Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 μm, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode.
host-range; internal transcribed spacer; ITS1; ITS2; lentil; morphology; new species; Pratylenchus; root lesion nematode; sequencing; Sicily
Rotylenchulus reniformis was first detected in a single grid (100 m2) in May 2001 in a cotton field in Ashley County, AR, that was being utilized to evaluate the utility of grid-sampling for detection of Meloidogyne incognita. A total of 512 grids were sampled in the 6-ha field in the spring and fall for four years (2001 - 2004), nematode populations were determined for each grid, and nematode population density maps were constructed utilizing Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information Systems. In May 2001, R. reniformis population density in the single grid where it was detected was 6,364 juveniles and adult reniform nematodes/500 cm3 soil. By the end of the first year (October 2001), the nematode was found in 17 of the 512 plots with population densities ranging from 682 to 10,909 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Over the course of the 4-yr period, reniform nematode incidence increased to 107 of 512 plots, with population density ranging from 227 to 32,727 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Reniform nematode spread could be explained by the direction of tillage and water flow in the low end of the field. Highest population densities were observed in the areas of the field with soil types ranging from 54% to 60% silt fraction. In addition to R. reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita was commonly detected in many of the grids, and Tylenchorhynchus spp., Helicotylenchus spp., Paratrichodorus minor and Hoplolaimus magnistylus were detected occasionally.
Reniform nematode incidence; spatial correlation; soil texture; geographically weighted regression; management; detection; ecology
The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis ‘Desirable’ pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced in the presence of M. partityla alone or in combination with M. xenoplax as compared with the uninoculated control trees. The interaction between M. partityla and M. xenoplax was significant for dry root weight 37 months after inoculation. Results indicate that the presence of the two nematode species together caused a greater reduction in root growth than M. xenoplax alone, but not when compared to M. partityla alone. Mouse-ear symptom severity in pecan leaves was increased in the presence of M. partityla compared with M. xenoplax and the uninoculated control. Infection with M. partityla increased severity of mouse-ear symptoms expressed by foliage. The greater negative impact of M. partityla on vegetative growth of pecan seedlings in field microplots indicates that it is likely a more detrimental pathogen to pecan than is M. xenoplax and is likely an economic pest of pecan.
Carya illinoinensis; concomitance; host-parasitic relationship; interaction; Meloidogyne partityla; Mesocriconema xenoplax; mouse-ear; nickel deficiency; pecan; ring nematode; root-knot nematode
The objective of this study was to determine if planting cotton into the space between the previous year's rows reduces crop loss due to Meloidogyne incognita compared to planting in the same row every year. Row placement had a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on nematode population levels only on 8 July 2005. Plots receiving 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb had lower nematode population levels than non-fumigated plots on 24 May and 8 July in 2005, but not in 2004. The effect of nematicide treatment on nematode populations was not affected by row placement. Row placement did not have a significant effect on root galling or yield in 2004 or 2005. Nematicide treatment decreased root galling in all years, and the decrease was not influenced by row placement. Yield was increased by nematicide application in 2004 and 2005, and the increase was not affected by row placement. Percentage yield loss was not affected by row placement. Changing the placement of rows reduced nematode population levels only on one sampling date in one year, but end-of-season root galling and lint yield were not affected by changing the placement of rows, nor was the effect of fumigation on yield influenced by row placement. Therefore, row placement is unlikely to contribute to M. incognita management in cotton.
cotton; cultural control; Gossypium hirsutum; nematode management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; row placement
Anguina pacificae is distributed along a narrow strip on the Pacific coast of Northern California where it forms galls on the shoots of Poa annua and causes significant damage to golf course greens. Methods were developed for the continuous propagation of A. pacificae on P. annua in growth chambers, and they were used to examine the life cycle and host-parasite relationships of the nematode. At a mean temperature of 20°C (22°C day/18°C night) the life cycle was completed in as little as 32 days (inoculation to second-generation J2). The first molt occurred in the egg. Infective J2 hatched from the eggs and penetrated the shoot near the crown of the plant where a cavity was formed 200 to 300 μm below the shoot apex. A gall around the cavity was visible 12 days after inoculation (DAI), and the cavity and gall continued to enlarge until second-generation J2 began to hatch. Three additional molts occurred in the cavity of the developing gall 14 to 24 DAI. Sexes could be distinguished 15 DAI. Egg production began 26 DAI and continued for 10 to 15 days. Eggs commenced hatching inside the gall 42 DAI, when the adults began to die and decompose. By 57 DAI, the gall had reached its maximum diameter, and the cavity was filled entirely with second-generation J2 that remained in the gall until they were liberated when the gall decomposed. J2 in galls survived desiccation over silica gel for 14 months at 14°C and were active and infective when rehydrated.
Agrostis; Anguina pacificae; anhydrobiosis; annual bluegrass; distribution; etiology; host-parasite relationship; host range; life cycle; Lolium perenne; Pacific shoot-gall nematode; Poa annua; Poa trivialis
Species of the Caenorhabditis genus have been used as model systems in genetics and molecular research for more than 30 years. Despite this, basic information about their demography, in the wild and in the lab, has remained unknown until very recently. Here, we provide for the first time a closely quantified life-cycle of the gonochoristic nematode C. remanei. Using C. elegans protocols, modified for an outcrossing nematode, we estimated the basic demography for individuals of two strains (JU724 and MY12-G) which were recently isolated from the wild. We used a half-sib breeding design to estimate the phenotypic variance of traits of related (within line) and unrelated individuals (between lines) of the two strains cultured in a common environment in the lab. Comparisons between these strains showed that JU724 was characterized by significantly lower overall lifetime fecundity and by differences in age-specific fecundity relative to MY12-G, but there were no differences in their life expectancy and reproductive lifespan. We found high phenotypic variance among all traits. The variance within lines was relatively high compared to the low variation between lines. We suggest this could be the result of high gene flow in these wild-type strains. Finally, comparisons between species suggest that, despite the differences in reproductive strategies (i.e., sex ratios, lifetime fecundity), C. remanei has developmental time similar to the hermaphroditic N2 strain of C. elegans.
Caenorhabditis remanei; ecology; lifecycle; JU724; MY12-G; phenotypic variance
DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA and D1-D3 expansion segments of the 28S gene were conducted to characterize the genetic variation of six amphimictic Hoplolaimus species, including H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. galeatus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, and two closely related parthenogenetic species, H. columbus and H. seinhorsti. PCR amplifications of the combined D1-D3 expansion segments and the ITS1 region each yielded one distinct amplicon. In the D1-D3 region, there was no nucleotide sequence variation between populations of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, whereas the ITS1 sequences had nucleotide variation among species. We detected conserved ITS1 regions located at the 3’ and 5’ end of ITS1 and also in the middle of the ITS1 among Hoplolaimus species. These regions were compared with sequences of distantly related Heterodera and Globedera. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of ITS1 and 28S PCR products revealed that several haplotypes existed in the same genome of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, H. seinhorsti, H. concaudajuvencus and Hoplolaimus sp. 1. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analysis using the combined ITS1 and D1-D3 expansion segment sequences always produced trees with similar topology; H. columbus and H. seinhorsti grouped in one clade and the other six species (H. galeatus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2, Hoplolaimus sp. 3) grouped in another. Molecular analysis supports morphological schemes for this genus to be divided into two groups based on several phenotypic traits derived from morphological evolution.
28S gene; clades; D1-D3 region genome; haplotypes; Hoplolaimus, lance; ITS1; nematode
An unusual variant of Meloidogyne arenaria was discovered on roots of a traveler's tree (Ravenala madagascariensis) intended for display at a public arboretum in Pennsylvania. The population aroused curiosity by the lack of visible galling on the roots of the infected plant, and the female vulval region was typically surrounded by egg sacs. Most morphometrics of the population fit within the ranges reported for M. arenaria, with a mosaic of features in common with either M. platani or other tropical Meloidogyne spp. Molecular characterization included analysis of four loci. The mitochondrial sequence, extending from cytochrome oxidase II (COII) to the 16S (1RNA) gene, was nearly identical to another M. arenaria population and closely related to sequences from M. morocciensis and M. thailandica. The 28S D2-D3 expansion segment was most similar to those from M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. paranaensis, and the IGS-2 was most related to those from M. thailandica, M. arenaria and M. incognita. Analysis of partial Hsp90 genomic sequences revealed the greatest similarity to M. arenaria, M. thailandica and an Hsp90 haplotype from M. floridensis, and a composite sequence comprised of EST from M. arenaria. No morphological or molecular features clearly distinguished this population as a new species, and, when considered as a whole, the evidence points to its identification as M. arenaria.
gall; Hsp90; intergenic spacer; mitochondrial DNA; molecular biology; Ravenala madagascariensis; ribosomal DNA; root-knot nematode; taxonomy; traveler's tree; variation
Healthy specimens of selected grasses were collected from salt marshes and grown in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne spartinae to determine the host range of this nematode. After 12 weeks, Spartina alterniflora plants formed root galls in response to infection and increased M. spartinae populations. Spartina patens, Spartina cynosuroides, Juncus gerardii and Distichlis spicata were non-hosts. In order to determine the natural distribution of M. spartinae in dieback areas, S. alterniflora plants were sampled from transects adjacent to dieback areas in Madison, CT, at low tide. Plants were sampled at the top or the creek and at 1-m intervals to the lowest area of plant growth at the low tide water's edge. Five samples were taken over an elevation drop of 90 cm. Two transects were taken each day on 21 June and 5 July 2007, and one transect was taken on 31 October 2007. Meloidogyne spartinae galls per gram root were higher at the higher elevations. In late June and early July 2007, M. spartinae developed more quickly in the higher elevations, perhaps because peat and sediments were drier and warmer away from low tide water levels. The effects of M. spartinae on S. alterniflora and the role of the nematode in marsh decline and dieback in the northeast United States remain to be determined.
Distichlis spicata; Juncus gerardii; Meloidogyne spartinae; root-knot nematode; salt marsh decline; Spartina alterniflora; Spartina cynosuroides; Spartina patens
Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and “dry” furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm3 soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful.
chemigation; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; reniform nematode
Greenhouse experiments with two susceptible hosts of Meloidogyne incognita, a dwarf tomato and wheat, led to the identification of a soil in which the root-knot nematode population was reduced 5- to 16-fold compared to identical but pasteurized soil two months after infestation with 280 M. incognita J2/100 cm3 soil. This suppressive soil was subjected to various temperature, fumigation and dilution treatments, planted with tomato, and infested with 1,000 eggs of M. incognita/100 cm3 soil. Eight weeks after nematode infestation, distinct differences in nematode population densities were observed among the soil treatments, suggesting the suppressiveness had a biological nature. A fungal rRNA gene analysis (OFRG) performed on M. incognita egg masses collected at the end of the greenhouse experiments identified 11 fungal phylotypes, several of which exhibited associations with one or more of the nematode population density measurements (egg masses, eggs or J2). The phylotype containing rRNA genes with high sequence identity to Pochonia chlamydosporia exhibited the strongest negative associations. The negative correlation between the densities of the P. chlamydosporia genes and the nematodes was corroborated by an analysis using a P. chlamydosporia-selective qPCR assay.
biological control; dwarf tomato; Meloidogyne incognita; Pochonia chlamydosporia; root-knot nematode; Solanum lycopersicon; suppressive soil; Triticum aestivum; wheat
Directly viewing soil-dwelling entomopathogenic and plant-parasitic nematodes in situ is difficult, if not impossible. As a result, researchers have developed a diverse array of bioassays which assess nematode behavioral traits within arenas designed to simulate various aspects of the natural habitat. However, reliably rendering what we can see in the laboratory into accurate predictions of how nematodes achieve their objectives in the field is challenging. In the current review, we systemically assessed the goals and attributes of several of the assays most commonly used to investigate nematode host finding and host invasion behavior. By illuminating the relative strengths and limitations of each assay, we hope to improve our ability to develop meaningful predictions for the field.
behavior; chemotaxis; ecology; electrophysiology; olfactometer; soil column
The use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) for management of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, in Florida citrus groves is considered a biological control success story and typically involves augmentation in which EPN are applied inundatively as biopesticides to quickly kill the pest. However, recent evidence indicates that efficacy of EPN applications in Florida citrus depends on soil type. They are very effective in the well drained coarse sands of the Central Ridge but often less so in poorly drained fine-textured soils of the Flatwoods. Moreover, groves on the Central Ridge can harbor rich communities of endemic EPN that might often suppress weevil populations below economic thresholds, whereas Flatwoods groves tend to have few endemic EPN and frequent weevil problems. Current research is examining the ecological dynamics of EPN in Florida citrus groves, the potential impact of EPN augmentation on soil food webs, especially endemic EPN, and whether habitat manipulation and inoculation strategies might be effective for conserving and enhancing EPN communities to achieve long-term control in problem areas. Conservation biological control could extend the usefulness of EPN in Florida citrus and be especially appropriate for groves with persistent weevil problems.
biological control; citrus; conservation; Diaprepes abbreviatus; ecology; entomopathogenic nematode; Florida; food web; Heterorhabditis; management; manure; mulch; root weevil; soil; Steinernema; suppression; trophic cascades
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are ubiquitous and generalized consumers of insects in soil food webs, occurring widely in natural and agricultural ecosystems on six continents. Augmentative releases of EPN have been used to enhance biological control of pests in agroecosystems. Pest managers strive to achieve a trophic cascade whereby natural-enemy effects permeate down through the food web to suppress host herbivores and increase crop production. Although trophic cascades have been studied in diverse aboveground arthropod-based systems, they are infrequently investigated in soil systems. Moreover, no overall quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of EPN in suppressing hosts with cascading benefits to plants has been made. Toward synthesizing the available but limited information on EPN and their ability to suppress prey and affect plant yield, we surveyed the literature and performed a meta-analysis of 35 published studies. Our analysis found that effect sizes for arthropod hosts as a result of EPN addition were consistently negative and indirect effects on plants were consistently positive. Results held across several different host metrics (abundance, fecundity and survival) and across measures of plant performance (biomass, growth, yield and survival). Moreover, the relationship between plant and host effect sizes was strikingly and significantly negative. That is, the positive impact on plant responses generally increased as the negative effect of EPN on hosts intensified, providing strong support for the mechanism of trophic cascades. We also review the ways in which EPN might interact antagonistically with each other and other predators and pathogens to adversely affect host suppression and dampen trophic cascades. We conclude that the food web implications of multiple-enemy interactions involving EPN are little studied, but, as management techniques that promote the long-term persistence of EPN are improved, antagonistic interactions are more likely to arise. We hope that the likely occurrence of antagonistic interactions in soil food webs should stimulate researchers to conduct field experiments explicitly designed to examine multiple-enemy interactions involving EPN and their cascading effects to hosts and plants.
biological control; crop yield; EPN; food-web dynamics; intraguild predation; interspecific competition; meta-analysis; multiple-enemy interactions; pest suppression; trophic cascade
Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log10 (J2 + 1)/500 cm3 soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log10(J2 + 1)/500 cm3 soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm3 soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18°C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10°C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.
Aldicarb; conservation tillage; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode
The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low.
alfalfa; crop rotation; Cyperus esculentus; Cyperus rotundus; interaction; Medicago sativa; Meloidogyne incognita; method; perennial weed; Poisson regression; predictive modeling; purple nutsedge; southern root-knot nematode; yellow nutsedge
As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive.
bioassay; Caenorhabditis elegans; LHM; liquid hog manure; LSM; liquid swine manure; management; nematode; potato; Pratylenchus penetrans; root-lesion nematode; VFA; volatile fatty acids
Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effect of raw and anaerobically digested liquid swine manures on the hatch and viability of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode. Anaerobic digestion was performed for 15 and 35 days to enrich volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonium (NH4
+), respectively. All filtrates of the raw, VFA-enriched, and NH4
+-enriched manures at 10−1 to 250−1 dilutions inhibited H. glycines hatch, and the reduction of hatch was increased with increasing concentration of the manure. Cumulative hatch at day 21 was only 2.1% to 3.7% in the 10−1 dilution manures, while the hatch in water was 21% to 27.3%. The high concentrations appeared to be lethal to some eggs. Most second-stage juveniles (J2) of H. glycines were killed when incubated for 8 hours in the manure filtrate at the original concentration (>90% mortality) or for 48 hours at the 64−1 dilution (> 82% mortality). When J2 were treated with the manures at 10−1 to 250−1 dilutions for 4 hours, only the 10−1 dilution of VFA-enriched and raw manures resulted in a lower number of J2 that penetrated soybean roots as compared with lower concentrations. The VFA-enriched manure was the best, raw manure intermediate, and NH4
+-enriched manure the least effective in inhibiting H. glycines hatch and killing eggs and J2.
ammonia; fatty acid; Glycine max; hatch; Heterodera glycines; mortality; swine manure; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Trophic cascades, whereby predators indirectly benefit plant biomass by reducing herbivore pressure, form the mechanistic basis for classical biological control of pest insects. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are lethal to a variety of insect hosts with soil-dwelling stages, making them promising biocontrol agents. EPN biological control programs, however, typically fail because nematodes do not establish, persist and/or recycle over multiple host generations in the field. A variety of factors such as local abiotic conditions, host quantity and quality, and rates of movement affect the probability of persistence. Here, we review results from 13 years of study on the biology and ecology of an endemic population of Heterorhabditis marelatus (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) in a California coastal prairie. In a highly seasonal abiotic environment with intrinsic variation in soils, vegetation structure, and host availability, natural populations of H. marelatus persisted at high incidence at some but not all sites within our study area. Through a set of field and lab experiments, we describe mechanisms and hypotheses to understand the persistence of H. marelatus. We suggest that further ecological study of naturally occurring EPN populations can yield significant insight to improve the practice and management of biological control of soil-dwelling insect pests.
entomopathogenic nematode; Hepialus californicus; Heterorhabditis marelatus; long-term persistence; Lupinus arboreus; metapopulation dynamics; biocontrol; trophic cascade
The genetic diversity and phylogeny of 26 isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from China, Japan, Portugal and North America were investigated based on the D2/3 domain of 28S rDNA, nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the D2/3 domain of 28S rDNA of isolates of B. xylophilus from China, Portugal, Japan and the US were identical and differed at one to three nucleotides compared to those from Canada. ITS sequences of isolates from China and Portugal were the same; they differed at one or two nucleotides compared to those of Japanese isolates and at four and 23 nucleotides compared to those from the US and Canada, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese isolates share a common ancestor with one of the two Japanese clades and that the Canadian isolates form a sister group of the clade comprised of isolates from China, Portugal, Japan, and the US. The relationship between Japanese isolates and those from China was closer than with the American isolates. The Canadian isolates were the basal group of B. xylophilus. This suggests that B. xylophilus originated in North America and that the B. xylophilus that occurs in China could have been first introduced from Japan. Further analysis based on RAPD analysis revealed that the relationship among isolates from Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong, Anhui provinces and Nanjing was the closest, which suggests that pine wilt disease in these Chinese locales was probably dispersed from Nanjing, where this disease first occurred in China.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; ITS; phylogeny; pinewood nematode; RAPD; systematics; D2/3 regions of 28S rDNA
Protease inhibitors play a role in regulating proteases during cellular development and in plant defense. We cloned and sequenced cDNA encoding six protease inhibitors expressed in soybean roots infected with soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and determined their expression patterns. Four of these protease inhibitors are novel and have not been reported previously. Using RT-PCR, we measured the relative transcript levels of each protease inhibitor in roots of the soybean cv. Peking inoculated with either SCN TN8 to examine the expression of protease inhibitors during the susceptible interaction or with SCN NL1-RHg representing the resistant interaction. Within 12 to 24 hours, mRNA transcripts encoding five of the six protease inhibitors were more highly elevated in soybean roots exhibiting the susceptible interaction than the resistant interaction. Transcripts encoding two protease inhibitors possessing Kunitz trypsin inhibitor domains were induced 37- and 27-fold in the susceptible interaction within 1 dpi, but were induced only 5- to 7-fold in roots displaying the resistant interaction. Our results indicate that soybean roots recognize differences between these two SCN populations before the nematodes initiate a feeding site, and accordingly the roots express transcripts encoding soybean protease inhibitors differentially. These transcripts were generally less abundant in roots exhibiting the resistant interaction.
host-parasitic relationship; molecular biology; protease inhibitors; resistance; RT-PCR; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Biological control can be considered an intentional induction of a trophic cascade, whereby the addition of herbivores’ natural enemies or other habitat manipulations effectively enhance natural enemy populations, lead to reduced herbivore populations or feeding damage, and indirectly improve or protect plant health, agricultural yield, or the condition of some other biotic population or community of interest to man. The following set of papers (Denno et al., 2008; Ram et al., 2008; Stuart and Duncan, 2008; Spence et al. 2008) offer insights into the broad- and fine-scale factors that ultimately contribute to the success of biological control efforts. Many of the ideas herein were presented and discussed during a special session at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nematologists. The goal of this session was to examine explicitly the ramifications of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the context of effective biological control. The biological focus was primarily on interactions involving entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), although many of the authors’ conclusions are applicable to other types of nematodes, soil fauna and natural enemies in general.
Bioassay; biological control; bush lupine; citrus; entomopathogenic nematodes; meta-analysis; plant parasitic nematodes; trophic cascade
Prompt tillage after crop harvest was investigated as a cultural control for the tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum tabacum, on stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco. Stalk stumps and roots remaining after harvest were destroyed by tilling immediately or from 2 to 6 wk after harvest in field experiments over 4 yr. Cyst nematode Pf/Pi ratios ranged from 0.65 to 1.62 when plants were tilled immediately after harvest and 1.13 to 5.88 when tillage was delayed. Nematode population development was monitored by inoculating plants in pots placed in fields with J2 in eggs and sampling over time (8 to 18 wk). Three generations per year were observed, and G. t. tabacum generation time was as short as 6 wk for each generation. Destroying stalks and root systems remaining after harvesting stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco removes the host to preclude development of nematodes at the end of the second and entire third generation. Early tillage resulted in consistently lower tobacco cyst nematode populations than allowing viable roots to remain in fields for an additional 8 to 18 wk. This management tactic reduces the need for nematicide application to slow nematode population increases over time and can reduce losses due to infection by G. t. tabacum.
Cultural control; Globodera tabacum tabacum; management; Nicotiana tabacum; Nemacur; root destruction; tillage; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
Meloidogyne incognita eggs or J2 were incubated in test tubes containing sand:peat mix and immersed in a water bath heated to 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45°C for a series of time intervals. Controls were maintained at 22°C. Nematodes surviving or hatching were collected from Baermann trays after three weeks of incubation. Regression analyses between percent survival or egg hatch and hours of heat treatment were performed for each temperature. Complete suppression of egg hatch required 389.8, 164.5, 32.9, 19.7 and 13.1 hours at 38, 39, 40, 41 and 42°C, respectively. Complete killing of J2 required 47.9, 46.2, 17.5 and 13.8 hours at 39, 40, 41 and 42°C, respectively. J2 were not completely killed at 38°C within 40 hours of treatment, but were killed within one hour at 44 and 45°C. Effect of temperature on nematode killing is not determined by heat units. Oscillating temperature between cool and warm did not interfere with the nematode suppressive effect by the heat treatment. Six-week solarization in the field during the summers of 2003 and 2004 in Florida accumulated heat exposure times in the top 15 cm of soil that surpassed levels required to kill M. incognita as determined in the water bath experiments. Although near zero M. incognita were detected right after solarization, the nematode population densities increased after a cycle of a susceptible pepper crop. Therefore, future research should address failure of solarization to kill nematodes in the deeper soil layers.
Capsicum annuum; bell pepper; soil temperature; heat units; Meloidogyne incognita, solarization; root-knot nematodes