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1.  Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(4):360-364.
Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plants whereas expression of several other defense related genes was increased. In this study, we used more specific gene primers to examine the expression of six PAL genes in three maize genotypes that were good, moderate, and poor hosts for M. incognita, respectively. Of the six PAL genes interrogated, two (ZmPAL3 and ZmPAL6) were not expressed in either M. incognita–infected or noninfected roots. Three genes (ZmPAL1, ZmPAL2, and ZmPAL5) were strongly expressed in all three maize lines, in both nematode-infected and noninfected roots, between 2 and 16 d after inoculation (DAI). In contrast, ZmPAL4 was most strongly expressed in the most-resistant maize line W438, was not detected in the most-susceptible maize line CML, and was detected only at 8 DAI in the maize line B73 that supported intermediate levels of reproduction by M. incognita. These observations are consistent with at least one PAL gene playing a role in modulating host status of maize toward M. incognita and suggest a need for additional research to further elucidate this association.
PMCID: PMC4284088  PMID: 25580029
genetics; host susceptibility; maize; Meloidogyne incognita; phenylalanine ammonia lyase; root-knot nematode; Zea mays
2.  Nematicidal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Root-knot Nematode in Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):261-266.
Certain nematodes are common soilborne organisms found in turfgrass in the United States that cause significant economic damage to golf course turf. One of the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematodes infesting turfgrass are root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Chemical treatment options for root-knot nematodes in turfgrass are limited, and there is a need for new nematicidal active ingredients to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a potential nematicide in laboratory and field experiments. AgNP was synthesized by a redox reaction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride using 0.2% starch as a stabilizer. When J2 of M. incognita were exposed to AgNP in water at 30 to 150 μg/ml, >99% nematodes became inactive in 6 hr. When turfgrass and soil composite samples infested with M. graminis were treated with 150 μg/ml AgNP, J2 were reduced in the soil samples by 92% and 82% after 4- and 2-d exposures, respectively, in the treated compared to the nontreated soil samples. Field trials evaluating AgNP were conducted on a bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) putting green infested with M. graminis. Biweekly application of 90.4 mg/m2 of AgNP improved turfgrass quality in one year and reduced gall formation in the roots in two years without phytotoxicity. The AgNP application did not significantly reduce the number of M. graminis J2 in plots during the growing season. The laboratory assays attested to the nematicidal effect of AgNP, and the field evaluation demonstrated its benefits for mitigating damage caused by root-knot nematode in bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4176408  PMID: 25275999
bermudagrass; management; Meloidogyne; nematicide; root-knot nematode; silver nanoparticle; turfgrass
3.  Inheritance of Resistance to Meloidoygne incognita in Primitive Cotton Accessions from Mexico 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):352-358.
Few sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) have been utilized to develop resistant cultivars, making this resistance vulnerable to virulence in the pathogen population. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of resistance in five primitive accessions of G. hirsutum (TX1174, TX1440, TX2076, TX2079, and TX2107) and to determine allelic relations with the genes for resistance in the genotypes Clevewilt-6 (CW) and Wild Mexico Jack Jones (WMJJ). A half-diallel experimental design was used to create 28 populations from crosses among these seven sources of resistance and the susceptible cultivar DeltaPine 90 (DP90). Resistance to M. incognita was measured as eggs per g roots in the parents, F1 and F2 generations of each cross. The resistance in CW and WMJJ was inherited as recessive traits, as reported previously for CW, whereas the resistance in the TX accessions was inherited as a dominant trait. Chi square analysis of segregation of resistance in the F2 was used to estimate the numbers of genes that conditioned resistance. Resistance in CW and WMJJ appeared to be a multigenic trait whereas the resistance in the TX accessions best fit either a one or two gene model. The TX accessions were screened with nine SSR markers linked to resistance loci in other cotton genotypes. The TX accessions lacked the allele amplified by SSR marker CR316 and linked to resistance in CW and other resistant genotypes derived from this source. Four of five TX genotypes lacked the amplification products from the marker BNL1231 that is also associated with the resistant allele on Chromosome 11 in WMJJ, CW, NemX, M120 RNR and Auburn 634 RNR. However, all five TX genotypes produced the same amplification products from three SSR markers linked to the resistant allele on Chromosome 14 in M120 RNR and M240 RNR. The TX accessions have unique resistance genes that are likely to be useful in efforts to develop resistant cotton cultivars with increased durability.
PMCID: PMC3380526  PMID: 22736869
Allelic relationships; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host resistance; inheritance of resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; molecular markers; root-knot nematode
4.  Reproduction of Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita on several Poaceae 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(1):2-4.
The susceptibility of 22 plant species to Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. Inoculum of M. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on Zoysia matrella “Cavalier” or Cynodon dactylon x C. trasvaalensis “Tifdwarf”. Inoculum of M. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rutgers’. In each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. None of the three dicot species tested (Gossypium hirsutum, Arachis hypogaea, and S. lycopersicum) were hosts for M. marylandi but, as expected, M. incognita had high levels of reproduction on G. hirsutum and S. lycopersicum. Meloidogyne marylandi reproduced on all of the 19 grass species (Poaceae) tested but reproduction varied greatly (P = 0.05) among these hosts. The following grasses were identified for the first time as hosts for M. marylandi: Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss), Echinochloa colona (jungle rice), Eragostis curvula (weeping lovegrass), Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass), P. notatum (bahiagrass), Sorghastrum, nutans (indiangrass), Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass), and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass). No reproduction of M. incognita was observed on B. dactyloides, Cyndon dactylon (common bermudagrass), E. curvula, P. vaginatum (seashore paspalum), S. nutans, T. dactyloides, Z. matrella or Z. japonica. Reproduction of M. incognita was less than reproduction of M. marylandi on the other grass species, except for the Zea mays inbred line B73 on which M. incognita had greater reproduction than did M. marylandi (P = 0.05) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustinegrass) on which M. incognita and M. marylandi had similar levels of reproduction.
PMCID: PMC3365298  PMID: 22661770
dicots; grasses; Meloidgyne marylandi; M. incognita; hosts; Poaceae; root-knot nematode
5.  The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton 
Journal of Nematology  2007;39(4):283-294.
The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality.
PMCID: PMC2586512  PMID: 19259500
6.  Cotton Root Protection from Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Abamectin-Treated Seed 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(1):27-30.
Abamectin is nematicidal to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis, but the duration and length of cotton taproot protection from nematode infection by abamectin-treated seed is unknown. Based on the position of initial root-gall formation along the developing taproot from 21 to 35 d after planting, infection by M. incognita was reduced by abamectin seed treatment. Penetration of developing taproots by both nematode species was suppressed at taproot length of 5 cm by abamectin-treated seed, but root penetration increased rapidly with taproot development. Based on an assay of nematode mobility to measure abamectin toxicity, the mortality of M. incognita associated with a 2-d-old emerging cotton radicle was lower than mortality associated with the seed coat, indicating that more abamectin was on the seed coat than on the radicle. Thus, the limited protection of early stage root development suggested that only a small portion of abamectin applied to the seed was transferred to the developing root system.
PMCID: PMC2586483  PMID: 19259471
abamectin; avermectin; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; seed treatment
7.  Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis to Abamectin 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(2):240-244.
Avermectins are macrocyclic lactones produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. Abamectin is a blend of B1a and B1b avermectins that is being used as a seed treatment to control plant-parasitic nematodes on cotton and some vegetable crops. No LD50 values, data on nematode recovery following brief exposure, or effects of sublethal concentrations on infectivity of the plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita or Rotylenchulus reniformis are available. Using an assay of nematode mobility, LD50 values of 1.56 μg/ml and 32.9 μg/ml were calculated based on 2 hr exposure for M. incognita and R. reniformis, respectively. There was no recovery of either nematode after exposure for 1 hr. Mortality of M. incognita continued to increase following a 1 hr exposure, whereas R. reniformis mortality remained unchanged at 24 hr after the nematodes were removed from the abamectin solution. Sublethal concentrations of 1.56 to 0.39 μg/ml for M. incognita and 32.9 to 8.2 μg/ml for R. reniformis reduced infectivity of each nematode on tomato roots. The toxicity of abamectin to these nematodes was comparable to that of aldicarb.
PMCID: PMC2586449  PMID: 19259453
abamectin; avermectin; LD50; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; Rotylenchulus reniformis; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; seed treatment; tomato
8.  Suppression of Rotylenchulus reniformis 122-cm Deep Endorses Resistance Introgression in Gossypium  
Journal of nematology  2006;38(2):195-209.
Nine sources of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis in Gossypium (cotton) were tested by measuring population density (Pf) and root-length density 0 to 122 cm deep. A Pf in the plow layer less than the autumn sample treatment threshold used by consultants was considered the minimum criterion for acceptable resistance, regardless of population density at planting (Pi). Other criteria were ample roots and a Pf lower than on the susceptible control, as in pot studies. In a Texas field in 2001 and 2002, no resistant accessions had Pf less than the control but all did in microplots into which nematodes from Louisiana were introduced. An environmental chamber experiment ruled out nematode genetic variance and implicated unknown soil factors. Pf in field experiments in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama were below threshold for zero, six and four of the accessions and above threshold in the control. Gossypium arboreum A2–87 and G. barbadense GB-713 were the most resistant accessions. Results indicate that cultivars developed from these sources will suppress R. reniformis populations but less than in pots in a single season.
PMCID: PMC2586456  PMID: 19259448
cotton; Gossypium; nematode; reniform; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis
9.  Laser Capture Microdissection and Real-Time PCR for Measuring mRNA in Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne javanica 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(3):308-312.
The techniques of laser capture microdissection and quantitative RT-PCR were investigated as methods for measuring mRNA in giant cells induced by Meloidogyne javanica. Laser capture microdissection allowed precise sampling of giant cells at 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The expression of three genes (a water channel protein gene Rb7, a plasma membrane H+-ATPase (LHA4), and a hexose kinase (HXK1) was measured based on mRNA extracted from tissue samples and quantitated using reversetranscription real-time PCR. These genes were chosen arbitrarily to represent different aspects of primary metabolism. The amount of HXK1 mRNA in giant cells was not different from that in root meristem or cortical cells when compared on the basis of number of molecules per unit tissue volume, and was similar at all sample times. Amount of mRNA for LHA4 and Rb7 was much greater in giant cells than in cortical cells, but only Rb7 was also greater in giant cells than in root meristem cells. Numbers of mRNA molecules of LHA4 increased linearly in giant cells from 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the amount of Rb7 mRNA was similar at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation but increased at 3 weeks after inoculation. The amount of mRNA for these two genes was similar at all sample times in cortical and root-tip cells. Apparent up regulation of some genes in giant cells may be due primarily to the increased number of copies of the gene in giant cells, whereas for other genes up regulation may also involve increased transcription of the increased number of copies of the gene.
PMCID: PMC2620977  PMID: 19262878
gene expression; giant cells; HXK1; LAH4; laser capture microdissection; Meloidogyne javanica; mRNA; RB7; root-knot nematodes; real-time PCR; reverse transcription
10.  A Recessive Gene for Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Interspecific Arachis spp. Hybrids 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):178-184.
A single dominant gene for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria was identified previously in two peanut cultivars, Arachis hypogaea 'COAN' and 'NemaTAM'. The interspecific Arachis hybrid TxAG-6 was the source of this resistance and the donor parent in a backcross breeding program to introgress resistance into cultivated peanut. To determine if other resistance genes were present in TxAG-6 and derived breeding populations from the third backcross generation (BC₃), F₂ individuals were evaluated for the resistance phenotype. The ratio of the resistant and susceptible individuals for all F₂ populations fit the expected ratio for resistance being governed by one dominant gene and one recessive gene. Evaluation of the F₃ generation from four susceptible F₂ individuals (two from TxAG-6 × A. hypogaea and two from the BC₃ population) confirmed that a recessive gene for resistance to M. arenaria was present in each of the tested populations. The identification of a second gene for resistance in the A. hypogaea germplasm may improve the durability of the resistance phenotype.
PMCID: PMC2620960  PMID: 19262858
Arachis hypogaea; durable resistance; Meloidogyne arenaria; peanut; recessive inheritance; resistance genes; root-knot nematode
11.  Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Peanut in Texas 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(4):395-403.
Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens parasitizing peanut in Texas. The perineal pattern of the female is rounded to oval with a dorsal arch that is high and rounded except for striae near the vulva, which are low with rounded shoulders. The striae are distinctly forked in the lateral field, and punctations often occur as a small group near the tail tip and singly within the whole perineal pattern. The female stylet is 13-16 µm long and has broad, distinctly set-off knobs. The excretory pore opens 40-118 µm from the head, approximately halfway between the anterior end and the metacorpus. Males are 1.2-2.4 µm in length and have a high, wide head cap that slopes posteriorly. The labial disc and medial lips are partially fused to form an elongated lip structure. In some specimens the labial disk is distinctly separated from the lips by a groove. The stylet is 17-22 µm long and has wide knobs that are rounded and distinctly set off from the shaft. Mean second-stage juvenile length is 419 µm. The head region is not annulated, and the large labial disc and crescent-shaped medial lips are fused to form a dumbbell-shaped head cap. The stylet is 9-12 µm long and has rounded, posteriorly sloping knobs. The slender tail, 58-74 µm long, has a distinct, inflated rectum and a slightly rounded tip. The hyaline tail terminus is 11-16 µm long. The isozyme phenotypes for esterase and malic dehydrogenase do not correspond to any other recognized Meloidogyne species. Tomato and peanut are good hosts; corn and wheat are very poor hosts; and cotton, tobacco, pepper, and watermelon are nonhosts.
PMCID: PMC2620679  PMID: 19262770
esterase phenotype; malate dehydrogenase phenotype; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy
12.  Mechanism of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in the Peanut Cultivar COAN 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(1):115-118.
Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in the peanut cultivar COAN is inherited as a single, dominant gene. The mechanism of resistance to M. arenaria in COAN was evaluated in three experiments. In the first experiment the number of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria penetrating roots of the susceptible cultivar Florunner was higher than the number of J2 penetrating roots of the resistant peanut cultivar COAN (P < 0.05). In a second experiment it was determined that the root size and number of potential infection courts (root tips) were similar for the two peanut cultivars. The number of nematodes emigrating from roots of COAN after penetration was greater than emigrated from roots of Florunner (P < 0.05). Necrotic host tissue was rarely observed in roots of COAN infected with M. arenaria, suggesting that resistance to M. arenaria does not involve a necrotic, hypersensitive response. Most of the J2 observed in roots of COAN were restricted to the cortical tissue, with only 1 of 90 J2 observed being associated with the vascular cylinder, whereas in Florunner >70% of the J2 were associated with vascular tissues. Resistance in COAN may be due to constitutive factors in the roots.
PMCID: PMC2620611  PMID: 19265984
Arachis hypogaea; emigration; host resistance; hypersensitive reaction; Meloidogyne arenaria; peanut; penetration; root-knot nematode
13.  Root Galling and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Isolates from Texas on Resistant Cotton Genotypes 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):513-518.
Several cotton genotypes with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita have been released in recent years. To estimate the durability of this resistance, galling severity on these resistant genotypes by M. incognita was measured. Nematode isolates (115 total) were collected from cotton fields in 14 Texas counties in August and September 1996 and 1997. Four additional isolates from Maryland, Mississippi, and North Carolina were also tested. The isolates were evaluated in 12 greenhouse experiments for their ability to gall roots of the resistant cotton genotypes M315, Acala NemX, and Stoneville LA887 and the susceptible cultivar Deltapine 90. Numbers of galls on each genotype by each isolate were counted 60 days after inoculation with 10,000 eggs/plant. M315 consistently had the fewest galls for each nematode isolate, whereas Deltapine 90 had the greatest number of galls. Numbers of galls on NemX and LA887 were usually intermediate and more variable. For each separate experiment, analysis of variance indicated that the effects of nematode isolates, cotton genotypes, and isolate-genotype interaction were significant (P < 0.05). In two of the experiments, nematode reproduction was also measured and galling was positively correlated (r = 0.68 and 0.86) with egg production by M. incognita. Nematode isolates from one field exhibited higher root galling and reproduction (P < 0.05) on resistant genotypes than other isolates, suggesting a need for gene deployment systems that will enhance the durability of resistance.
PMCID: PMC2620498  PMID: 19271003
cotton; durable resistance; Gossypium hirsutum; host resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; root knot
14.  Genetics and Mechanism of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut Germplasm 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(3):283-290.
Segregation of resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in six BC₅F₂ peanut breeding populations was examined in greenhouse tests. Chi-square analysis indicated that segregation of resistance was consistent with resistance being conditioned by a single gene in three breeding populations (TP259-3, TP262-3, and TP271-2), whereas two resistance genes may be present in the breeding populations TP259-2, TP263-2, and TP268-3. Nematode development in clonally propagated lines of resistant individuals of TP262-3 and TP263-2 was compared to that of the susceptible cultivar Florunner. Juvenile nematodes readily penetrated roots of all peanut genotypes, but rate of development was slower (P = 0.05) in the resistant genotypes than in Florunner. Host cell necrosis indicative of a hypersensitive response was not consistently observed in resistant genotypes of either population. Three RFLP loci linked to resistance at distances of 4.2 to 11.0 centiMorgans were identified. Resistant and susceptible alleles for RFLP loci R2430E and R2545E were quite distinct and are useful for identifying individuals homozygous for resistance in segregating populations.
PMCID: PMC2620373  PMID: 19270898
Arachis hypogaea; genetics; host resistance; Meloidogyne arenaria; molecular markers; nematode; peanut; RFLP; root-knot nematode
15.  Resistance of Interspecific Arachis Breeding Lines to Meloidogyne javanica and an Undescribed Meloidogyne Species 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(3):341-346.
Resistance to a peanut-parasitic population of Meloidogyne javanica and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. in peanut breeding lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica was examined in greenhouse tests. The interspecific hybrid TxAG-7 was resistant to reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica, M. javanica, and Meloidogyne sp. An Meloidogyne javanica-resistant selection from the second backcross (BC) of TxAG-7 to the susceptible cultivar Florunner also was resistant to M. javanica but appeared to be segregating for resistance to the Meloidogyne sp. When reproduction of M. javanica and Meloidogyne javanica were compared on five BC4F3 peanut breeding lines, each derived from Meloidogyne javanica-susceptible BC4F2 individuals, all five lines segregated for resistance to M. javanica, whereas four of the lines appeared to be susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica. These data indicate that several peanut lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica also contain genes for resistance to populations of M. javanica and the undescribed Meloidogyne sp. that are parasitic on peanut. Further, differences in segregation patterns suggest that resistance to each Meloidogyne sp. is conditioned by different genes.
PMCID: PMC2620302  PMID: 19274226
Arachis hypogaea; genetics; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne javanica; Meloidogyne sp.; nematode; peanut; resistance; root-knot nematode
16.  Damage Functions for Three Meloidogyne Species on Arachis hypogaea in Texas 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4):478-483.
The yield response of Florunner peanut to different initial population (Pi) densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. javanica, and an undescribed Meloidogyne species (isolate 93-13a) was determined in microplots in 1995 and 1996. Seven Pi's (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 eggs and J2/500 cm³ soil) were used for each Meloidogyne species in both years. The three species reproduced abundantly on Florunner in both years. In 1995, mean reproduction differed among the three species; mean Rf values were 10,253 for isolate 93-13, 4,256 for M. arenaria, and 513 for M. javanica. In 1996, the reproduction of M. arenaria (mean Rf = 7,820) and isolate 93-13a (mean Rf = 7,506) were similar, and both had greater reproduction on peanut than did M. javanica (mean Rf = 2,325). All three nematode species caused root and pod galling, and a positive relationship was observed between Pi and the percentage of pods galled. Meloidogyne arenaria caused a higher percentage of pod galling than did M. javanica or isolate 93-13a. A negative linear relationship between log₁₀ (Pi + 1) and pod yield was observed for all three nematode species each year. The yield response slopes were similar except for that of M. javanica, which was less negative than that of isolate 93-13a in 1995, and less negative than that of M. arenaria and isolate 93-13a in 1996.
PMCID: PMC2619806  PMID: 19274184
Arachis hypogaea; damage function; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne javanica; Meloidogyne spp.; nematode; peanut; root-knot nematode
17.  Host-Parasite Relationships of Meloidogyne trifoliophila Isolates from New Zealand 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(1):55-64.
Root-infecting nematodes are commonly found on white clover in New Zealand pasture where they reduce yield, nitrogen fixation, and persistence. The dominant root-knot nematode on white clover in New Zealand is confirmed in this study as Meloidogyne trifoliophila by isozyme phenotype comparison with the type population from Tennessee. Results from a host differential test differed in the host ranges of M. trifoliophila and M. hapla from New Zealand locations, with M. trifoliophila failing to reproduce on the standard host plants of the test. The size and character of white clover root galls differ between species as M. trifoliophila galls are large, elongate, and smooth compared to the M. hapla galls, which are small, round, inconspicuous, and generally have adventitious, lateral roots. Culture and identification of root-knot nematode populations from sites in the North Island of New Zealand showed that M. trifoliophila is more widespread and abundant than M. hapla. Similar differential resistant and susceptible galling responses among half-sib families of white clover from a breeding program indicated that all M. trifoliophila populations tested were of the same pathotype. This resistant material was not effective in reducing reproduction of M. hapla. Meloidogyne trifoliophila did not develop to maturity on six grasses tested, but galls were formed on some species.
PMCID: PMC2619749  PMID: 19274134
breeding; detection; diagnosis; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne trifoliophila; nematode; New Zealand; pasture; resistance; root-knot nematode; Trifolium repens; white clover
18.  Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4):565-568.
Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619726  PMID: 19277175
Carya illinoensis; C. ovata; detection; esterase; hickory; isozyme phenotype; Juglans hindsii; J. regia; malate dehydrogenase; Meloidogyne partityla; pecan; root-knot nematode; walnut
19.  Additive Effects of Meloidogyne arenaria and Sclerotinin rolfsii on Peanut 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):99-106.
Field observations have suggested that infection of peanut by Meloidogyne arenaria increases the incidence of southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Three factorial experiments in microplots were conducted to determine if interactions between M. arenaria and S. rolfsii influenced final nematode population densities, incidence of southern blight, or pod yield. Treatments included four or five initial population densities of M. arenaria and three inoculum rates of S. rolfsii. Final nematode population densities were affected by initial nematode densities in all experiments (P = 0.01) and by S. rolfsii in one of three experiments (P = 0.01). Incidence of southern blight increased with increasing inoculum rates of S. rolfsii in all experiments and by the presence of the nematodes in one experiment (P = 0.01). Pod yield decreased with inoculation with S. rolfsii in all experiments (P = 0.05) and by M. arenaria in two of three experiments (P = 0.05). In no experiment was the interaction among treatments significant with respect to final nematode population densities, incidence of southern blight, or pod yield (P = 0.05). The apparent disease complex between M. arenaria and S. rolfsii on peanut is due to additive effects of the two pathogens.
PMCID: PMC2619671  PMID: 19277351
Arachis hypogaea; disease complex; interaction; Meloidogyne arenaria; peanut; root-knot nematode; Sclerotium rolfsii; southern blight
20.  Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica on Sesame 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):624-627.
Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. ineognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica on 10 cultivars of sesame (Sesame indicum) was examined in greenhouse tests. Sesame cultivars were also evaluated in a field infested with M. arenaria. Sesame was a poor host for M. incognita races 1 and 3 as no sesame genotype supported more than 70 eggs/g root. Reproduction of M. arenaria race 1 on sesame varied from 20 eggs/g roots for cultivar Sesaco 7CB to 1,570 eggs/g roots for Sesaco 119 in the greenhouse. Two cultivars that supported moderate levels of reproduction (128-160 eggs/g root) in greenhouse tests, however, supported only low final population densities (<40 eggs and second-stage juveniles [J2]/500 cm³ soil) in field plots. In the same test, the peanut cultivar Florunner supported final population densities of 2,490 eggs and J2/500 cm³ soil. Reproduction of M. javanica on sesame in the greenhouse varied from 580 to 8,230 eggs/g root. These data suggest that sesame may be an effective rotation crop for control of M. arenaria or M. incognita but not M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619651  PMID: 19277331
crop rotation; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; root-knot nematode; Sesame indicum
21.  Meloidogyne javanica Parasitic on Peanut 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4):436-441.
Peanut fields in four governorates of Egypt were surveyed to identify species of Meloidogyne present. Fourteen populations obtained from peanut roots were all identified as M. javanica based on perineal patterns, stylet and body lengths of second-stage juveniles, esterase phenotypes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mtDNA. Three of 14 populations, all from contiguous fields in the Behara governorate, had individuals with a unique two-isozyme esterase phenotype. All populations of M. javanica tested on peanut had levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-susceptible peanut cultivar Florunner that were not different from M. arenaria (P = 0.05), and had lower levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-resistant genotype TxAG-7 than on Florunner (P = 0.05). Reproduction of the five Egyptian populations of M. javanica tested was lower on root-knot nematode resistant tomato cultivars Better Boy and Celebrity than on the root-knot nematode susceptible cultivar Rutgers (P = 0.05). These data are evidence that some populations of M. javanica are parasitic on peanut and that the peanut and tomato genotypes resistant to M. arenaria are also resistant to these populations of M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619535  PMID: 19279913
Arachis hypogaea; Egypt; esterase isozyme phenotype; host resistance; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; peanut; restriction fragment length polymorphism; RFLP; root-knot nematode; tomato
22.  Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis and Associated Soil Textures from Some Cotton Production Areas of Texas 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(4S):895-899.
The incidence of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton was determined in 1989-92 from 1,089 soil samples collected from 31 counties that account for nearly 60% of the 2.2 million hectares planted to cotton in Texas. Meloidogyne incognita was commonly found in the Southern High Plains and Brazos River Valley regions of Texas (57% and 34%, respectively, of samples) but was found in less than 8% of samples from the Central Blacklands, Coastal Bend, Low Plains, or the Upper Gulf Coast regions. Rotylenchulus reniformis was widely distributed in the Brazos River Valley (24% of samples) and found occasionally in the Upper Gulf Coast (8% of samples). Meloidogyne incognita was found only rarely in soils with greater than 40% clay content, whereas Rotylenchulus reniformis was frequently found in finely textured soils but was less common in soils with greater than 40% sand content. In samples infested with M. incognita or R. reniformis, population densities of these species were at least 10-fold greater than population densities of other plant-parasitic species present in the sample. Root-knot and reniform nematodes were not found together in high population densities (>100 individuals/500 cm³) in the same sample.
PMCID: PMC2619463  PMID: 19279860
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; incidence; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; survey
23.  Dynamics of the Nuclear Complement of Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(3):416-421.
The total numbers of nuclei in giant cells induced by Meloidogyne incognita in pea, lettuce, tomato, and broad bean were determined. Mature giant cells from pea had the most nuclei per giant cell with a mean of 59 ± 23, lettuce had the fewest with 26 ± 16, and tomato and broad bean were intermediate. The rate of increase in numbers of nuclei for all plant species was greatest during the first 7 days after inoculation. No mitotic activity was observed in giant cells associated with adult nematodes. Number of nuclei per giant cell doubled each day during the period of greatest mitotic activity, but number of total chromosomes per giant cell increased 20-fold per day at the same time. The hypothesis is presented that factor(s) responsible for the polyploid, mulfinucleate condition characteristic of giant cells may be different from factor(s) responsible for aneuploid numbers of chromosome per nucleus or for nuclear aberrations such as the presence of linked nuclei.
PMCID: PMC2619384  PMID: 19279788
broad bean; chromosomes; giant cell; Lactuca sativa; lettuce; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; nucleus; Pisum sativum; root-knot nematode; tomato; Vicia faba
24.  Recovery and Longevity of Egg Masses of Meloidogyne incognita during Simulated Winter Survival 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(2):244-248.
Effects of soil matrix potential on longevity of egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita were determined during simulated winter conditions. Egg masses were recovered from isolated root fragments incubated in field soil at matrix potentials of -0.1, -0.3, -1.0, and -4.0 bars throughout winter survival periods of 10 weeks for tomato roots and 12 weeks for cotton roots. Egg masses were more superficial on cotton roots than on tomato roots and were more easily dislodged from cotton roots during recovery of root fragments by elutriation. The rate of decline in numbers of eggs and J2 per egg mass was greater in wet as compared to dry soils (P = 0.01), with the relationship between numbers of eggs and J2 per egg mass and time being best described by quadratic models. Percentage hatch of recovered eggs declines linearly with time at soil matrix potentials of -0.1 and -0.3 bars, but at -1.0 and -4.0 bars the percentage hatch of recovered eggs increased before declining. Effects of soil matrix potential on numbers of eggs per egg mass and percentage hatch of recovered eggs were consistent with previous reports that low soil moisture inhibits egg hatch before affecting egg development. Estimations of egg population densities during winter survival periods will be affected by ability to recover infected root fragments from the soil without dislodging associated egg masses. There is a need for procedures for extraction of egg masses not attached to roots from the soil.
PMCID: PMC2619360  PMID: 19279764
egg mass; matrix potential; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; root knot; soil moisture; winter survival
25.  Rotylenchulus reniformis on Greenhouse-grown Foliage Plants: Host Range and Sources of Inoculum 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4S):634-638.
Two sources of inoculum of reniform nematodes, Rotylenchulus reniformis, were identified for infestation of ornamental foliage plants in commercial greenhouses. These were water from a local canal system and rooted cuttings purchased from other sources. Eight ornamental plant species were identified as good hosts for the reniform nematode, with each species supporting a reniform population density equal to or greater than that supported by 'Rutgers' tomato and a reproduction factor of greater than 1.0. Nine other plant species were identified as poor hosts.
PMCID: PMC2619222  PMID: 19283176
Araucaria excelsia; Asparagus densiflorus sprengeri; Beaucarnea recurvata; Brassaia actinophylla; Brassaia arboicola; Chamaedorea elegans; Chlorophytum comosum variegatum; Codiaeum variegatum pictum; commercial greenhouse; Dieffenbachia camille; Dieffenbachia compacta; Dracaena draco; Dizygotheca elegantissima; Ficus benjamina; Ficus elastia robusta; Ficus lyrata; Lycopersicon esculentum; ornamental foliage plants; Philodendron selloum; Radermachera sinica; reniform nematode; reproduction factor; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Sansevieria trifasciata; Spathiphyllum spp.; Syngonium podophyllum albovirens

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