melon, and tomato with or without addition of chicken manure were used as biofumigants in two pot experiments with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soils. The efficacy of these biofumigants in controlling M. incognita infestation in susceptible tomato bio-assay plants was studied at soil temperatures of 20º, 25º, and 30 ºC. None of the plant residues was effective at 20 ºC, and broccoli was more effective than tomato or melon at 25 ºC. At 30 ºC all three plant residues reduced M. incognita infestation of tomato to very low levels. Chicken manure was effective in one of two experiments at 20 ºC, and at 25 ºC enhanced the efficacy of tomato and melon residue in one of two experiments. At 30 ºC chicken manure was equally effective as the three plant residues but did not further decrease infestation levels in plant residue amended soils. It is concluded that biofumigation to control M. incognita is unlikely to be effective under cool conditions, that at soil temperatures around 25 ºC broccoli is more effective than melon and tomato, and that the addition of chicken manure at this soil temperature may enhance the efficacy. At high soil temperatures, of approximately 30 ºC, the biofumigant source seems of minor importance as strong reductions in tomato infestation by M. incognita were achieved by addition of each of the three plant residues as well as by addition of chicken manure.
biofumigation; broccoli; chicken manure; control; melon; root-knot nematode; temperature; tomato
In response to the new opportunities for genome sequencing and comparative genomics, the Society of Nematology (SON) formed a committee to develop a white paper in support of the broad scientific needs associated with this phylum and interests of SON members. Although genome sequencing is expensive, the data generated are unique in biological systems in that genomes have the potential to be complete (every base of the genome can be accounted for), accurate (the data are digital and not subject to stochastic variation), and permanent (once obtained, the genome of a species does not need to be experimentally re-sampled). The availability of complete, accurate, and permanent genome sequences from diverse nematode species will underpin future studies into the biology and evolution of this phylum and the ecological associations (particularly parasitic) nematodes have with other organisms. We anticipate that upwards of 100 nematode genomes will be solved to varying levels of completion in the coming decade and suggest biological and practical considerations to guide the selection of the most informative taxa for sequencing.
Caenorhabditis elegans; comparative genomics; genome sequencing; systematics
Two subtraction libraries were prepared from RNA extracted at early and late stages in the development of soybean cyst nematodes (SCN), Heterodera glycines, in soybean roots. The cDNA from inoculated roots were subtracted with cDNA prepared from non-inoculated roots and SCN eggs, and 384 clones from each library were sequenced. BLAST searches revealed that 191 of the cDNA in the late library were most probably of nematode origin. Alignment of the 191 sequences produced 28 unigenes and 1 singlet. The size of the transcripts for the nematode genes was confirmed by RNA blot hybridization. Thirteen SCN transcripts were selected for further study because they included short open reading frames encoding predicted proteins of <20 kDa with signal peptides at their amino-terminus. Ten of the 13 encode predicted peptides <10 kDa. Although most of the 13 transcripts were fairly abundant in the SCN dbEST, most were of unknown function based on BLAST similarities. Nevertheless, several had characteristics common to anti-microbial peptides, and in situ hybridization indicated that three of the selected transcripts were expressed in the female reproductive system.
anti-microbial; Heterodera glycines; reproductive system; peptides; soybean cyst nematode; subtraction library
This study examined the effects of three application methods (chisel injection, Avenger coulter injection, and drip irrigation) and two plastic films (polyethylene film [PE] and virtually impermeable film [VIF]) on distribution of cis- and trans- 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in a Florida sandy soil after application of Telone C35 or Telone In-Line. Regardless of application method, VIF retained greater amounts of cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP in the root zone with longer residential time than PE. There was better retention of the three compounds in the root zone when applied with the Avenger coulter injection rig than chisel injection, especially in combination with VIF. Distribution of the three compounds in the root zone was less predictable when applied by drip irrigation. Following drip irrigation, more than 50% of the three compounds in the PE and VIF-covered beds was found near the end of the drip tapes in one experiment, whereas the distribution was much more uniform in the root zone in a second experiment. Among the three biologically active compounds, CP disappeared from the root zone more rapidly than cis- and trans-1,3-D, especially in the PE-covered beds.
1,3-dichloropropene; chloropicrin; distribution; fumigant; fumigation; methyl bromide alternative; polyethylene mulch; root zone; virtually impermeable film
The continual detection of a slow (I1) esterase band in greenhouse cultures of Meloidogyne konaensis isolated from the field led to a hypothesis that the nematode may be polymorphic for esterase. A survey of coffee fields demonstrated at least four esterase phenotypes were present in Meloidogyne recovered. An F1 phenotype predominated (60% of the females), but an I1 phenotype was also common (30% of samples). A series of greenhouse and laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand this polymorphism. Esterase phenotype was not affected by development at 22º, 25º, or 33 ºC on tomato. Two different esterase phenotypes (I1 and F1-I1) were detected after M. konaensis was grown on tomato for several generations, even in single-egg-mass lines derived from an F1 female. Three isolates of M. konaensis differing in esterase phenotype (F1, I1, and F1-I1) did not differ morphologically but did differ in their parasitic ability. Only the F1 isolate parasitized Coffea arabica. The F1-I1 isolate had greater reproduction on Lycopersicon esculentum and Cucumis sativus than either the I1 or F1 isolate. The mechanism of the development of the polymorphism has yet to be determined. However, the F1 esterase may be useful as a marker for future research on parasitism of coffee by M. konaensis.
coffee; esterase polymorphism; genetic variation; host range; Meloidogyne konaensis; parasitism; root-knot nematode; selection
A study of life-history traits was made to determine factors associated with the fitness of Meloidogyne incognita isolates virulent to resistance gene Rk in cowpea. Egg hatch, root penetration, egg mass production, and fecundity (eggs per egg mass) of avirulent and virulent phenotypes were compared among M. incognita isolates, isofemale lines, and single descent lines over multiple generations on resistant and susceptible cowpea. Variation (P ≤ 0.05) in both hatch and root penetration rates was found among isolates at a given generation. However, this variation was not consistent within nematode lines among generations, and there was no correlation with level of virulence, except for penetration and virulence on resistant cowpea at generation 20. Resistant and susceptible cowpea roots were penetrated at similar levels. Differences in reproductive factors on resistant plants were correlated with levels of virulence expression. In some isofemale lines, single descent lines, and isolates, lower (P ≤ 0.05) rates of egg mass production and fecundity on susceptible cowpea were associated with virulence to Rk, indicating a trade-off between reproductive fitness and virulence. Other virulent nematode lines from the same isolates did not have reduced reproductive ability on susceptible cowpea over 27 generations. Thus, virulent lineages varied in reproductive ability on susceptible cowpea, contributing to adaptation and maintenance of virulence within M. incognita populations under stabilizing selection.
cowpea; fitness; genetic variation; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; root-knot nematode; selection; Vigna unguiculata; virulence
Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P < 0.001) by an average of 0.56 (25.1%) and 1.17 (52.5%) tonnes/ha in comparison to untreated check plots when aldicarb at 2.24 kg or fosthiazate at 13.5 a.i./ha, respectively, were broadcast and incorporated into the soil to suppress nematodes. The planned F test using orthogonal coefficients indicated that the mean response of grain yields to nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P < 0.001). Root lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) in wheat roots and in root zone soil at harvest were reduced by the nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.
aldicarb; bacterial-feeding nematodes; fosthiazate; root lesion nematodes; spring wheat
Use of resistant cultivars is one of the major tactics for combating soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, which is the most destructive pathogen affecting soybean seed production. However, developing new H. glycines-resistant soybean cultivars is a very labor-intensive process, partially due to the lack of a quick method for counting the H. glycines females that develop on soybean roots. We have developed a fluorescence image-based system for counting females on excised seedling roots cultured on nutrient media in petri dishes. In this system, the females fluoresced when exposed to a wavelength of 570 nm. The fluorescent images were captured with a digital camera, transferred to a computer, and displayed on a monitor. The image of an entire sample was viewed at once, and the fluorescing females were counted manually. This system significantly improved the efficiency and accuracy of counting females developed on cultured seedling roots compared to a microscope counting method. The potential for applications in the screening of nematode-resistant crops is discussed.
female counting; fluorescence image; Heterodera glycines; imaging technology; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) was found in rhizosphere of Pinus ponderosa and Arctostaphylos patula growing along Angeles Crest Highway in the San Gabriel mountains of California. The nematode species is characterized by a round-to-hexagonal labial disc with six bulging sectors, lateral sectors of first labial annule smaller than the submedian sectors, six to eight labial annules, distinct deirids, stylet length (45-57 µm), body length (666-996 µm), lateral field with or without areolation of outer bands on tail, and a rounded, smooth tail terminus. Geocenamus angelescresti n. sp. most closely resembles G. superbus but differs from it by a shorter stylet (45-57 µm vs. 67 µm), shorter body length (666-996 µm vs. 1,200 µm), bulged sectors and smaller diameter of the labial disc (2.3-2.8 µm vs. 4.0 µm, round, smooth), longer female tail (54-68 µm vs. 41 µm), and a narrower tail terminus. An emended description of the genus and a list of valid species are provided. Geocenamus arcticus (Mulvey, 1969) Tarjan 1973 and G. uralensis Baydulova 1983 are proposed as junior synonyms of G. tenuidens Thorne &Malek 1968. An identification key to 12 species of Geocenamus and a compendium of important diagnostic morphological characters used in the identification of species are included.
Belonolaimidae; compendium; diagnostic key; Geocenamus; Geocenamus angelescresti; morphology; new species; taxonomy
The effects of soil management systems on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) eggs and gall incidence on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) following tomato were evaluated. Soil was collected from a replicated field experiment in which six management systems were being assessed for vegetable production. Soil management systems were conventional production, organic production, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture, bahiagrass: Stylosanthes (Stylosanthes guianensis) pasture, bare ground fallow, and weed fallow. Soil was collected from field plots and used in greenhouse experiments. Identification of egg-parasitic fungi and the incidence of root-knot nematode galling were assessed both on tomato and cucumber planted in the same pots following the removal of tomato plants. Organic, bare ground fallow and conventional production treatments reduced galling both on tomato and on cucumber following tomato. Although no treatment consistently enhanced egg-parasitic fungi, management system did affect egg viability and the types of fungi isolated from parasitized eggs.
biological control; cropping systems; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; fungal egg parasites; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; tomato
A field inoculation method was developed to produce Meloidogyne spp. infestation sites with minimal quantities of nematode inoculum and with a reduced labor requirement compared to previous techniques. In a preseason-methyl bromidefumigated site, nematode egg suspensions were delivered at concentrations of 0 or 10x eggs/m of row where x = 2.12, 2.82, 3.52, or 4.22 through a drip line attached to the seed firmer of a commercial 2-row planter into the open seed furrow while planting cowpea. These treatments were compared to a hand-inoculated treatment, in which 103.1 eggs were delivered every 30 cm in 5 ml of water agar suspension 2 weeks after planting. Ten weeks after planting, infection of cowpea roots was measured by gall rating and gall counts on cowpea roots. A linear relationship between the inoculation levels and nematode-induced galls was found. At this time, the amount of galling per root system in the hand-inoculated treatment was less than in the machine-applied treatments. Advantages of this new technique include application uniformity and low population level requisite for establishing the nematode. This method has potential in field-testing of Meloidogyne spp. management strategies by providing uniform infestation of test sites at planting time.
cowpea; infestation levels; infestation method; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode inoculum; root knot nematode; technique; uniform field infestation
Observations on the development of reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) on roots of Gossypium longicalyx, G. hirsutum, and two interspecific hybrids derived from them were made by light microscopy. Gossypium longicalyx is reported to be immune to reniform nematode, but the mechanism(s) for resistance are unknown. Penetration of G. longicalyx roots by female nematodes was confirmed, and incipient swelling of the females, indicating initiation of maturation of the reproductive system, was observed. Female maturation occurred up to the formation of a single embryo inside the female body but not beyond this point. In both hybrids, development was inhibited but progressed further than in the immune parent. Reactions ranged from highly compatible, with the formation of active syncytia and full development of females, to incompatible with little or no development of the female. Compatible plants showed characteristic hypertrophied cells, enlarged nuclei, dense cytoplasm, and partial dissolution of cell walls, whereas incompatible plant reactions included lignification of the cells adjacent to the nematode head, or the complete collapse and necrosis of the cells involved. The need to characterize reactions and to carefully select among the plants descended from the hybrids during the introgression process, as well as the importance of combining the results of reproduction tests with histological observation of the plant-nematode interactions, is discussed.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Gossypium longicalyx; histopathology; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Isofemale lines (IFL) from single egg masses were studied for genetic variation in Meloidogyne incognita isolates avirulent and virulent to the resistance gene Rk in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). In parental isolates cultured on susceptible and resistant cowpea, the virulent isolate contained 100% and the avirulent isolate 7% virulent lineages. Virulence was selected from the avirulent isolate within eight generations on resistant cowpea (lineage selection). In addition, virulence was selected from avirulent females (individual selection). Virulence differed (P ≤ 0.05) both within and between cohorts of IFL cultured for up to 27 generations on susceptible or resistant cowpea. Distinct virulence profiles were observed among IFL. Some remained avirulent on susceptible plants and became extinct on resistant plants; some remained virulent on resistant and susceptible plants; some changed from avirulent to virulent on resistant plants; and others changed from virulent to avirulent on susceptible plants. Also, some IFL increased in virulence on susceptible plants. Single descent lines from IFL showed similar patterns of virulence for up to six generations. These results revealed considerable genetic variation in virulence in a mitotic parthenogenetic nematode population. The frequencies of lineages with stable or changeable virulence and avirulence phenotypes determined the overall virulence potential of the population.
cowpea; genetic variation; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; root-knot nematode; selection; Vigna unguiculata; virulence
Plant-parasitic nematodes can be very damaging to turfgrasses. The projected cancellation of the registration for fenamiphos in the near future has generated a great deal of interest in identifying acceptable alternative nematode management tactics for use on turfgrasses. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated applications of several commercially available nematicides and root biostimulants for reducing population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and (or) promoting health of bermudagrass in nematode-infested soil. One experimental site was infested with Hoplolaimus galeatus and Trichodorus obtusus, the second with Belonolaimus longicaudatus. In both trials, none of the experimental treatments reduced population densities (P ≤ 0.1) of plant-parasitic nematodes, or consistently promoted turf visual performance or turf root production. Nematologists with responsibility to advise turf managers regarding nematode management should thoroughly investigate the validity of product claims before advising clientele in their use.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; sting nematode; stubby-root nematode; Trichodorus obtusus; turf
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (EC 220.127.116.11) is a key enzyme in glycolysis. We have characterized full-length coding sequences for aldolase genes from the cyst nematodes Heterodera glycines and Globodera rostochiensis, the first for any plant-parasitic nematode. Nucleotide homology is high (83% identity), and the respective sequences encode 40 kDa proteins with 89% amino acid identity. Genomic sequences contain six introns located at identical positions in both genes. Intron 4 in the H. glycines gene is >500 bp. Partial genomic sequences determined for seven other cyst nematode species reveal that the large fourth intron is characteristic of Heterodera but not Globodera aldolase genes. Total aldolase-like specific activity in homogenates from H. glycines was 2-fold lower than in either Caenorhabditis elegans or Panagrellus redivivus (P = 0.001). Activity in H. glycines samples was higher in juvenile stages than in adults (P = 0.003). Heterodera glycines aldolase has Km = 41 µM and is inhibited by treatment with carboxypeptidase A or sodium borohydride.
aldolase; cyst nematode; enzyme; gene; Globodera; Heterodera; intron
A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from these by one or more of the following: body, tail and hyaline tail length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles; stylet length and shape of spicules in males; perineal pattern, stylet length and shape of knobs in females. The distinctive perineal pattern is oval to rectangular, with smooth to moderately wavy and coarse striae, and with characteristic radial structures present underneath the pattern area; the dorsal arch is high, sometimes round to rectangular, and striae in and around the anal area form a thick network-like pattern interrupted by lateral lines and large phasmids. Second-stage juveniles have a long, slender tail and long, gradually tapering hyaline tail region ending in a rounded terminus. Male spicules commonly have an acutely angled shaft with a bidentate terminus. Molecular data from the ribosomal large subunit D3 expansion segment revealed four haplotypes, two of which were unique and distinguish M. thailandica n. sp. from M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
ginger; intergenic spacer (IGS); internal transcribed spacer (ITS1); large subunit (LSU); Meloidogyne; morphology; new species; ribosomal DNA; root-knot nematode; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy; Thailand
Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard.
Coffea arabica; isozyme analysis; Meloidogyne exigua; root-knot nematode
The most effective management program for soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is a crop rotation that uses nonhost crops and resistant soybean cultivars. However, little is known about the effects of rotation crops and overwintering on H. glycines biology. These experiments were initiated to determine the effects of seven alternative crops on H. glycines' ability to infect and mature on subsequent soybean crops, and to assess the viability of eggs during the overwintering months. Rotation studies were conducted for 2 years in each of two naturally infested fields, and overwintering tests were conducted in three consecutive growing seasons in one naturally infested field. Rotation crop and fallow treatments did not have a consistent effect on the ability of H. glycines to infect soybean or mature. Soybean yields were often higher following fallow or a nonhost crop than following soybean, although not usually significantly so. Heterodera glycines egg viability did not differ (P < 0.05) between overwintering months at 0-to-10 or 10-to-20-cm soil depths. These results suggest that H. glycines' ability to infect a subsequent soybean crop and develop to maturity is not diminished by nonhost crops or during the winter months.
Avena sativa; Bbrassica rapa; canola; corn; fallow; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; grain sorghum; infectivity; nematode; nonhost; oat; overwintering; common red clover; rotation; sesame; Sesamum indicum; Sorghum bicolor; soybean; soybean cyst nematode; trifolium pratense; viability; Zea mays
The techniques of laser capture microdissection and quantitative RT-PCR were investigated as methods for measuring mRNA in giant cells induced by Meloidogyne javanica. Laser capture microdissection allowed precise sampling of giant cells at 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The expression of three genes (a water channel protein gene Rb7, a plasma membrane H+-ATPase (LHA4), and a hexose kinase (HXK1) was measured based on mRNA extracted from tissue samples and quantitated using reversetranscription real-time PCR. These genes were chosen arbitrarily to represent different aspects of primary metabolism. The amount of HXK1 mRNA in giant cells was not different from that in root meristem or cortical cells when compared on the basis of number of molecules per unit tissue volume, and was similar at all sample times. Amount of mRNA for LHA4 and Rb7 was much greater in giant cells than in cortical cells, but only Rb7 was also greater in giant cells than in root meristem cells. Numbers of mRNA molecules of LHA4 increased linearly in giant cells from 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the amount of Rb7 mRNA was similar at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation but increased at 3 weeks after inoculation. The amount of mRNA for these two genes was similar at all sample times in cortical and root-tip cells. Apparent up regulation of some genes in giant cells may be due primarily to the increased number of copies of the gene in giant cells, whereas for other genes up regulation may also involve increased transcription of the increased number of copies of the gene.
gene expression; giant cells; HXK1; LAH4; laser capture microdissection; Meloidogyne javanica; mRNA; RB7; root-knot nematodes; real-time PCR; reverse transcription
Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp., a phoretic associate of Halictus bees from Ankara, Turkey, is described and illustrated. Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp. is closest to B. kevini, which is phoretically associated with Halictus bees from the Pacific Northwest. Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp. and B. kevini appear to be sister taxa based upon several shared morphological features, similar life histories involving phoresy with soil-dwelling Halictus bees, and molecular analysis of the near-full-length small subunit rDNA, D2D3 expansion segments of the large subunit rDNA, and partial mitochondrial DNA COI. Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp. can be differentiated from all other species of Bursaphelenchus based upon spicule morphology. The paired spicules are uniquely shaped and ventrally recurved, and both B. anatolius n. sp. and B. kevini possess extending flaps that open when the spicules are protracted beyond the cloaca. Population growth of B. anatolius n. sp. was measured at 23 °C in the laboratory on cultures of the fungus Monilinia fructicola grown on lactic acid-treated, 5% glycerol-supplemented potato dextrose agar. Nematode population densities rapidly increased from 110 to about 110,000/9-cm-diam. dish within 21 days.
Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp.; cytochrome oxidase subunit I; Halictidae; Halictus (Argalictus); Hymenoptera; large subunit rRNA; molecular phylogeny; morphology; mycophagy; nematode; Parasitaphelenchidae; phoresy; small subunit rrna; taxonomy
A 2-year study was conducted in which three treatment tactics of oxamyl (at planting application, application every 2 weeks, and rescue applications, as determined by crop symptoms) were compared to fumigant treatments with methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin for management of Meloidogyne spp. In 2002, treatments that included 1,3-D produced higher yields as determined both by number and weight of marketable fruit. All treatment tactics relying solely on oxamyl, at planting, scheduled treatments, and rescue, were not different from untreated controls for both marketable yield and number of fruit. Gall ratings in 2002 were lowest for 1,3-D at the 112-liters/ha rate, followed by 1,3-D at 84 liters/ha with and without oxamyl. All treatments of oxamyl, except when combined with 1,3-D, had gall ratings not different from untreated plots. In 2004, treatments of methyl bromide and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin had the highest total number of both marketable fruit and highest marketable yields. All treatment strategies relying solely on oxamyl had yields equivalent to the untreated controls. Mean root-gall ratings were lowest for methyl bromide plus chloropicrin and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin treatments. Root-gall ratings for all treatment tactics relying solely on oxamyl were not different from untreated controls.
1,3-dichloropropene; cantaloupe; chloropicrin; Cucumis melo; fumigation; gall rating; management; Meloidogyne; methyl bromide; nonfumigant; oxamyl; rescue; root-knot nematode