The D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) were sequenced and compared to predict secondary structures for Hoplolaiminae species based on free energy minimization and comparative sequence analysis. The free energy based prediction method provides putative stem regions within primary structure and these base pairings in stems were confirmed manually by compensatory base changes among closely and distantly related species. Sequence differences ranged from identical between Hoplolaimus columbus and H. seinhorsti to 20.8% between Scutellonema brachyurum and H. concaudajuvencus. The comparative sequence analysis and energy minimization method yielded 9 stems in the D2 and 6 stems in the D3 which showed complete or partial compensatory base changes. At least 75% of nucleotides in the D2 and 68% of nucleotides in the D3 were related with formation of base pairings to maintain secondary structure. GC contents in stems ranged from 61 to 73% for the D2 and from 64 to 71% for the D3 region. These ranges are higher than G-C contents in loops which ranged from 37 to 48% in the D2 and 33-45% in the D3. In stems, G-C/C-G base pairings were the most common in the D2 and the D3 and also non-canonical base pairs including A•A and U•U, C•U/U•C, and G•A/A•G occurred in stems. The predicted secondary model and new sequence alignment based on predicted secondary structures for the D2 and D3 expansion segments provide useful information to assign positional nucleotide homology and reconstruction of more reliable phylogenetic trees.
28S; D2-D3; Hoplolaiminae; Hoplolaimus; nematode
In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs < 253 μm for all other species in this group. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined.
DNA sequencing; ITS; juveniles; molecular phylogeny; morphometrics; nematode; Smoky Mountains National Park; taxonomy; Xiphinema bernardi n. sp
In October 1999, the authors received fixed specimens of a species of Longidorus from Howard Ferris found about the roots of a citrus tree in Oakville, Napa County, CA. After determining it to be new a species, we requested additional specimens. The samples contained roughly equal numbers of males and females. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. is most similar to L. elongatus, but can be distinguished by a greater c-ratio (111-187 vs 73-141), a lesser c´ (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.3), a more offset head, a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 30-33 μm), the presence of sperm in the uterus in mature females, and the approximate 1:1 ratio of females to males. Other similar species include L. artemisiae, L. crassus, L. glycines, and L. milanis. Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. artemisiae by a lesser a-ratio (74-102 vs 109-155), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 1.0-1.6), a more posterior guide ring (35-40 vs 27-34 μm), a longer odontostyle (91-108 vs 84-98 μm), a wider lip region (16-19 vs 14-17 μm), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 41-52 μm), and longer spicules (57-65 vs 39-49 μm). The new species differs substantially from L. crassus by its lip shape and the presence of males, and differs from L. glycines by a shorter body (4.33-5.97 vs 6.14-8.31 mm), a lesser c´ value (0.7-1.1 vs 0.9-1.4), a narrower lip region (16-19 vs 20-23 μm), wider mid-body (53-69 vs 39-57 μm), longer spicules (53-69 vs 45-53 μm), and fewer supplements (7-11 vs 11-17). Longidorus ferrisi n. sp. differs from L. milanis by a longer body (4.33-5.97vs 3.00-4.90 mm), a greater c value (111-187 vs 86-130), a wider mid-body (53-69 vs 43-56 μm), a different head shape, and longer spicules (53-69 vs 41-54 μm). The nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequence of this species revealed that this species is unique with respect to all sequenced Longidorus species.
18S rDNA; California; Citrus; DNA sequencing; Longidorus ferrisi n. sp; molecular phylogeny; morphology; needle nematode; new species; taxonomy
DNA sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S gene of ribosomal DNA from 23 taxa of the subfamily Hoplolaiminae were obtained and aligned to infer phylogenetic relationships. The D2 and D3 expansion regions are G-C rich (59.2%), with up to 20.7% genetic divergence between Scutellonema brachyurum and Hoplolaimus concaudajuvencus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony was conducted using the D2-D3 sequence data. Of 558 characters, 254 characters (45.5%) were variable and 198 characters (35.4%) were parsimony informative. All phylogenetic methods produced a similar topology with two distinct clades: One clade consists of all Hoplolaimus species while the other clade consists of the rest of the studied Hoplolaiminae genera. This result suggests that Hoplolaimus is monophyletic. Another clade consisted of Aorolaimus, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchus, and Scutellonema species. Phylogenetic analysis using the outgroup species Globodera rostocheinsis suggests that Hoplolaiminae is paraphyletic. In this study, the D2-D3 region had levels of DNA sequence divergence sufficient for phylogenetic analysis and delimiting species of Hoplolaiminae.
28S; analysis; Aorolaimus; clade; D2-D3; Helicotylenchus; Hoplolaiminae; Hoplolaimus; lance; nematode; phylogenetic; Rotylenchus; species; spiral; Scutellonema; taxonomy
A population of Xiphinema hunaniense Wang and Wu, 1992 with all four juvenile stages was found in the rhizosphere of Pinus sp. in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Morphometrics of 18 females and 35 juveniles of this population are given herein. Detailed morphology and morphometrics of the four juvenile stages are provided. Further comparisons based on morphometrics of the population with previous studies of the females and the first-stage juveniles of X. hunaniense with X. radicicola are given, and morphological variation in X. hunaniense populations are discussed. A revised polytomous key code of Loof and Luc (1990) for X. hunaniense identification is provided, i.e., A1- B4- C4- D4/5- E1- F2(3)- G2- H2-I3- J4- K2- L1. In addition, the sequence of the D2 and D3 expansion region of the 28S rRNA gene was analyzed and compared with sequences of closely related species downloaded from the NCBI database. Cluster analysis of sequences confirmed and supported the species identifications.
China; juveniles; morphometrics; nematode; taxonomy; Xiphinema hunaniense
Longidorus crassus is a common species and widely distributed in Arkansas. It was also identified for the first time in samples from Alabama, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Canada. It is a parthenogenetic species, but a few males were found and were described herein for the first time. Four developmental juvenile stages were identified. A high degree of intraspecies variation was observed among different populations of this species. Twenty-three populations of L. crassus found in Arkansas were studied for their variability using standard measurements, mean comparison, and coefficient of variation. Most of the Arkansas populations have a smaller body than the paralectotypes. Populations Long-63 and Long-88 are close to the paralectotype population. Two populations, Long-10 and Long-80, are different from each other and all other populations. The majority of morphometric characters of this species do not have a normal distribution pattern as they have a high degree of variability within and between populations. The means of many morphometric characters strikingly differ between populations. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on female morphometric character means including body length, distance from vulva opening to anterior end, head width, odontostyle length, esophagus length, body width, tail length, and anal body width were used to examine the morphometric relationships and create dendrograms for 23 Arkansas populations and the lectotype population.
Arkansas; distribution; hierarchical cluster analysis; Longidorus crassus; morphometrics; variability
We describe and illustrate a new needle nematode, Longidorus americanum n. sp., associated with patches of severely stunted and chlorotic loblolly pine, (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in seedbeds at the Flint River Nursery (Byromville, GA). It is characterized by having females with a body length of 5.4-9.0 mm; lip region slightly swollen, anteriorly flattened, giving the anterior end a truncate appearance; long odontostyle (124-165 µm); vulva at 44%-52% of body length; and tail conoid, bluntly rounded to almost hemispherical. Males are rare but present, and in general shorter than females. The new species is morphologically similar to L. biformis, L. paravineacola, L. saginus, and L. tarjani but differs from these species either by the body, odontostyle and total stylet length, or by head and tail shape. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other Longidorus species. Phylogenetic relationships of Longidorus americanum n. sp. with other longidorids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. Additional information regarding the distribution of this species within the region is required.
DNA sequencing; Georgia; loblolly pine; Longidorus americanum n. sp.; molecular data; morphology; new species; neddle nematode; phylogenetics; SEM; taxonomy
During a 1998-to-2001 survey from Arkansas, nine distinct species of Longidorus were found including five new species. Morphometrics of these nine species were used in a stepwise and canonical discrimination to select a subset of characteristics that best identified each species. Student's t test was applied to compare Longidorus breviannulatus Norton &Hoffman, 1975; L. crassus Thorne, 1974; L. diadecturus Eveleigh &Allen, 1982; L. fragilis Thorne, 1974; L. biformis Ye &Robbins, 2004; L. glycines Ye &Robbins, 2004; L. grandis Ye &Robbins, 2003; L. paralongicaudatus Ye &Robbins, 2003; and L. paravineacola Ye &Robbins, 2003 to examine interspecies variation and test for the most useful morphometric characters in species discrimination. Most of the morphometric characters were useful to differentiate species, but species identification could not be based on a single character because the morphometric character ranges often overlap. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that the guide ring position, head width, tail length, body length, odontostyle length, and anal body width were the most important variables. These were used to generate canonical variables in discriminating the species. The first three canonical variables accounted for 95% of the total variance. The scatterplots by the first three canonical variables grouped and separated the Longidorus species from Arkansas. Stepwise and canonical discriminant analyses were useful for examining the groupings and morphometric relationships of the nine Longidorus species.
Arkansas; canonical discriminant analysis; identification; Longidorus; morphometrics; stepwise discriminant analysis
In a survey of ecotypes for longidorids, primarily from the rhizosphere hardwood trees growing in sandy soil along stream banks, 828 soil samples were collected from 37 Arkansas counties in 1999-2001. Eight populations of Longidorus breviannulatus were identified from the Arkansas survey samples. A total of 19 populations from California, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, and Wisconsin were identified from the collection of the second author. A few males were found in New York and Nebraska populations and are described herein. Seven populations of L. fragilis were identified in the Arkansas survey samples, and one population was found from Indiana. Four juvenile stages of L. fragilis are present, and data are given for them herein.
Arkansas; Longidorus breviannulatus; Longidorus fragilis; morphology; new records; SEM; taxonomy
Hierarchical cluster analysis based on female morphometric character means including body length, distance from vulva opening to anterior end, head width, odontostyle length, esophagus length, body width, tail length, and tail width were used to examine the morphometric relationships and create dendrograms for (i) 62 populations belonging to 9 Longidorus species from Arkansas, (ii) 137 published Longidorus species, and (iii) 137 published Longidorus species plus 86 populations of 16 Longidorus species from Arkansas and various other locations by using JMP 4.02 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Cluster analysis dendograms visually illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships of the species and populations. It provided a computerized statistical approach to assist by helping to identify and distinguish species, by indicating morphometric relationships among species, and by assisting with new species diagnosis. The preliminary species identification can be accomplished by running cluster analysis for unknown species together with the data matrix of known published Longidorus species.
hierarchical; cluster analysis; identification; Longidorus; morphometrics
Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study correspond to previous genera and species defined by morphology.
DNA sequencing; ITS1; Longidorus; molecular phylogenetics; Xiphinema
Two new amphimictic species of Longidorus were found in Arkansas. Longidorus biformis n. sp., found in the rhizosphere of hardwood trees along streams in sandy soil in 14 Arkansas locations, is characterized by its long body (5.42-9.50 mm), wide expanded flattened head end, head width 20.0 to 26.0 µm, odontostyle 96 to 125 µm, guide ring 29 to 38 µm posterior to the anterior end, elongate conoid tail, and c' = 0.9-2.1. Females with 2 to 11 vetromedian supplement-like structures were found in 2 of 14 populations of this new species. Longidorus biformis n. sp. is closest to L. seinhorsti Peneva, Loof &Brown, 1998 and L. closelongatus Stoyanov, 1964. Among North American species it is closest to L. glycines n. sp. A distinguishing feature of L. biformis n. sp. is the presence of supplement-like organs in some females. Longidorus glycines n. sp., found in soybean microplots at the Main Research Station, Fayetteville, Arkansas, is characterized by its long body (6.14-8.31 mm), wide offset flattened head end, head width 20.3 to 23.3 µm, odontostyle 87.3 to 99.5 µm, guide ring 22.3 to 26.4 µm posterior to the anterior end, short conoid tail with rounded terminus, and c' = 0.9-1.4. Longidorus glycines n. sp. is closest to L. lusitanicus Macara, 1985. Among North American species it is close to L. biformis n. sp., L. breviannulatus Norton and Hoffman, 1975, and L. crassus Thorne, 1964. Both new species are believed to have four juvenile stages; the first stage was not found for L. biformis n. sp.
hierarchical cluster analysis; Longidorus; morphology; species; SEM; taxonomy
Two new parthenogenetic species of Longidorus were found in Arkansas. Longidorus grandis n. sp. is characterized by its body (5.80-8.24 mm), slightly offset head, head width 20-27 µm, odontostyle 86-100 µm, guide ring 26-35 µm posterior to the anterior end, short conoid to mammiliform tail. Longidorus grandis n. sp. is similar to L. vineacola Sturhan &Weischer, 1964; L. lusitanicus Macara, 1985; L. edmundsi Hunt &Siddiqi, 1977; L. kuiperi Brinkman, Loof &Barbez, 1987; L. balticus Brzeski, Peneva &Brown, 2000; L. closelongatus Stoyanov, 1964; and L. seinhorsti Peneva, Loof &Brown, 1998. Longidorus paralongicaudatus n. sp. is characterized by its body length (2.60-5.00 µm), anteriorly flattened and offset head region 13-18 µm wide, odontostyle length 92-127 µm, guide ring 21-30 µm posterior to the anterior end, tail elongate-conical, and c' = 1.2-2.6. Longidorus paralongicaudatus n. sp. most closely resembles L. longicaudatus Siddiqi, 1962; L. socialis Singh &Khan, 1996; L. juvenilis Dalmasso, 1969; and L. curvatus Khan, 1986.
Arkansas; Longidorus grandis n. sp.; Longidorus paralongicaudatus n. sp; morphology; new species; SEM; taxonomy
Longidorus paravineacola n. sp., described herein, was found in a survey of longidorids of Arkansas. It is a parthenogeneticspecies characterized by its long body (6.68-9.85 mm); slightly expanded and rounded head, head width 21-27 µm; odontostyle length 95-114 µm; guide ring 28-37 µm posterior to the head end; short rounded tail, and c' = 0.6-1.0. Longidorus paravineacola n. sp. is similar to the amphimictic species L. vineacola Sturhan &Weischer, 1964; L. balticus Brzeski, Peneva &Brown, 2000; L. kuiperi Brinkman, Loof &Barbez, 1987; and parthenogenetic species L. crassus Thorne, 1974, which also occurred in the type locality.
hierarchical cluster analysis; Longidorus paravineacola; L. vineacola; morphology; species; SEM; taxonomy
Reproduction of reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis on 139 soybean lines was evaluated in a greenhouse in the summer of 2001. Cultivars and lines (119 total) were new in the Arkansas and Mississippi Soybean Testing Programs, and an additional 20 were submitted by C. Overstreet, Louisiana State Extension Nematologist. A second test of 32 breeding lines and 2 cultivars from the Clemson University soybean breeding program was performed at the same time under the same conditions. Controls were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, susceptible Braxton, and fallow infested soil. Five treatment replications were planted in sandy loam soil infested with 1,744 eggs and vermiform reniform nematodes, grown for 10 weeks in 10 cm-diam.- pots. Total reniform nematodes extracted from soil and roots was determined, and a reproductive factor (final population (Pf)/ initial inoculum level (Pi)) was calculated for each genotype. Reproduction on each genotype was compared to the reproduction on the resistant cultivar Forrest (RF), and the log ratio [log₁₀(RF + 1) is reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest (log ratio) were not suitable hosts, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered suitable hosts. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode and to select useful breeding lines as parent material for future development of reniform nematode resistant cultivars and lines.
breeding lines; cultivars; Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
In greenhouse pot experiments during summer 2000, 118 soybean cultivars were tested to determine their suitability as hosts for the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. The cultivars included 115 new entries into the Arkansas and Mississippi soybean variety testing programs and three entries submitted by an extension nematologist from Texas. Also included in the tests were the R. reniformis-resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible cultivar Braxton, and fallow R. reniformis-infested soil that served as controls. Total number of eggs and nematodes extracted from both the soil and roots from each pot and reproductive indices (Pf/Pi) were calculated for each cultivar. The ratio of the Pf/Pi of each cultivar to the Pf/Pi of Forrest (RF), and the log ratio[log10 (RF + 1)], are reported. Cultivars with reproductive indices that were greater than the reproductive index on Forrest were considered to be suitable hosts for R. reniformis. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode.
Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
Two hundred twenty-six soybean cultivars were tested in greenhouse pot experiments during summer 1999 to determine their suitability as hosts for the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. The cultivars included new entries into the Arkansas and Mississippi soybean variety testing programs and entries submitted by extension nematologists from Auburn University and Louisiana State University. Also included in the R. reniformis tests were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible control Braxton, and fallow infested soil that served as controls. Total number of eggs + nematodes extracted from the soil and roots per pot, reproductive indices (Pf/Pi) based on the number of nematodes extracted from the soil and roots/initial inoculum level, calculated for each cultivar, and the ratio of the Pf/Pi of each cultivar to the Pf/Pi of Forrest are reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest were not suitable hosts, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered suitable hosts. One of the 12 cultivars of the relative maturity group (RMG) <=4.4 was not a suitable host. For the 4.5 to 4.9 RMG, 24 of 72 cultivars were not suitable hosts, whereas 9 of 41 cultivars in RMG 5.0 to 5.4 were not suitable hosts. In the 5.5 to 5.9 RMG cultivars, 11 of 66 were not suitable hosts; for the 6.0 or greater RMG, 11 of 35 were not suitable hosts. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode.
Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
A population of Xiphinema insigne with several males was found on the campus of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in November 1998 in the rhizosphere of Yulan Magnolia. Morphometrics of nine males and 25 females of this population are given herein. No sperm were found in the genital tracts of 118 females that were examined. This agrees with all other observations reported for this species except for the synonym of X. insigne, X. neodimorphicaudatum, in which males are as common as females and the females genital tracts contain numerous sperm. In the males of this study population, sperm were observed only in the seminal vesicles at the distal end of the testes before their juncture with the vas deferens. The population did not fit within either of the two forms of the species. This and other populations have filled in the gaps between the two forms, making the morphometrics for all reported populations a continuum.
China; males; morphometrics; nematode; sperm; taxonomy; ultrastructure; Xiphinema insigne
Ultrastructure of the Z-organ and associated apophyses in Xiphinema coxi coxi was studied by transmission electron microscopy to determine their structural origin and relationship with other parts of the genital tract. The Z-organ of X. coxi coxi is oval-shaped, ca. 30 µm long and 16 µm wide. It is clearly distinguished from the other parts of the female genital tract by its thick muscular outer wall, epithelium-lined lumen, and 4-5 centrally located apophyses. Each apophysis is continuous with the epithelial lining of the Z-organ, suggesting that it originated from epithelium. The apophyses appear as thickened and densely folded masses forming numerous interlaced pores and (or) chambers containing mucous-like materials and electron-dense crystals. These apophyses are characteristic of a typical Z-organ; no globular structures characteristics of the pseudo-Z-organ were observed. The thickness of the muscular layer of the oviduct and uterus varied with position. The overall Z-organ ultrastructure of this study, including body wall and internal apophyses, was comparable to the typical Z-organ of X. ifacolum. This suggests that X. coxi coxi should be classified as a Xiphinema species that contains the typical Z-organ.
apophyses; genital tract; morphology; nematode; oviduct; pseudo-Z-organ; transmission electron microscopy (TEM); typical Z-organ; ultrastructure; uterus; Xiphinema coxi coxi; Z-organ
Two hundred eighty-two soybean cultivars from the variety testing programs of Arkansas and Mississippi were tested in greenhouse pot experiments during summer 1998 to identify soybean cultivars with resistance to the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Also included in the tests were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible control Braxton, and fallow infested soil, which were used as controls. Numbers of reniform nematode extracted from the soil and roots and the ratio of the numbers reproducing on each cultivar compared to the number reproducing on Forrest are reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest were classified resistant, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered susceptible. One of the 18 cultivars of relative maturity group (RMG) ≤4.4 was classified as resistant. For the 86 cultivars of RMG 4.5-4.9, 18 were found to be resistant. Of the 43 cultivars of RMG 5.0-5.4, 16 were resistant, while 43 of the 91 cultivars of RMG 5.5-5.9 were resistant. Fifteen of the cultivars with an RMG of ≥6.0 were classed as resistant. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton to help control the reniform nematode.
Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; resistance; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; susceptibility
The population density of Hoplolaimus magnistylus, a lance nematode, in cotton was determined at planting, mid-season, and harvest during the 1995 and 1996 growing seasons for a Poinsett County, Arkansas field. Nematode populations increased from planting to harvest in 1995 but declined in 1996. Application of aldicarb at planting at rates of 0.59 or 0.84 kg a.i./ha did not influence either nematode population density or cotton yield. This study indicates that H. magnistylus is not a serious pest of irrigated cotton in Arkansas.
aldicarb; control; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Hoplolaimus magnistylus; nematode; pathogenicity
Three new Longidorus species from Slovakia are described. Longidorus carpathicus n. sp. most closely resembles Longidorus silvae but differs by having a longer odontostyle, odontophore, and total stylet; smaller a and c ratios; and longer distance to the guide ring. This new species also resembles L. picenus, L. macrosoma, and L. major but differs by having a narrower lip width. It further differs from L. picenus by having a longer odontostyle and smaller c ratio, and by lacking males; from L. macrosoma by having a longer odontostyle, smaller c ratio, by lacking males, and a more pronounced J1 tail peg; and from L. major by having a shorter body length, longer odontostyle, longer odontophore, and longer J1 tail peg. Longidorus piceicola n. sp. most closely resembles L. eridanicus, from which it differs by having a greater lip width, longer tail, smaller c ratio, larger c' ratio, shorter hyaline tail length, and a conically rounded vs. hemispherical tail. This new species differs from L. cylindricaudatus by having a larger lip width, longer odontostyle and odontophore, and a greater distance to the guide ring; from L. nevesi by having a shorter body length, longer odontostyle, larger c' ratio, and shorter hyaline tail length. Longidorus juglansicola n. sp. most closely resembles L. athesinus but differs by its longer body, wider lips, and larger a and c ratios. It closely resembles L. vineacola but differs by its shorter body length, smaller c ratio, and an almost parallel lip outline vs. an expanded lip outline; from L. lusitanicus by a longer odontophore and tail, and an almost parallel lip outline vs. an expanded lip outline.
Longidorus carpathicus n. sp.; Longidorus juglandicola n. sp.; Longidorus piceicola n. sp.; morphometrics; nematode; new species; taxonomy
A total of 62 populations of Heterodera glycines were collected in 10 states along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and 206 populations were collected in Arkansas. Among the 62 populations, races 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 14 were found south of 37°N latitude, and races 1 and 3 were found north of 37°N latitude. In Arkansas samples, races 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 14 comprised 87% of the populations. In both groups of samples, H. glycines populations with genes that enabled the population to parasitize cv. Pickett occurred the most frequently, followed by those with genes for parasitism of cv. Peking, then PI88.788, and the fewest with genes for parasitism of PI90.763. The diversity of races in this study raises questions about the effectiveness of race-specific cultivars for the management of soybean cyst nematodes. The greater diversity of races of H. glycines in the southern United States may be because of a longer history of planting resistant cultivars.
breeding; geographic distribution; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; race; resistance; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Reproduction indices from multiple tests were conducted to show the suitability of several soybean cultivars and germplasm lines as hosts of the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. Sixteen soybean germplasm lines of 45 reported as resistant to soybean cyst nematode were also resistant to reinform nematode. Cultivars Peking and Pickett, and PI 90763, used as differentials in the standardized soybean cyst nematode race determination test, were resistant to reniform nematode. The differential PI 88788 and the soybean cyst nematode susceptible test standard cv. Lee were susceptible. The 16 soybean cultivars most commonly grown in Arkansas in 1992 were susceptible, whereas cv. Cordell, with PI 90763 in its parentage, and cv. Hartwig, with PI 437654 in its parentage, were resistant.
breeding; germplasm; Glycines max; reniform nematode; reproductive index; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; susceptibility