Meloidogyne partityla is a parasite of pecan and walnut. Our objective was to determine interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex and M. partityla. Specifically, we investigated suppressive effects of Steinernema feltiae (strain SN) and S. riobrave (strain 7–12) applied as infective juveniles and in infected host insects, as well as application of S. feltiae's bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus bovienii on M. partityla. In two separate greenhouse trials, the treatments were applied to pecan seedlings that were simultaneously infested with M. partityla eggs; controls received only water and M. partityla eggs. Additionally, all treatment applications were re-applied (without M. partityla eggs) two months later. Four months after initial treatment, plants were assessed for number of galls per root system, number of egg masses per root system, number of eggs per root system, number of eggs per egg mass, number of eggs per gram dry root weight, dry shoot weight, and final population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles (J2). In the first trial, the number of egg masses per plant was lower in the S. riobrave-infected host treatment than in the control (by approximately 18%). In the second trial, dry root weight was higher in the S. feltiae-infected host treatment than in the control (approximately 80% increase). No other treatment effects were detected. The marginal and inconsistent effects observed in our experiments indicate that the treatments we applied are not sufficient for controlling M. partityla.
Biological control; entomopathogenic nematode; Meloidogyne partityla; pecan; Steinernema; Xenorhabdus
To assess the effect of an inundative release of entomopathogenic nematodes on soil organisms, population densities of soil-dwelling organisms were monitored before and after an application of an aqueous suspension of Heterorhabditis megidis to field plots in mown grassland (Exp. I) at a level of 0.38 million/m2 and to plots (Exp. II) situated in a forested area, a grass sports field and an orchard at a level of 1.5 million/m2. At the forested site, heat-killed H. megidis (1.5 million/m2) also were applied to two plots to compare the impact on soil organisms of a large introduction of living and dead nematodes. Post-treatment, temporary changes in natural population densities of several nematode genera and other organisms were detected in H. megidis-treated plots in both experiments. Temporary changes in the nematode trophic structure occurred in the percentages of nematode omnivores, herbivores and predators in both experiments. Evidence from all sites suggests that the changes were temporary and that the presence of decaying H. megidis following treatment contributed to nutrient enrichment of the soil and to direct and indirect effects on the nematode community.
Biological control; ecology; entomopathogenic nematode; field; Heterorhabditis megidis; impact; interaction; soil
We have developed a simple PCR assay protocol for detection of the root-knot nematode (RKN) species Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica extracted from soil. Nematodes are extracted from soil using Baermann funnels and centrifugal flotation. The nematode-containing fraction is then digested with proteinase K, and a PCR assay is carried out with primers specific for this group of RKN and with universal primers spanning the ITS of rRNA genes. The presence of RKN J2 can be detected among large numbers of other plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The procedure was tested with several soil types and crops from different locations and was found to be sensitive and accurate. Analysis of unknowns and spiked soil samples indicated that detection sensitivity was the same as or higher than by microscopic examination.
Detection; diagnosis; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; PCR; root-knot nematode; soil
The 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome oxidase I region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were sequenced for 24 Xiphinema americanum-group populations sourced from a number of geographically disparate locations. Sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and compared. 18S rDNA strongly suggested that only X. pachtaicum, X. simile (two populations) and a X. americanum s.l. population from Portugal were different from the other 20 populations studied, whereas mtDNA indicated some heterogeneity between populations. Phylogenetically, based on mtDNA, an apparent dichotomy existed amongst X. americanum-group populations from North America and those from Asia, South America and Oceania. Analyses of 18S rDNA and mtDNA sequences underpin the classical taxonomic issues of the X. americanum-group and cast doubt on the degree of speciation within the X. americanum-group.
18S rDNA; longidorid; Longidoridae; molecular analysis; mtDNA; nematode; taxonomy
The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a major pathogen of processing carrot in New York, significantly reducing marketable yield and profitability. Severely infected carrots are stubby, galled and forked and therefore unmarketable. In field microplot trials in 1996 and 1998, the incidence and severity of root-galling increased and the marketable yield of carrot decreased as the initial inoculum density of M. hapla was increased from 0 to 8 eggs/cm3 soil, in mineral or organic soils. The application of oxamyl at planting was effective against M. hapla and its damage to carrots grown in mineral and organic soils. Oxamyl application reduced root-galling severity and increased marketable yield. In commercial fields, the cost-effectiveness of oxamyl application was related to the level of soil infestation with M. hapla.
carrot; cost-benefit analysis; Daucas carota; economic threshold; Meloidogyne hapla; management; northern root-knot nematode; oxamyl; plant disease loss; yield loss
Comparative studies between Portuguese (T and HF) and Japanese (S10, T4, C14-5 and OKD-1) isolates of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus have been made in order to provide information to better understand the possible origin of the Portuguese isolates, recently introduced in the European Union. The main comparative aspects investigated were pathogenicity (seedling mortality ratio), sexual compatibility, and DNA sequences of the rDNA region. Four-year-old Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings were used as host plants for pathogenicity tests. The Portuguese isolates, and in particular isolate “T,” propagated in higher numbers than the Japanese isolates within pine seedlings. All combinations of crossings produced viable progeny, with higher numbers obtained when crossings were made between Japanese and Portuguese isolates, a possible situation of heterosis and/or inbreeding depression. Reciprocal crossings yielded different values, which may reflect a sex effect (maternal inheritance, mtDNA). Regarding DNA sequencing, both Portuguese isolates displayed nearly identical ITS 1, ITS2, and 5.8S rDNA base sequences as the Japanese isolates. Although biologically very similar, and possibly reflecting a common origin, the Portuguese isolates may present a serious threat to Japanese black pine, due to their higher virulence.
Portugal; Japan; pathogenicity; sexual compatibility; DNA sequence
The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection.
banana; choice test; endophyte; Fusarium oxysporum; host preference; Musa; Radopholus similis
Fourteen morphologically putative populations of X. krugi were clearly separated into four different profiles by RFLP analysis (Alu I and Hinf I), sequencing of the ITS-1 region, and subsequent Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses. These four profiles were further supported by a principal component analysis of morphometric characters that yielded four taxonomic clusters matching those produced by the molecular data. Sequence homology was greater amongst populations that represented the same RFLP profile than between profiles and similar both between representative populations of the RFLP profiles and putative closely related Xiphinema species. This study suggests that X. krugi is a potential species complex comprised of at least four distinct genotypes.
Brazil; DNA sequence; intraspecific variability; longidorids; speciation; Xiphinema
Experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) on root reductions and quantity of nitrate (NO3
−) leached from ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass in lysimeters. Forty lysimeters were planted with ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass, of which 20 were inoculated with B. longicaudatus and 20 were noninoculated. Root length was compared between treatments at six, 12, and 18 weeks after initiation of the experiments. Turf was fertilized every three weeks, and leaching events were simulated at 21 and 42-day intervals in trial one and trial two, respectively. Leachate was collected, and the quantity of NO3
− leached was compared between treatments. Root reductions were observed in lysimeters inoculated with B. longicaudatus at all evaluation dates. Quantity of NO3
− leached was greater in inoculated lysimeters at the 18-week evaluation during both trials. This study indicates that nematode damage to turf roots limits root vigor and N uptake, thereby increasing nitrate leaching, adding to water quality concerns.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; nitrate leaching; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; water quality
Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at –0.06 bars. At –0.01 bars, larval survival was ≤5% regardless of nematode presence, thus indicating that intense irrigation alone might reduce C. caryae populations. Overall, our results indicated no effect of a surfactant (Kinetic) on C. caryae suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. In a greenhouse test, C. caryae larval survival was lower in all nematode treatments compared with the control, yet survival was lower in S. carpocapsae (Italian) and S. riobrave (7–12) treatments than in S. carpocapsae (Agriotos), S. carpocapsae (Mexican), and S. riobrave (355) treatments (survival was reduced to approximately 20% in the S. riobrave [7–12] treatment). A mixture of S. riobrave strains resulted in intermediate larval survival. In field experiments conducted over two consecutive years, S. riobrave (7–12) applications resulted in no observable control, and, although S. carpocapsae (Italian) provided some suppression, treatment effects were generally only detectable one day after treatment. Nematode strains possessing both high levels of virulence and a greater ability to withstand environmental conditions in the field need to be developed and tested.
Biological control; Curculio caryae; entomopathogenic nematode; field trial; Heterorhabditis; pecan weevil; surfactant; soil moisture; Steinernema
Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after ‘Saia’ oat/‘Polynema’ marigold, ‘Triple S’ sorghum-sudangrass, or ‘Garry’ oat than ‘Superior’ potato or ‘Humus’ rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tuber yields were greater than continuous potato after all crops except sorghum-sudangrass. Saia oat/marigold crops resulted in the greatest tuber yields. After one year of rotation/green manure, a marigold crop increased tuber yields and reduced AUDPC and P. penetrans. In the second potato crop after a single year of rotation, plots previously planted to marigolds had reduced P. penetrans densities and AUDPC and increased tuber yield. Rapeseed supported more P. penetrans than potato, but had greater yields. After two years of rotation/green manure crops and a subsequent potato crop, continuous potato had the highest AUDPC and lowest tuber weight. Rotation with Saia oats (2 yr) and Rudbeckia hirta (1 yr) reduced P. penetrans and increased tuber yields. AUDPC was lowest after R. hirta. Two years of sorghum-sudangrass did not affect P. penetrans, tuber yield or AUDPC. These results demonstrate that P. penetrans may be reduced by one or two years of rotation to non-host or antagonistic plants such as Saia oat, Polynema marigold, or R. hirta and that nematode control may reduce the severity of potato early dying.
Avena sativa; Avena strigosa; black-eyed Susan; Brassica napus; green manure; marigold; management; Pratylenchus penetrans; rapeseed; rotation; Rudbeckia hirta; Solanum tuberosum; Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense; sorghum-sudangrass; Tagetes erecta × T. patula; Verticillium dahliae; wilt
A new species of the genus Stegelletina is described from caves of Andalucía Oriental (SE Iberian Peninsula). Stegelletina coprophila sp. n. is characterized by its body 386 to 536 μm long in females and 391 and 521 μm in males, lateral field with three incisures, lips bearing four tines, labial probolae 4 to 6 μm long and bifurcate, pharyngeal corpus 1.5 to 2.9 times isthmus length, spermatheca 18 to 43 μm long, postvulvar sac 0.5 to 1.6 times the corresponding body diameter long, female tail conical (24–34 μm, c = 14.2–17.2, c′ = 1.7–2.3), male tail conical (26–35 μm, c = 12.1–17.1, c′ = 1.4–1.8), spicules 20 to 25 μm long, and gubernaculum 10 to 13 μm long. Descriptions, measurements and illustrations, including SEM photographs, are provided for the species.
Caves; Cephalobidae; description; Iberian Peninsula; morphology; new species; Stegelletina; SEM; taxonomy
Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 100 ml soil. Average strawberry yields increased between 2.4% to 6.3% following taro compared to the bare fallow treatment. Corn suppressed M. incognita and M. hapla populations and resulted in an increased in strawberry yield compared to bare fallow. Other phytopathogens also present in these fields limited taro as the rotation choice for nematode management. Results of this research and economic analysis of the input requirements for various rotation crops, corn and bare fallow were recommended as the most appropriate rotation strategies for nematode management in strawberry in this region.
bitter gourd; Capsicum annuum; Colocasia esculena; corn; fallow; Glycine max; Hibiscus esculentus; India sesbania; lana vetch; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Momordica charantia; Okra; Oryza sativa; pepper; Pratylenchus coffeae; Pratylenchus penetrans; rice; rotation; Sesbania sesban; soybean; strawberry yield; taro; Vicia sativa; Zea mays
Knowledge of the virulence phenotypes of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines populations is important in choosing appropriate sources for breeding resistant cultivars and managing the nematode. We investigated races of 59 H. glycines populations collected from 1997 to 1998 and races and HG Types of 94 populations collected in 2002 from soybean fields across southern and central Minnesota. In the 1997 to 1998 samples, race 3 was predominant and represented 78% of the populations. The remaining populations were 11.9% race 1, 1.7% race 4, 6.8% race 6, and 1.7% race 14. In the 2002 samples, the populations were classified as 15.3% race 1, 77.6% race 3, 2.4% race 5, 3.5% race 6 and 1.2% race 9. Percentage of 1997 to 1998 populations with female indices (FI) higher than 10 were 10.2% on Pickett 71, 3.4% on Peking, 13.6% on PI 88788, 3.4% on PI 90763, 1.7% on PI 209332, and 1.7% on PI 437654. Percentage of 2002 populations with FI >10 was 1.1% on Peking, 17.0% on PI88788, 14.9% on PI 209332, 33.0% on PI 548316, 11.7% on Pickett 71, and 0% on the other three indicators, PI 90763, PI 437654, and PI 89772. The line PI 548316 was relatively susceptible to the Minnesota H. glycines populations and may not be recommended for breeding resistant cultivars in the state. There was no noticeable change of frequencies of virulence phenotypes in response to the use of resistant cultivars during 1997 to 2002 in Minnesota except that FI increased on the PI 209332.
Heterodera glycines; HG Type; host-parasitic relationship; race; soybean cyst nematode; virulence phenotype
The cellular architecture of the female gonoduct of 68 nematode populations representing 42 species belonging to Tylenchidae, Belonolaimidae, Hoplolaimidae and Meloinema is shown to have an overall similarity in cellular gonoduct structure. The oviduct consists of two rows of four cells; the spermatheca is comprised of 10 to 20 cells, and the uterus cells, except in the case of Psilenchus, are arranged in four (Tylenchidae) or three (Belonolaimidae, Hoplolaimidae and Meloinema) regular rows. Although the genus Meloinema is classified within Meloidogynidae, its spermatheca is clearly hoplolaimid-like and lacks the spherical shape with lobe-like protruding cells typical of Meloidogyne. Detailed morphology of expelled gonoducts may provide a valuable character set in phylogenetic analysis, and the cellular morphology of the spermatheca appears to be a distinguishing feature at species level, especially in the genera Tylenchus and Geocenamus. Ultrastructural data on the oviduct-spermatheca region of Meloidogyne incognita complement light-microscopic (LM) results. The combination of LM of expelled organs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on selected sections is put forward as a powerful tool to combine three-dimensional knowledge with ultrastructural detail.
Belonolaimidae; electron microscopy; gonoduct; Hoplolaimidae; Meloinema; morphology; taxonomy; TEM; Tylenchidae; ultrastructure
Sixteen cultivars of grape were screened over a two-year period in the presence or absence of 10 different nematode populations. Populations of Meloidogyne spp., Xiphinema index, and Mesocriconema xenoplax developed more rapidly and caused greater damage than populations of X. americanum and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Populations of mixed Meloidogyne spp. having a history of feeding on grape were among the fastest developing populations. Tolerance to nematode parasitism appeared to be based on different mechanisms. Slow developing, less pathogenic nematode populations often stimulated vine growth, thus vines appeared to possess tolerance. Likewise, cultivars selected for nematode resistance often stimulated vine growth when fed upon by the nematode. However, tolerance sources that resulted from nematode resistance are vulnerable due to the occurrence of populations that break resistance mechanisms. Growth of cultivars with phylloxera (Daktalospharia vitifoliae) resistance was unchanged by the presence of nematodes, indicating that phylloxera resistance may provide a useful source of nematode relief. These and several additional sources of specific tolerance are discussed.
dagger nematodes; grape rootstocks; inhibition; ring nematode; root-knot nematode species/populations; stimulations; tolerance
The high degree of parasitic variability in Heterodera glycines and its distribution in a wide range of soybean production systems present multiple challenges for management, which necessitate increased understanding of the biology of H. glycines. Soil amendments are being considered either as stand-alone and/or as part of integrated management approaches. A recycled municipal biosolid with nutrition supplement and liming qualities, N-Viro Soil (NVS) has potential as a multi-purpose soil amendment. In three greenhouse experiments, the effects of 0, 1.0 or 4.0 g NVS/100 cm3 of sandy loam soil on three H. glycines populations (GN1, GN2 and GN3) were investigated on soybean grown for 557 ± 68 degree-days (base 10°C). The response of the three H. glycines populations to NVS treatment varied by experiment. The overall numbers of preadult stages and cysts generally decreased with increasing levels of NVS in all experiments, and the high rate was more effective than the low rate in suppressing H. glycines numbers. This suggests that the high NVS treatment can affect the three populations in the experimental soil type under controlled conditions. Field studies to determine efficacy of the soil amendment in a wide range of environments should be initiated.
biosolid amendment; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; management; nematode development; soil amendment; soil type; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
The potency of the inducers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), acibenzolar-s-methyl, DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid (AABA), DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), riboflavin, and salicylic acid (SA), in reducing reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in pineapple was investigated. All inducers were applied as foliar sprays to 1-mon-old pineapple plants (20 ml/plant) grown in 22-cm-diam. pots in the greenhouse. Two days after application, 10,000 eggs of M. javanica or R. reniformis were inoculated onto the plants. Six months after inoculation, nematode reproduction was measured. Acibenzolar decreased R. reniformis egg production by 58% compared to the nontreated control (P ≤ 0.05). Acibenzolar, BABA, and riboflavin reduced M. javanica egg production by 60% to 64% compared to the nontreated control (P ≤ 0.05). The point in the pineapple SAR pathway that each compound activates may explain the differing results between M. javanica and its giant cells and R. reniformis and its syncytia. Foliar application of acibenzolar at 100 and 200 mg/liter decreased by 30% and 60%, respectively, the number of M. javanica eggs as compared to the nontreated control. Fresh shoot weight of pineapple treated with 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/liter acibenzolar was reduced by 1.2%, 3.3%, 9.9%, and 33% compared to the nontreated pineapple, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Foliar application of acibenzolar may activate intrinsic resistance of pineapple to M. javanica and R. reniformis and may have a role in the sustainable management of nematodes in pineapple.
acibenzolar-s-methyl; Ananas comosus; DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid; DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid; γ-amino-n-butyric acid; Meloidogyne javanica; p-aminobenzoic acid; pineapple; reniform nematode; riboflavin; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; salicylic acid; systemic acquired resistance
A population of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae was detected parasitizing water mint (Mentha aquatica) in southern Italy. The morphological identification of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which clearly separated it from the closely related species Meloidoderita polygoni. A phylogenetic analysis of M. kirjanovae with species of related genera was conducted using sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. The resulting phylogenetic tree was congruent with trees from an extended dataset for Criconematina and Tylenchida. The basal position of the genus Meloidoderita together with Sphaeronema within the Criconematina clade in this tree may indicate their close relationships. The anatomical changes induced by M. kirjanovae population from Italy in water mint were similar to those reported for a nematode population infecting roots of M. longifolia in Israel. Nematode feeding caused the formation of a stellar syncytium that disorganized the pericycle and vascular root tissues.
histopathology; host-parasite relationships; Mentha aquatica; molecular analysis; morphology; SEM; taxonomy; phylogeny
Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC50) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays.
Enterobacter cloacae; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli; Meloidogyne incognita; natural product; Phytophthora capsici; Plantago lanceolata; Plantago rugelii; plantain; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Pythium ultimum; Rhizoctonia solani; root-knot nematode; Trichoderma virens
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate endoparasite of plant roots and stimulates elaborate modifications of selected root vascular cells to form giant cells for feeding. An Arabidopsis thaliana endoglucanase (Atcel1) promoter is activated in giant cells that were formed in Atcel1::UidA transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Activity of the full-length Atcel1 promoter was detected in root and shoot elongation zones and in the lateral root primordia. Different 5’ and internal deletions of regions of the 1,673 bp Atcel1 promoter were each fused to the UidA reporter gene and transformed in tobacco, and roots of the transformants were inoculated with M. incognita to assay for GUS expression in giant cells and noninfected plant tissues. Comparison of the Atcel1 promoter deletion constructs showed that the region between −1,673 and −1,171 (fragment 1) was essential for Atcel1 promoter activity in giant cells and roots. Fragment 1 alone, however, was not sufficient for Atcel1 expression in giant cells or roots, suggesting that cis-acting elements in fragment 1 may function in consort with other elements within the Atcel1 promoter. Root-knot nematodes and giant cells developed normally within roots of Arabidopsis that expressed a functional antisense construct to Atcel1, suggesting that a functional redundancy in endoglucanase activity may represent another level of regulatory control of cell wall-modifying activity within nematode feeding cells.
cellulase; cis-acting elements; giant cells; Nicotiana tabacum; parasitism; regulatory motif
The effects of Dactylella oviparasitica strain 50 applications on sugarbeet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) population densities and plant weights were assessed in four agricultural soils. The fungus was added to methyl iodide-fumigated and nonfumigated portions of each soil. The soils were seeded with Swiss chard. Four weeks later, soils were infested with H. schachtii second-stage juveniles (J2). Approximately 1,487 degree-days after infestation, H. schachtii cyst, egg and J2 numbers and plant weights were assessed. In all four fumigated soils, D. oviparasitica reduced all H. schachtii population densities and increased most of the plant weights compared to the nonamended control soils. In two of the nonfumigated soils (10 and SC), D. oviparasitica reduced H. schachtii population densities and increased most plant weight values compared to the nonamended control soils. For the other two nonfumigated soils (44 and 48), which exhibited pre-existing levels of H. schachtii suppressiveness, fungal applications had relatively little impact on H. schachtii population densities and plant weights. The results from this study combined with those from previous investigations suggest that D. oviparasitica strain 50 could be an effective biological control agent.
biological control; Dactylella oviparasitica; Heterodera schachtii; soil; sugarbeet cyst nematode; suppressiveness
Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after planting, when the soil was mixed, a sample of the soil removed to determine egg density, and shoots and roots chopped and mixed into the soil. After 56 days, soil samples were again taken for egg counts, and a susceptible soybean (‘Sturdy’) was planted in the soil as a bioassay to determine egg viability. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), forage pea (Pisum sativum), lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus), Illinois bundleflower (Desman-thus illinoensis), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) generally resulted in smaller egg population density in soil or number of cysts formed on soybean in the bioassay than the fallow control. Sunn hemp most consistently showed the lowest numbers of eggs and cysts. As a group, legumes resulted in lower egg population densities than monocots, Brassica species, and other dicots.
Brassica; Crotalaria juncea; crop rotation; Desmanthus illinoensis; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; Lablab purpureus; management; Medicago sativum; Pisum sativum; population; soybean cyst nematode
More plants can be screened for reniform nematode resistance each year if the time involved can be shortened. In this study, the hypothesis that female counts are as efficient as egg counts in identifying resistant genotypes was tested. In two greenhouse experiments Gossypium genotypes which varied from resistant to susceptible to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) were compared to a susceptible control cultivar. Infested field soil served as the inoculum source for the first experiment, and vermiform stages extracted from greenhouse cultures were used to infest soil in the second experiment. Six replicates of each genotype were harvested 25 d after planting and swollen females were counted. The remaining plants were harvested 35 d after planting and eggs extracted from the roots were counted. Processing and counting times recorded in the first experiment were similar for both assessment methods, but 10 additional days were required for egg-based assessment. Contrast analyses showed that assessments based on females per gram of root were equivalent to assessments based on eggs per gram of root for the five genotypes tested in the first experiment and for an expanded set of 13 genotypes tested in the second experiment. The results indicated that either life stage can be used to screen for resistance.
cotton; Gossypium barbadense; G. hirsutum; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis