A reliable method to eliminate tobacco rattle virus (TRV) from viruliferous Paratrichodorus allius populations was developed. This virus is vectored by P. allius in the Pacific Northwest and causes corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato. The viruliferous nematodes that were reared on 'Vernema' alfalfa or '770' scotch spearmint for at least 3 months did not transmit TRV to 'Samsun NN' tobacco, a suitable indicator plant, and did not cause CRS symptoms on 'Russet Norkotah' tubers. A new isolate of TRV was introduced into a nonviruliferous population of P. allius. First, tobacco plants were inoculated with a field population of P. allius that transmitted an isolate of TRV that caused severe symptoms on potato. The tobacco roots were then washed free from soil and dipped in 0.525% sodium hypochlorite to remove the initial nematode inoculum. After the disinfected tobacco plants recovered and began to grow, the virus-free population of P. allius was introduced around the root system to acquire the new virus isolate from tobacco roots. The newly established virus-vector combination caused CRS symptoms on 'Russet Norkotah' that were characteristic of the more virulent virus isolate, indicating that the virus-free P. allius population had reacquired virus.
alfalfa; corky ringspot disease; potato; scotch spearmint; tobacco; tobacco rattle virus
An accession of Solanum hougasii, a wild tuber-bearing potato species native to Mexico, was found to be resistant to races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chitwoodi. A resistant selection was selfed and its progeny possessed the same combined resistance uniformly. A selected resistant seedling from the selfed progeny was crossed to cultivated tetraploid potato (S. tuberosum) to form an F₁ hybrid, and was backcrossed to cultivated tetraploid potato to form a BC₁ population in which resistance to the two races segregated. Progeny of the BC₁ were tested in inoculation experiments with four replicates for each progeny genotype for each race of nematode. Resistance was evaluated on the basis of extracted egg counts from the entire root system of pot-grown plants. Considering resistance to each race separately, for race 1, non-host (Rf ≤ 0.1) status was exhibited by approximately half of the BC₁. About one-third of the progeny showed non-host status to race 2. Egg production among progeny that showed non-host status for both races was higher with race 2 than with race 1. Analysis of co-segregation established that genetic control for the two races appears to be independently segregating. Although genes for resistance to race 1 derived from S. bulbocastanum and S. fendleri were previously described, this report is the first analysis showing independent genetic control in Solanum spp. for resistance to race 2 of M. chitwoodi only.
breeding; Columbia root-knot nematode; inheritance; introgression; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; nematode; potato; resistance; Solanum bulbocastanum; Solanum fendleri; Solanum tuberosum; wild species
The effect of the Mi gene on the reproductive factor of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla, major nematode pests of potato, was measured on nearly isogenic tomato lines differing in presence or absence of the Mi gene. The Mi allele controlled resistance to reproduction of race 1 of M. chitwoodi and to one of two isolates of race 2. No resistance to race 3 of M. chitwoodi or to M. hapla was found. Variability in response to isolates of race 2 may reflect diversity of virulence genotypes heretofore undetected. Resistance to race 1 of M. chitwoodi could be useful in potato if the Mi gene were functional following transferral by gene insertion technology into potato. Since the Mi gene is not superior to RMc₁ derived from Solarium bulbocastanum, the transferral by protoplast fusion appears to offer no advantage.
Columbia root-knot nematode; isogenic lines; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; northern root-knot nematode; potato; reproductive factor; resistance; tomato
A somatic hybrid, CBP-233, between resistant Solanum bulbocastanum (SB-22) and susceptible S. tuberosum (R4) was tested for resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1. One week after inoculation, only 0.04-0.4% of the initial inoculum (Pi, 5,000 eggs) as second stage-juveniles infected SB-22 and CBP-233 root systems, compared to 2% in R4. After 8 weeks, the number of M. chitwoodi in SB-22 and CBP-233 roots remained lower (0.3-1.5% of Pi) compared to R4, which increased from 2% to ca. 27%. Development of M. chitwoodi was delayed on SB-22 and CBP-233 by at least 2 weeks, and only half of the infective nematodes established feeding sites and matured in resistant clones compared to 99% in susceptible R4. Necrotic tissue surrounded nematodes that failed to develop in SB-22 and CBP-233. The reproductive factor (ratio of final number of eggs recovered from roots to Pi) was <0.01 for both SB-22 and CBP-233 and 46.8 for R4. Delaying inoculation of CBP-233 from 1 to 3 months after planting did not increase the chance or rate of tuber infection. Only a few M. chitwoodi developed to maturity on CBP-233 tubers and deposited a small number of eggs. SB-22 rarely produced tubers in these experiments, and like CBP-233 were resistant to M. chitwoodi. It appeared that the mechanisms of resistance to M. chitwoodi in roots and tubers of CBP-233 are similar.
Columbia root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; protoplast fusion; potato; resistance; Russet Burbank; Solanum bulbocastanum; Solanum tuberosum; somatic hybrid
Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. chitwoodi races on the poorer hosts ranged from <0.1 to 0.9 under greenhouse and field conditions. Meloidogyne hapla failed to reproduce on any of the cultivars tested. In the laboratory, leaves of each cultivar chopped and incorporated as green manure reduced the M. chitwoodi population in infested soil more than unamended or wheat green manure treatments. Trudan 8, although limited to the zone of incorporation, protected this zone from colonization of upward migrating second stage juveniles (J2) for up to 6 weeks. Leaves of Trudan 8 but not roots were effective against M. chitwoodi, and J2 appeared to be more sensitive than egg masses. Trudan 8 and Sordan 79 as green manure reduced M. chitwoodi in bucket microplots under field conditions.
Columbia root-knot nematode; control; green manure; host suitability; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; northern root-knot nematode; nematode; organic amendment; potato; Sorghum bicolor; sudangrass; sorghum-sudangrass hybrid
Responses of egg masses, free eggs, and second-stage juveniles (J2) ofMeloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi to ethoprop were evaluated. The results indicated that J2 were the most sensitive, followed by free eggs and egg masses. In general, M. chitwoodi was more susceptible to ethoprop than M. hapla. Ethoprop at 7.2 μg a.i./g soil protected tomato roots from upward migrating M. chitwoodi for 5 weeks. The zone of protection was extended to 10 and 20 cm below the root zone when 3.6 and 7.2 cm water were applied over 8 days. Ethoprop at 1.8, 3.6, and 7.2 μg a.i./g soil degraded faster and killed fewer M. chitwoodi J2 in potato field soil previously exposed to ethoprop than in unexposed soil or sterilized exposed soil. The enhanced biodegradation property of the exposed soil lasted 17 months after the last application of ethoprop. The limited downward movement of ethoprop in the soil, migration of M. chitwoodi J2 into the treated zone, presence of resistant life stage(s) at the time of application, and loss of efficacy due to enhanced biodegradation may have a significant effect on the performance of ethoprop.
biodegradation; Columbia root-knot nematode; ethoprop; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; Meloidogyne hapla; migration; nematicide; nematode; northern root-knot nematode; potato; Solanum tuberosum
Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD₅) after planting. Second-generation and third-generation eggs hatched by 950-1,100 DD₅ and 1,500-1,600 DD₅, respectively, and J2 densities rapidly increased in the soil. A fourth generation was observed at 2,150 DD₅ in 1985 microplot studies. Tubers were initiated by 450-500 DD₅, but J2 were not observed in the tubers until after the second generation hatched at 988-1,166 DD₅. A second period of tuber invasion was observed when third generation J2 hatched. The regional variation in M. chitwoodi damage on potato may be explained by degree-day accumulation in different potato production regions of the western United States.
Columbia root-knot nematode; crop loss; ecology; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; potato; Solanum tuberosum
Meloidogyne chitwoodi races 1 and 2 and M. hapla reproduced on 12 cultivars of Brassica napus and two cultivars of B. campestris. The mean reproductive factors (Rf), Rf = Pf at 55 days ÷ 5,000, for the three nematodes were 8.3, 2.2, and 14.3, respectively. All three nematodes reproduced more efficiently (P < 0.05) on B. campestris than on B. napus. Amending M. chitwoodi-infested soil in plastic bags with chopped shoots of Jupiter rapeseed reduced the nematode population more (P < 0.05) than amendment with wheat shoots. Incorporating Jupiter shoots to soil heavily infested with M. chitwoodi in microplots reduced the nematode population more (P < 0.05) than fallow or corn shoot treatments. The greatest reduction in nematode population density was attained by cropping rapeseed for 2 months and incorporating it into the soil as a green manure.
Brassica spp.; canola; Columbia root-knot nematode; glucosinolate; host suitability test; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; nematicide; Northern root-knot nematode; organic amendment; reproductive factor
Seasonal vertical migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi through soil and its impact on potato production in Washington and Oregon was studied. Nematode eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) were placed at various depths (0-180 cm) in tubes filled with soil and buried vertically or in holes dug in potato fields. Tubes were removed at intervals over a 12-month period and soil was bioassayed on tomato roots. Upward migration began in the spring after water had percolated through the tubes. Nematodes were detected in the top 5 cm of tubes within 1-2 months of burial, depending on depth of placement. Potatoes were grown in field plots for 4 or 5 months before the tubers were evaluated for infection. One hundred eggs and J2 per gram soil placed at 60 and 90 cm caused significant tuber damage at the Washington and Oregon sites, respectively. At the Washington site, inoculum placed at 90, 120, and 150 cm caused potato root infection without serious impact on tuber quality, but inoculum diluted 2-8 times and placed at 90 cm did not cause root or tuber infection. Nematode migration was dependent on soil texture; 9 days after placement at the bottoms of tubes, J2 had moved up 55 cm in sandy loam soil (Oregon) but only 15 cm in silt loam (Washington). Thus, the importance of M. chitwoodi which occur deep in a soil profile may depend on soil texture, population density, and length of the growing season.
Columbia root-knot nematode; ecology; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; potato; recolonization; Solanum tuberosum; survival; vertical migration
A 3-year study was conducted to evaluate fenamiphos at 20.2 kg a.i./ha applied in both fall and spring or in spring only for the control of Pratylenchus penetrans on apple, Malus domestica cv. Granny Smith on M7a rootstock. The initial population densities of P. penetrans within the plot area were 89/250 cm³ soil and 268/g root dry weight. Fenamiphos increased (P < 0.05) trunk diameter in years 2 and 3 and shoot length in years 1 and 2. Yield data obtained in year 3 showed that the spring only and the fall plus spring fenamiphos treatments increased (P < 0.05) yields by 36 and 80% with a net gain of $2,352 and $5,456/ha, respectively. Results suggest that P. penetrans may be of economic importance in Washington state.
apple; chemical control; fenamiphos; lesion nematode; Malus domestica; nematode control; Pratylenchus penetrans
Most of the 15 carrot cultivars tested were moderate to good hosts to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1, whereas all except Orlando Gold were nonhosts or poor hosts for M. chitwoodi race 2. All carrot cultivars were good hosts for M. hapla. The plant weights of the carrot cultivars Red Cored Chantenay and Orlando Gold infected with either race of M. chitwoodi were significantly less than uninoculated checks in pots. Under field microplot conditions, however, detrimental effects on quality were rarely observed. M. hapla was pathogenic to both cultivars in the greenhouse and the field. The tolerance level of Orlando Gold to M. hapla was lower than Red Cored Chantenay.
carrot; Columbia root-knot nematode; host range; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; northern root-knot nematode; pathogenicity; tolerance
Second-stage juveniles (J2) of races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chiiwoodi and M. hapla readily penetrated roots of Thor alfalfa and Columbian tomato seedlings; however, few individuals of M. chitwoodi race 1 were able to establish feeding sites and mature on alfalfa. Histopathological studies indicate that J2 of race 1 either failed to initiate feeding sites or they caused cell enlargement without typical cell wall thickening. The protoplasm of these cells coagulated, and juveniles of race 1 did not develop beyond the swollen J2 stage. A few females of race 1 fed on small giant cells and deposited a few eggs at least 20 and 30 days later than M. chitwoodi race 2 and M. hapla, respectively. Failure of race 1 to establish feeding sites was related to egression of J2 from the roots. The M. chitwoodi race 1 J2 egression from alfalfa roots was higher than egression of race 2 and M. hapla. Egression of J2 of M. chitwoodi races 1 and 2 from tomato roots was similar and higher than that of M. hapla. Thus egression plays an important role in the host-parasite relationship of M. chitwoodi and alfalfa.
alfalfa; Columbia root-knot nematode; egression; histopathology; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; northern root-knot nematode; physiological race; resistance
The reproductive factor (R = final egg density at 55 days ÷ 5,000, initial egg density) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 (alfalfa race) on 46 crop cultivars ranged from 0 to 130. The reproductive efficiency of M. chitwoodi race 1 (non-alfalfa race) and M. chitwoodi race 2 was compared on selected crop cultivars. The basic difference between the two races lay in their differential reproduction on Thor alfalfa and Red Cored Chantenay carrot. M. chitwoodi race 2 reproduced on alfalfa but not on carrot. Conversely, alfalfa was a poor host and carrots were suitable for M. chitwoodi race 1. Based on host responses to M. chitwoodi races and M. hapla, a new differential host test was proposed to distinguish the common root-knot nematode species of the Pacific Northwest.
Columbia root-knot nematode; differential host test; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; northern root-knot nematode
Migratory ability of second-stage juveniles (J2) of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi races and a M. hapla population were compared in soil-filled columns at 12, 18, and 24 C. J2 of all populations migrated farthest at 18 C and least at 12 C. Nematode survival was significantly reduced (P = 0.05) at 24 C.M. chitwoodi J2 migrated further and in greater numbers than M. hapla J2 at all temperatures. A comparison with and without a host plant demonstrated no preferential migration toward the plant. Water percolation through the migration columns stimulated upward migration.
Columbia root-knot nematode; northern root-knot nematode; migration; temperature; soil moisture
Phaseolus vulgaris; Pisum sativum; Columbia root-knot nematode; northern root-knot nematode
Meloidogyne chitwoodi developed and reproduced more rapidly than M. hapla in potato roots at 15, 20, or 25 C when both species of nematodes were inoculated simultaneously at 250 or 1,000 juveniles of each. At 30 C significantly more M. hapla than M. chitwoodi females were found at the lower inoculum level after 41 days. More M. chitwoodi than M. hapla juveniles were extracted from soil at 15, 20, and 25 C, but only at the lower inoculum level at 30 C. Potato was considered a more suitable host for M. chitwoodi than M. hapla because of M. chitwoodi's greater reproduction at 15, 20, and 25 C. Corn and wheat cultivars tested supported M. chitwoodi reproduction at temperatures of 10, 15, 20, and 25 C, but fewest eggs were produced on these plants at 20 C. Temperatures of 10 to 25 C had little influence on the low reproduction of M. chitwoodi on four alfalfa cultivars. M. chitwoodi reproduced on the alfalfa entry Mn PL9HF.
Columbia root-knot nematode; northern root-knot nematode; alfalfa; wheat; corn
Meloidogyne chitwoodi reduced the growth of winter wheat 'Nugaines' directly in relation to nematode density in the greenhouse, The relationship between top dry weight and initial nematode density suggests a tolerance limit of Nugaines wheat to M. chitwoodi of between 0.03 and 0.18 eggs/cm³ of soil; the value for relative minimum plant top weight was 0.45 g and 0.75 g, respectively. Growth of wheat in field microplots containing four population densities (0.003, 0.05, 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm³ soil) was not affected significantly at any inoculum level compared to controls during September to July, However, suppression of head weights of 'Fielder' spring wheat grown May-July occurred in microplots initially infested with 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm³ soil. Reproduction (Pf/Pi) was poorer at these two inoculum levels as compared to the lower densities. In another greenhouse experiment, roots of wheat cultivars Fielder, 'Fieldwin,' 'Gaines,' 'Hyslop,' and Nugaines became infected by M. chitwoodi, but not by M. hapla. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi was less on Gaines and Nugaines than on Fielder, Fieldwin, or Hyslop.
Columbia root-knot nematode; northern root-knot nematode; Triticum aestivum; damage threshold
Metham sodium applied in October through center pivot irrigation systems was evaluated for control of Meloidogyne hapla at 374, 468, and 701 liters/ha and for control of M. chitwoodi at 468 liters/ha on potato. Metham sodium at the high rates effectively controlled M. hapla. No females were detected in the tubers at the high rates of nematicide application, whereas a mean of 19 and 69% of the tubers were infected at the low rate and in the nontreated controls, respectively. In the M. chitwoodi trial only 1.5% of the tubers in the treated plots were infected compared with 82% in the nontreated plots. Metham sodium effectively controlled M. chitwoodi to soil depths of 30, 61, and 91 cm.
root-knot nematodes; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; Meloidogyne hapla; chemical control; Solanum tuberosum
From September 1980 to June 1981, a survey was conducted in the major potato growing regions of northern California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon. and Washington to determine the distribution of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and other Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla were the only root-knot nematode species detected parasitizing potato in all the states surveyed. Meloidogyne chitwoodi occurred alone in 83% of the samples and M. hapla in 11%, with 6% of all samples containing both species. The greater incidence of M. chitwoodi, as compared to M. hapla, may be due to the cool growing season encountered in 1980 (which favored M. chitwoodi but not M. hapla) and to the increased acreage of small grains (which are good hosts for M. chitwoodi but not M. hapla) planted in rotation with potato. Differentiation between these two species can be determined by a differential host test, perineal patterns of mature females, and shape of the tail tip amt of the tail hypodermal terminus of L₂ juveniles.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; potato
Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla were pathogenic to both roots and tubers of Russet Burbank potato. Both species affected root growth at 15, 20, and 25 C, but not 30 C. Meloidogyne chitwoodi reprotluced best at 15, 20, and 25 C and M. hapla at 25 and 30 C. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi was reduced at 30 C; reproduction of M. hapla was reduced at 15 C and less at 20 C. The reproductive potential of M. chitwoodi was higher than that of M. hapla at 15, 20, and 25 C. M. hapla reproduced better at 30 C than did M. chitwoodi. M. chitwoodi infected potato tubers in higher numbers than did M. hapla.
Mount St. Helens volcanic ash was incorporated into a loamy sand greenhouse soil mix to produce concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 25, 50 and 100% ash. Chemical and physical properties of the various mixtures were determined. Three experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to determine if volcanic ash had any influence on root-knot nematode survival and infectivity. Tomato, Lycoperscion esculentum, seedlings cv. Columbia, susceptible to Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi were planted into pots of the soil-ash concentrations and infested with one of the two nematode species. Tomato seedlings were harvested 30, 50 and 60 days later and the roots examined for nematode infection and reproduction. Ash incorporation had no deliterious effect on root-knot nematodes in any of the experiments reported here. Nematode infection and reproduction on tomato were not affected at any ash concentration.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. is described and illustrated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) originally collected from Quincy, Washington, USA. This new species resembles M. hapla, but its perineal pattern is basically round to oval with distinctive and broken, curled, or twisted striae around and above the anal area. The vulva is in a sunken area devoid of striae. Vesicles or vesicle-like structures are present in the median bulb of females. The larva tail, being short and blunt with a hyaline tail terminal having little or no taper to its rounded terminus, is distinctively different from M. hapla. SEM observations revealed the nature of the perineal pattern and details of the head of larvae and males, and showed the spicules to have dentate tips ventrally. Hosts for M. chitwoodi n. sp. include potato, tomato, corn, and wheat but not strawberry, pepper, or peanut. The latter three crops are excellent hosts for M. hapla. The known distribntion of this new root-knot species presently involves certain areas of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. The common name "Columbia root-knot nematode" is proposed for M. chitwoodi n. sp.
taxonomy; morphology; Meloidogyne; root-knot; new species; SEM ultrastructure; potato; Solarium tuberosum; hosts