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Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):300-397.
PMCID: PMC3381459  PMID: 22736829
2.  Laboratory Evaluation of Seven Pakistani Strains of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against a Stored Grain Insect Pest, Pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):255-260.
Seven Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were tested against last instar and adult stages of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). These nematodes included Steinernema pakistanense Shahina, Anis, Reid and Maqbool (Ham 10 strain); S. asiaticum Anis, Shahina, Reid and Rowe (211 strain); S. abbasi Elawad, Ahmad and Reid (507 strain); S. siamkayai Stock, Somsook and Reid (157 strain); S. feltiae Filipjev (A05 strains); Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (1743 strain); and H. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David (HAM-64 strain). Activity of all strains was determined at four different nematode densities in Petri dishes and in concrete containers. A significant nematode density effect was detected for all nematode species tested. Overall, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, S. siamkayai, and S. pakistanense were among those that showed the highest virulence to pulse beetle larvae and adults. For all nematode species, the last larval stage of the pulse beetle seems to be more susceptible than the adult. LC50 values in Petri dish and concrete containers were 14-340 IJs/larvae and 41-441 IJs/larvae, respectively, and 59-1376 IJs/adult and 170-684/adult, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3381460  PMID: 22736823
entomopathogenic nematode; Callosobruchus chinensis; Steinernema; Heterorhabditis; concrete containers
3.  Aphelenchoides hylurgi as a Carrier of White, Hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica and its Possible Role in Hypovirulence Spread on Blight-Controlled American Chestnut Trees 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):267-273.
Individual nematodes were isolated from American chestnut blight-controlled cankers to determine if they were carriers of biocontrol (hypovirulent) isolates of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. These hypovirulent isolates have a white fungal colony phenotype due to infection by the virus CHV1. Of 1,620 individual Aphelenchoides hylurgi isolated, 29.4% carried propagules of the blight fungus and 8.2% of these yielded white hypovirulent isolates. In attraction and movement tests in Petri plates, A. hylurgi moved 2 cm over 24 hr to mycelial discs of white hypovirulent C. parasitica and pigmented C. parasitica strains in nearly equal numbers. After 2 days of nematode movement to fungal colonies on agar in Petri plates and 21 days of nematode growth, large numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from both white hypovirulent and pigmented C. parasitica strain colonies. Lower numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from excised young American chestnut blight cankers that were inoculated with A. hylurgi and incubated for 22 days. A. hylurgi inoculated on the surface of an excised American chestnut canker moved within 24 hr to the small, spore-bearing C. parasitica reproductive structures (stromata) on the canker surface. The results indicate that A. hylurgi may play a role in the spread of hypovirulence on American chestnut trees.
PMCID: PMC3381461  PMID: 22736825
biocontrol; chestnut blight; fungivorus nematodes; hypovirulence spread; white hypovirulent strains
4.  Evidence for Horizontally Transferred Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin B1, B5, and B7 in Heterodera glycines 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):281-290.
Heterodera glycines is a nematode that is highly adapted to manipulate and parasitize plant hosts. The molecular players involved in these interactions have only recently begun to be identified. Here, the sequencing of the second stage juvenile transcriptome, followed by a bioinformatic screen for novel genes, identified seven new genes involved in biosynthesis and salvage of vitamins B1, B5, and B7. With no confirmed reports in the literature, each of these biosynthesis pathways is believed to have been lost in multicellular animals. However, eukaryotic-like introns in the genomic sequences of the genes confirmed eukaryotic origin and nematode-specific splice leaders found on five of the cDNAs confirmed their nematode origin. Two of the genes were found to be flanked by known nematode sequences and quantitative polymerase chain reactions on individual nematodes showed similar and consistent amplification between the vitamin B biosynthesis genes and other known H. glycines genes. This further confirmed their presence in the nematode genome. Similarity to bacterial sequences at the amino acid level suggested a prokaryotic ancestry and phylogenetic analysis of the genes supported a likely horizontal gene transfer event, suggesting H. glycines re-appropriated the genes from the prokaryotic kingdom. This finding complements the previous discovery of a vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathway within the nematode. However, unlike the complete vitamin B6 pathway, many of these vitamin B pathways appear to be missing the initial enzymes required for full de novo biosynthesis, suggesting that initial substrates in the pathways are obtained exogenously. These partial vitamin B biosynthesis enzymes have recently been identified in other single-celled eukaryotic parasites and on rhizobia symbiosis plasmids, indicating that they may play an important role in host-parasite interactions and survival within the plant environment.
PMCID: PMC3381462  PMID: 22736827
Heterodera glycines; vitamin B1; vitamin B5; vitamin B7; thiamin; pantothenate; biotin; biosynthetic pathways; horizontal gene transfer
5.  Toxicity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) to Plant-parasitic and Bacterial-feeding Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):274-280.
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, and crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 μg/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD50 of 8.3 μg/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans J1 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance.
PMCID: PMC3381463  PMID: 22736826
biological control; Caenorhabditis elegans; Heterodera glycines; management; Meloidogyne incognita; Pratylenchus scribneri; Pristionchus pacificus; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Rhabditis rainai; Xiphinema americanum
6.  Effects of Php Gene-Associated versus Induced Resistance to Tobacco Cyst Nematode in Flue-Cured Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):261-266.
Effects of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-inducing compound acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and the plant-growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture Bacillus subtilis A13 and B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a (GB99+GB122) were assessed on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode (TCN- Globodera tabacum solanacearum) under greenhouse conditions. Two sets of two independent experiments were conducted, each involving soil or root sampling. Soil sample experiments included flue-cured tobacco cultivars with (Php+: NC71 and NC102) and without (Php-: K326 and K346) a gene (Php) suppressing TCN parasitism. Root sample experiments examined TCN root parasitism of NC71 and K326. Cultivars possessing the Php gene (Php+) were compared with Php- cultivars to assess the effects of resistance mediated via Php gene vs. induced resistance to TCN. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode reproductive ratio on both Php+ and Php- cultivars, but similar effects of ASM across Php- cultivars were less consistent. In addition, ASM application resulted in leaf yellowing and reduced root weight. GB99+GB122 consistently reduced nematode development in roots of both Php+ and Php- cultivars, while similar effects of ASM were frequently less consistent. The results of this study indicate that GB99+GB122 consistently reduced TCN reproduction in all flue-cured tobacco cultivars tested, while the effects of ASM were only consistent in Php+ cultivars. Under most circumstances, GB99+GB122 suppressed nematode reproduction more consistently than ASM compared to the untreated control.
PMCID: PMC3381464  PMID: 22736824
biological control; management; induced resistance
7.  Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria and Pasteuria penetrans in a Long-Term Crop Rotation Study 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(4):291-299.
The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities increased under intensive cropping of hosts for M. arenaria, but the GH population of the nematode was not receptive to spore attachment. However, previously, the GH population was very receptive to spore acquisition from this field site. One explanation for this inconsistency is that the M. arenaria population in the field became resistant to the dominant subpopulation of P. penetrans that had been present, and this led to the selection of a different subpopulation of the bacterium that is incompatible with the GH population.
PMCID: PMC3381465  PMID: 22736828
Arachis hypogaea; biological control; crop rotation; peanut; root-knot nematode
8.  Biological and Chemical Induction of Resistance to the Globodera tabacum solanacearum in Oriental and Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):203-210.
The effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and four combinations of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the reproduction of a tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum solanacearum, and growth of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. K326 and Xanthi) were tested under greenhouse and field conditions. The PGPR included combinations of Bacillus subtilis A13 with B. pumilis INR7, B. pumilis SE34, B. licheniformis IN937b, or B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, respectively. Among the four rhizobacterial combinations, IN937a + A13 exhibited the most consistent reduction in G. t. solanacearum cysts under greenhouse and field conditions. No undesirable effects of IN937a + A13 were observed on tobacco growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Use of INR7 + A13 reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction on flue-cured tobacco cv. K326 but not on oriental tobacco cv. Xanthi. Application of ASM reduced final numbers of G. t. solanacearum cysts, but also resulted in phytotoxicity mainly under the greenhouse conditions. When oriental tobacco seedlings were pre-grown in a IN937a + A13-treated soil-less medium, a single application of ASM at 200 mg/L one week after transplanting significantly reduced G. t. solanacearum reproduction in the field.
PMCID: PMC3380491  PMID: 22736815
biological control; induced resistance; management; oriental tobacco
9.  Using FAME Analysis to Compare, Differentiate, and Identify Multiple Nematode Species 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):163-173.
We have adapted the Sherlock® Microbial Identification system for identification of plant parasitic nematodes based on their fatty acid profiles. Fatty acid profiles of 12 separate plant parasitic nematode species have been determined using this system. Additionally, separate profiles have been developed for Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita based on their host plant, four species and three races within the Meloidogyne genus, and three life stages of Heterodera glycines. Statistically, 85% of these profiles can be delimited from one another; the specific comparisons between the cyst and vermiform stages of H. glycines, M. hapla and M. arenaria, and M. arenaria and M. javanica cannot be segregated using canonical analysis. By incorporating each of these fatty acid profiles into the Sherlock® Analysis Software, 20 library entries were created. While there was some similarity among profiles, all entries correctly identified the proper organism to genus, species, race, life stage, and host at greater than 86% accuracy. The remaining 14% were correctly identified to genus, although species and race may not be correct due to the underlying variables of host or life stage. These results are promising and indicate that this library could be used for diagnostics labs to increase response time.
PMCID: PMC3380492  PMID: 22736811
biochemistry; FAME analysis; identification; Meloidogyne spp.; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Heterodera glycines
10.  Identification of a Secreted Fatty Acid and Retinol-Binding Protein (Hp-FAR-1) from Heligmosomoides polygyrus 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):228-233.
Hp-FAR-1 is a major, secreted antigen of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a laboratory mouse model frequently used to study the cellular mechanisms of chronic helminth infections. The DNA encoding Hp-FAR-1 was recovered by screening a fourth larval (L4) H. polygyrus cDNA expression library using antibodies raised against L4 stage excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins. Predictions of secondary structure based on the Hp-FAR-1 amino acid sequence indicated that an alpha-helix predominates in Hp-FAR-1, possibly with some coiled-coil conformation, with no beta-structure. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Hp-FAR-1 (rHp-FAR-1) binds the fluorescent fatty acid analog 11-((5-[dimethylaminoaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)amino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA), and by competition oleic acid. RT-PCR amplification of the hp-far-1 gene indicated that the gene is transcribed in all parasitic stages of the organism's life cycle. The presence of a secreted FAR protein in the well-defined laboratory model of H. polygyrus provides an excellent model for the further study and analysis of the in vivo role of secreted FAR proteins in parasitism, and supports the mounting evidence that secreted FAR proteins play a major role in nematode parasitism.
PMCID: PMC3380493  PMID: 22736819
Heligmosomoides polygyrus; host-parasitic relationship; Hp-FAR-1; hp-far-1; lifecycle; molecular biology; nematode; retinol binding
11.  Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):221-227.
Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal for plant-parasitic nematode management.
PMCID: PMC3380494  PMID: 22736818
amendment; isothiocyanate; glucosinolate; Pratylenchus penetrans; Meloidogyne incognita; brassica; seed meal
12.  Genetic variation of Hoplolaimus columbus populations in the United States using PCR-RFLP analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS regions1 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):187-193.
Hoplolaimus columbus is an important nematode pest which causes economic loss of crops including corn, cotton, and soybean in the Southeastern United States. DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA from H. columbus were aligned and analyzed to characterize intraspecific genetic variation between eleven populations collected from Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina. In comparative sequence analysis with clones from either one or two individuals obtained from the eleven populations, we found variability existed among clones from an individual and that clonal diversity observed from within individuals was verified by PCR-RFLP. PCR-RFLP analysis with Rsa I and Msp I restriction enzymes yielded several fragments on 3.0% agarose gel that corresponded to different haplotypes in all populations and the sum of digested products exceeded the length of undigested PCR products, which revealed that ITS heterogeneity existed in a genome of H. columbus. This indicates that heterogeneity may play a role in the evolution of this parthenogenetic species.
PMCID: PMC3380495  PMID: 22736813
ITS region; PCR-RFLP; haplotypes; Hoplolaimus columbus; lance; nematode
13.  Do males facilitate the spread of novel phenotypes within populations of the androdioecious nematode Caenorhabditis elegans? 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):247-254.
In the androdioecious nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, self-fertilization is the predominant mode of reproduction. Nevertheless, males do occur, and it is still unclear if these represent a selective advantage or merely an evolutionary relict. In this study, we first tested the hypothesis that the production of males might benefit invaders to resident populations. We added single, GFP-marked worms to established laboratory populations and followed GFP frequencies over time. Mated hermaphrodites and also males were more successful in invading resident populations if compared to single, unmated hermaphrodites. The observed higher frequencies should increase the likelihood that any of the associated invading alleles persist. Second, we tested the hypothesis that males and, thus, higher outcrossing rates, are specifically favored under changing environmental conditions. After an outbred population was subjected to changing stress or to control laboratory conditions, we measured the male maintenance of the resulting populations. Interestingly all populations, experimental and control alike, showed high male maintenance, suggesting that persistence of males is also favored under standard laboratory conditions.
PMCID: PMC3380496  PMID: 22736822
Caenorhabditis elegans; ecology; hermaphrodite; male; mode of reproduction
14.  Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing carrot in Brazil 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):174-186.
Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. is described from specimens collected from an area cultivated with carrot cv. Brasilia, in the city of Rio Paranaíba, in the region of Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The perineal pattern of the female is circular to ovoid with a high dorsal arch that has widely spaced, coarse annulations. The lateral field may have a deep furrow separating the dorsal and ventral arches. The medial lips are short and wide, whereas the lateral lips are large and triangular. The female stylet is 15-16 μm long with wide knobs, distinctly divided by an indentation in the center. Its tip is slightly curved dorsally. The excretory pore opens 34-65 μm from the anterior end. Females retain eggs and second-stage juveniles in their body cavity, similar to that of the cyst-forming nematodes. Males are 1.3-1.7 mm long and have a high head cap that is rounded and slopes posteriorly. The labial disc is fused to the medial lips. The head region has several irregular annulations that are similar in appearance to the first or second body annules that are likewise irregular, making the head region appear to be extremely large. The stylet of the male is 21-24 μm long; it is slender, and has small, rounded knobs, that are distinctly indented medially and appear heart-shaped. The shaft has several tiny projections throughout its length. Mean second-stage juvenile length is 411.7 μm. The juvenile head cap is elevated, the medial lips are small, and the lateral lips are elongate to triangular-shaped. The head region has several short, incomplete and irregular transverse annulations. The juvenile stylet is 14-23 μm long with small, rounded, and sloping knobs. The thin tail ends with a short hyaline portion that is variable in size (16-26 μm) and with a small, rounded tip. Isozyme profiles of esterases from Meloidogyne javanica show 3 strong bands (SB) at Rm 46, 59, and 66; profiles of M. polycephannulata n. sp. show a SB at Rm 47 and a weak band (WB) at Rm 52; M. petuniae has two SB at Rm 44 and 53; M. phaseoli has a SB at 53, 58, and 64 Rm; M. brasilensis has three SB at Rm 40, 58, and 66 and a WB at Rm 71; M. pisi has a SB at Rm 40, 60, and 64 and two WB at 46 and 50 Rm. Data from sequencing the 18S rDNA region of M. polycephannulata n. sp. confirms that it is different from M. arabicida, M. arenaria, M. ethiopica, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. paranaensis, and M. thailandica. Sequence identity among these eight species ranged between 85 to 93.4%. Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. reproduces very well on carrot and tomato; poorly on pepper; and not at all on cotton, peanut, tobacco, watermelon, and sweet corn.
PMCID: PMC3380497  PMID: 22736812
Daucus carotae; description; host range; Meloidogyne brasilensis; M. javanica; M. petuniae; M. phaseoli; M. pisi; morphology; morphometrics; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy
15.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
16.  Evaluation of an Antibiotic-Producing Strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Suppression of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):234-240.
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), produced by some strains of Pseudomonas spp., is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic nematodes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Wood1R, a D-genotype strain of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, suppresses numbers of both sedentary and migratory plant-parasitic nematodes. An experiment was conducted in steam-heated soil and included two seed treatments (with Wood1R and a control without the bacterium) and six plant-nematode combinations which were Meloidogyne incognita on cotton, corn, and soybean; M. arenaria on peanut; Heterodera glycines on soybean; and Paratrichodorus minor on corn. Wood 1R had no effect on final numbers of M. arenaria, P. minor, or H. glycines; however, final numbers of M. incognita were lower when seeds were treated with Wood1R than left untreated, and this reduction was consistent among host plants. Population densities of Wood1R were greater on the roots of corn than on the other crops, and the bacterium was most effective in suppressing M. incognita on corn, with an average reduction of 41%. Despite high population densities of Wood1R on corn, the bacterium was not able to suppress numbers of P. minor. When comparing the suppression of M. incognita on corn in natural and steam-heated soil, egg production by the nematode was suppressed in natural compared to steamed soil, but the presence of Wood1R did not result in additional suppression of the nematodes in the natural soil. These data indicate that P. fluorescens strain Wood1R has the capacity to inhibit some populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, consistent suppression of nematodes in natural soils seems unlikely.
PMCID: PMC3380499  PMID: 22736820
antibiotic; biological control; corn; DAPG; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Paratrichodorus minor; Pseudomonas fluorescens; root-knot nematode; stubby-root nematode; Zea mays
17.  Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):194-202.
Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island.
PMCID: PMC3380500  PMID: 22736814
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; haplotype; invasive species; pine wilt disease; pinewood nematode; rDNA; spread route
18.  Reduction of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and Ozone Mass Transfer in Soil Treated with Ozone 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):241-246.
Ozone gas (O3) is a reactive oxidizing agent with biocidal properties. Because of the current phasing out of methyl bromide, investigations on the use of ozone gas as a soil-fumigant were conducted. Ozone gas was produced at a concentration of 1% in air by a conventional electrical discharge O3 generator. Two O3 dosages and three gas flow rates were tested on a sandy loam soil collected from a tomato field that had a resident population of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica. At dosages equivalent to 50 and 250 kg of O3/ha, M. javanica were reduced by 24% and 68%, and free-living nematodes by 19% and 52%, respectively. The reduction for both M. javanica and free-living nematodes was dosage dependent and flow rate independent. The rates of O3 mass transfer (OMT) through three soils of different texture were greater at low and high moisture levels than at intermediate ones. At any one soil moisture level, the OMT rate varied with soil texture and soil organic matter content. Results suggest that soil texture, moisture, and organic matter content should be considered in determining O3 dosage needed for effective nematode control.
PMCID: PMC3380501  PMID: 22736821
free-living nematode; fumigant; management; Meloidogyne javanica; methyl bromide; root-knot nematode; ozone; ozone mass transfer
19.  VX211, A Vigorous New Walnut Hybrid Clone with Nematode Tolerance and a Useful Resistance Mechanism 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):211-216.
VX211 is a highly vigorous Paradox hybrid clone that outgrew other walnut seedlings in the presence of nematodes. A four-year macroplot trial involving Paradox VX211 and a standard Paradox selection, AX1, demonstrated that the damage threshold level of Pratylenchus vulnus on commercially available walnut rootstocks is < 1 nematode/250 cm3 of soil. Using 1 as the initial population level (Pi) within an inoculation zone of 80 L of soil, the P. vulnus population level increased 2,500-fold in the first year of growth. Three years after inoculation soil population levels of P. vulnus on VX211 were significantly reduced compared to that of the moderately vigorous AX1. Growth of VX211 was 35% greater than that of AX1 regardless of the Pi. Examination of stained roots revealed that feeding and reproduction by P. vulnus on VX211 was primarily ectoparasitic. This is the first report on a new walnut rootstock that can be readily cloned, has high vigor, exhibits tolerance to low population levels of P. vulnus, reduces nematode feeding and reproduction within the root terminus, and is currently available to California growers.
PMCID: PMC3380502  PMID: 22736816
asexual clones; host-parasite relationship; Juglans; lath house; macroplot; management; Meloidogyne incognita; Pratylenchus vulnus; resistance
20.  Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):111-119.
In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs < 253 μm for all other species in this group. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined.
PMCID: PMC3365308  PMID: 22661783
DNA sequencing; ITS; juveniles; molecular phylogeny; morphometrics; nematode; Smoky Mountains National Park; taxonomy; Xiphinema bernardi n. sp
21.  The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):140-145.
Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3365309  PMID: 22661787
Cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode management; southern root-knot nematode
22.  Effects of the Mi-1 and the N root-knot nematode-resistance gene on infection and reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii on tomato and pepper cultivars 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):134-139.
Meloidogyne enterolobii is widely considered to be an aggressive root-knot nematode species that is able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and pepper cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, M. enterolobii isolates 1 and 2 from Switzerland were able to reproduce on tomato cultivars carrying the Mi-1 resistance gene as well as an N-carrying pepper cultivar. Reproduction factors (Rf) ranged between 12 and 109 depending on the plant cultivar, with M. enterolobii isolate 2 being more virulent when compared to isolate 1. In contrast, M. arenaria completely failed to reproduce on these resistant tomato and pepper cultivars. Although some variability in virulence and effectiveness of root-knot nematode-resistance genes was detected, none of the plant cultivars showed Rf values less than 1 or less than 10% of the reproduction observed on the susceptible cv. ‘Moneymaker’ (Rf = 23-44) used to characterize resistance. The ability of M. enterolobii to overcome the resistance of tomato and pepper carrying the Mi-1 and the N gene makes it difficult to manage this root-knot nematode species, particularly in organic farming systems where chemical control is not an option.
PMCID: PMC3365310  PMID: 22661786
Capsicum annuum; resistance; root-knot nematodes; Solanum lycopersicon
23.  Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. from California Citrus 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):104-110.
In October 1999, the authors received fixed specimens of a species of Longidorus from Howard Ferris found about the roots of a citrus tree in Oakville, Napa County, CA. After determining it to be new a species, we requested additional specimens. The samples contained roughly equal numbers of males and females. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. is most similar to L. elongatus, but can be distinguished by a greater c-ratio (111-187 vs 73-141), a lesser c´ (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.3), a more offset head, a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 30-33 μm), the presence of sperm in the uterus in mature females, and the approximate 1:1 ratio of females to males. Other similar species include L. artemisiae, L. crassus, L. glycines, and L. milanis. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. artemisiae by a lesser a-ratio (74-102 vs 109-155), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.6), a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 27-34 μm), a longer odontostyle (91-108 vs 84-98 μm), a wider lip region (16-19 vs 14-17 μm), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 41-52 μm), and longer spicules (57-65 vs 39-49 μm). The new species differs substantially from L. crassus by its lip shape and the presence of males, and differs from L. glycines by a shorter body (4.33-5.97 vs 6.14-8.31 mm), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 0.9-1.4), a narrower lip region (16-19 vs 20-23 μm), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 39-57 μm), longer spicules (53-69 vs 45-53 μm), and fewer supplements (7-11 vs 11-17). Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. milanis by a longer body (4.33-5.97vs 3.00-4.90 mm), a greater c value (111-187 vs 86-130), a wider mid-body (53-69 vs 43-56 μm), a different head shape, and longer spicules (53-69 vs 41-54 μm). The nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequence of this species revealed that this species is unique with respect to all sequenced Longidorus species.
PMCID: PMC3365311  PMID: 22661782
18S rDNA; California; Citrus; DNA sequencing; Longidorus ferrisi n. sp; molecular phylogeny; morphology; needle nematode; new species; taxonomy
24.  Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):120-127.
A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.
PMCID: PMC3365312  PMID: 22661784
Agro-climatic zones; Burkina Faso; cowpea; Criconemella; detection; Helicotylenchus; Meloidogyne; nematode survey; Pratylenchus; Rotylenchulus; Scutellonema; Telotylenchus; Tylenchorhynchus; Vigna unguiculata; West Africa
25.  Distribution and Identification of Root-knot Nematodes from Turkey 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):128-133.
Root knot nematodes are causing serious losses in protected cultivation fields in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey. Correct and confident identification of the plant parasitic nematodes is important for vegetable growing and breeding. Therefore, ninety-five populations of plant parasitic nematodes were collected from regional greenhouses. Previously described species-specific primers were used to identify Meloidogyne populations. The present study indicated that SEC-1F/SEC-1R and INCK14F-INCK14R primers for identifying of M. incognita, Fjav/Rjav and DJF/DJR primers for M. javanica and Far/Rar for M. arenaria primers can be effective tools to identify the Turkish root-knot nematode species. Dissemination ratios of the population were 64.2%, 28.4% and 7.3% for Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, respectively. The results showed that M. incognita was the prominent root-knot nematode species in the West Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey.
PMCID: PMC3365313  PMID: 22661785
Distribution; diagnosis; PCR technique; root-knot nematode; Turkey

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