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1.  Assessment of Guardian Peach Rootstock for Resistance to Two Isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus 
Journal of Nematology  2001;33(4S):302-305.
Guardian, Lovell, and Nemaguard peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility and growth response to two isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus. One nematode isolate was obtained from peach in Georgia (P. vulnus [GA-isolate]) and the other from apple in Idaho (P. vulnus [ID-isolate]). Nematode reproduction and pathogenicity as related to rootstock were determined 29 months after inoculation in outdoor microplots. All rootstocks were susceptible to both nematode isolates. Guardian supported a greater number of nematodes per gram dry root weight than Lovell or Nemaguard rootstocks. All rootstocks supported greater numbers of P. vulnus (GA-isolate) than P. vulnus (ID-isolate). Tree growth among the three rootstocks was similar in the presence of either P. vulnus isolate, but growth suppression was greatest in P. vulnus (GA-isolate) plots, intermediate in P. vulnus (ID-isolate) plots, and least in the uninoculated plots.
PMCID: PMC2620521  PMID: 19265892
host-parasitic relationship; nematode; pathogenicity; peach; Pratylenchus vulnus; Prunus persica; resistance; root-lesion nematode; rootstock
2.  Growth Response of Peach and Plum Rootstocks Infected with Pratylenchus vulnus in Microplots 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):656-661.
The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on growth and nutrition of Cadaman peach and Ishtara and Julior plum rootstocks were evaluated in a microplot experiment lasting two growing seasons. Cadaman peach was the only rootstock that showed suppressed growth for all growth parameters at the end of the first year. At the end of the second growing season, dry and fresh shoot weights as well as shoot length and root weights of Cadaman peach were reduced in nematode-inoculated microplots in comparison to uninoculated treatments. Stem diameter was not affected. Dry and fresh shoot weights were the only growth parameters affected by the nematode in Ishtara plum at the end of the second growing season, whereas Julior was not affected by P. vulnus infection. No nutrient deficiencies were detected by foliar analysis in any of the rootstocks and treatments. All the tested rootstocks were good hosts for P. vulnus, whose mean root population ranged from 1,670 (Cadaman) to 2,895 (Julior) nematodes/g of root.
PMCID: PMC2620407  PMID: 19270932
nematode; nutrients; pathogenicity; peach; plum; Pratylenchus vulnus; Prunus; rootstocks; root-lesion nematode; tolerance
3.  Differential Response to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus Species and Correlative Genetic Implications 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(3):370-380.
Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.
PMCID: PMC2619779  PMID: 19274170
Amygdalus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Prunophora; Prunus amygdalus; Prunus cerasifera; Prunus persica; resistance
4.  Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):616-623.
Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.
PMCID: PMC2619732  PMID: 19277184
lesion nematode; Meloidogyne spp.; Pratylenchus vulnus; Prunus; resistance; root-knot nematode; rootstock
5.  Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):575-584.
The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH₃-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil.
PMCID: PMC2619652  PMID: 19277325
amendments; anhydrous ammonia; biuret; chicken litter; control; guanidine; melamine; Meloidogyne spp.; nematode; Olea europaea; olive pomace; tomato; root-knot nematode
6.  Effects of Six Pratylenchus vulnus Isolates on the Growth of Peach-Almond Hybrid and Apple Rootstocks 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(4S):843-848.
The effects of six geographic isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus on the growth of GF-677 peach-almond hybrid and M-26 apple rootstocks were determined under greenhouse conditions. Plantlets were obtained from micropropagated plant material, and nematode isolates were reared in monoxenic cultures. All isolates suppressed growth on GF-677 compared with the uninfected controls. Isolate PvRO-S from Spain affected top weight of GF-677 more adversely than PvAT-F from France. Final population densities (Pf) of all P. vulnus on GF-677 were greater than 14.7 times the initial densities (Pi). They increased 61.5-fold on plants infected by PvWA-U from the United States. PvWA-U-, PvAT-F, and geographic undetermined PvU-UK isolates did not affect the growth of M-26 apple rootstock compared with PvAP-S, PvRO-S (both from Spain), and PvWA-A from Argentina isolates, which severely suppressed shoot growth of this rootstock. On M-26, Pf of the more parasitically fit isolates PvWA-A, PvAP-S, and PvRO-S were greater than those of nondamaging PvWA-U, PvAT-F, and PvU-UK isolates (>41.4 vs. <14.7 times the Pi). PvWA-U and PvAT-F reproduced more on GF-677 than on M-26 (>28.6 vs. <6.5 times the Pi). Isolate PvRO-S reproduced well and was quite destructive on both rootstocks. Results confirm the existence of strains with different damage potentials among geographically separated populations of P. vulnus.
PMCID: PMC2619460  PMID: 19279851
host response variability; Malus silvestris M-26; nematode reproduction; Pratylenchus vulnus; Prunus persica × P. amygdalus GF-677; root-lesion nematode
7.  Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):765-770.
A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information.
PMCID: PMC2629869  PMID: 19283059
Argentina; geographical distribution; host record; Meloidogyne spp.; nematode; root-knot nematode; survey
8.  Crop Rotation Studies with Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) for the Management of Meloidogyne spp. 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):662-668.
Results from a greenhouse experiment at Cabrils, Spain, with two velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) accessions (Florida and Mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. In contrast, roots of 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentum), 'Summer Crookneck' squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 'Davis' soybean (Glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse experiments at Auburn, Alabama, using soils infested with Heterodera glycines (race 14) + M. incognita or with H. glycines + M. arenaria (race 2) showed that, in contrast to Davis soybean, a Mexican and the Florida velvetbean accessions were not hosts for the nematodes. An experiment with 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and the Florida velvetbean in a field infested with M. arenaria (race 1), near Headland, Alabama, showed that significant juvenile populations of the nematode at peanut harvest time were present only in plots with peanut. A microplot rotation experiment demonstrated that 'Black Beauty' eggplant (Solanum melongena) following the Florida velvetbean had heavier shoots and lower numbers of M. arenaria juveniles in the roots and in the soil than eggplant after Summer Crookneck squash or Davis soybean.
PMCID: PMC2629857  PMID: 19283043
cropping system; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Mucuna deeringiana; nematode; nematode control; pest management; root-knot nematode; rotation; soybean cyst nematode; velvetbean
9.  Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):693-698.
In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M × M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.
PMCID: PMC2629867  PMID: 19283047
Citrus; fruit tree crop; grape; host range; lesion nematode; nematode; nut tree crop; Pratylenchus vulnus; rootstock
10.  Population Densities of Five Migratory Endoparasitic Nematodes in Carrot Disk Cultures 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(1):96-98.
Numbers of nematodes recovered per culture varied greatly among five species cultured on carrot disks. Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus vulnus showed the highest population densities, with 23,400-fold and 16,600-fold increases, respectively, in 90 days. Final populations of P. thornei and Zygotytenchus guevarai were similar but lower than those of R. similis and P. vulnus. The population of P. neglectus increased 74 times. Species with the greatest reproduction in this study reproduce sexually.
PMCID: PMC2619261  PMID: 19283208
burrowing nematode; lesion nematode; monoxenic culture; nematode; Pratylcnchus neglectus; P. thornei; P. vulnus; Radopholus similis; reproduction; Zygotylenchus guevarai
11.  Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4S):570-575.
The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei.
PMCID: PMC2619206  PMID: 19283165
host suitability; nematode; pathogenicity; plant-parasitic nematode; Pratylenchus vulnus; Pratylenchus neglectus; Pratylenchus thornei; Prunus; Pyrus; rootstock
12.  Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4S):564-569.
Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.
PMCID: PMC2619207  PMID: 19283164
Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; nematode; Prunus; resistance; root-knot nematode; rootstock
13.  Helicotylenchus stylocercus n. sp. and Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Costa Rica 
Journal of Nematology  1979;11(4):333-338.
Two new species of plant-parasitic nematodes from Costa Rica are described. Helicotygenchus styloeercus n. sp., from soil around roots of banana at Coto, is distinguished hy the female tail, which bears a large pillarlike ventral projection. Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp., from soil artmnd roots of Dioscoroea sp. at Sixaola, differs from R. caudaphasmidius in having the conus equal to or more than half the spear length, and large terminal annules on the female tail.
PMCID: PMC2617981  PMID: 19300653
Nematode taxonomy; spiral nematodes; yam; banana
14.  New Records of Nematodes from Korea, Including Paratylenchus pandus n.sp. (Paratylenchidae Nematoda) 
Journal of Nematology  1977;9(3):243-247.
Five new records of Paratylenchus, including P. pandus n.sp., are reported from Korea. An amended key to the genus is included on the basis of these findings. Macroposthonia tulagonovi is also reported with additional descriptions and illustrations.
PMCID: PMC2620253  PMID: 19305602
taxonomy; Macroposthonia tulagonovi
16.  Discocriconemella repleta n.sp., and the male of Criconemoides inusitatus Hoffmann, 1974 (Criconematidae: Nematoda) 
Journal of Nematology  1976;8(4):327-330.
Discocriconemella repleta n.sp. from Brazil is described. The male of Criconemoides inusitatus Hoffmann, 1974, is described here for the first time.
PMCID: PMC2620194  PMID: 19308242
Taxonomy
17.  Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index Singly and Combined on Vine Growth of Vitis vinifera 
Journal of Nematology  1976;8(4):330-335.
Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.
PMCID: PMC2620192  PMID: 19308243
nematode interaction
18.  Four New Species of the Genus Hemicriconemoides (Nematoda:Criconematidae) 
Journal of Nematology  1975;7(3):263-270.
Four new species of the genus Hemicriconemoides (H. californianus n.sp., H. taiwanensis n.sp., H. annulatus n. sp., and H. nitida n.sp.) are described. The range of total length of H. mangiferae is increased on the basis of specimens collected in Israel, Observations on H. mangiferae and H. litchi support the validity of H. litchi as distinct from H. mangiferae.
PMCID: PMC2620119  PMID: 19308169
taxonomy

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