Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation.
blueberry; host-parasitic relationship; Mesocriconema ornatum; replant disease; ring nematode; Vaccinium spp
Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ≤ 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively.
Endophyte; Festuca arundinacea; host-parasitic relationship; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; resistance; rootknot nematode; Schedonorus arundinaceus; tall fescue grass
The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis ‘Desirable’ pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced in the presence of M. partityla alone or in combination with M. xenoplax as compared with the uninoculated control trees. The interaction between M. partityla and M. xenoplax was significant for dry root weight 37 months after inoculation. Results indicate that the presence of the two nematode species together caused a greater reduction in root growth than M. xenoplax alone, but not when compared to M. partityla alone. Mouse-ear symptom severity in pecan leaves was increased in the presence of M. partityla compared with M. xenoplax and the uninoculated control. Infection with M. partityla increased severity of mouse-ear symptoms expressed by foliage. The greater negative impact of M. partityla on vegetative growth of pecan seedlings in field microplots indicates that it is likely a more detrimental pathogen to pecan than is M. xenoplax and is likely an economic pest of pecan.
Carya illinoinensis; concomitance; host-parasitic relationship; interaction; Meloidogyne partityla; Mesocriconema xenoplax; mouse-ear; nickel deficiency; pecan; ring nematode; root-knot nematode
The effect of Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on population density of Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach was studied in the greenhouse. Twenty-one days after adding 112 M. xenoplax adults and juveniles/1,500 cm³ soil to the soil surface of each pot, 50 infective juveniles/cm² soil surface of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora were applied. Another entomopathogenic nematode application of the same density was administered 3 months later. The experiment was repeated once. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations were not suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora 180 days following ring nematode inoculation. On pecan, 200 S. riobrave infective-stage juveniles/cm² were applied to the soil surface of 2-year-old established M. xenoplax populations in field microplots. Additional applications of S. riobrave were administered 2 and 4 months later. This study was terminated 150 days following the initial application of S. riobrave. Populations of M. xenoplax were not suppressed in the presence of S. riobrave.
biological control; Carya illinoensis; entomopathogenic nematodes; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; Mesocriconema xenoplax; nematode; peach; Prunus persica; ring nematode; Steinernema riobrave
A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a high to narrowly rounded arch with coarsely broken and network-like striae in and around anal area, faint lateral lines interrupting transverse striae, a sunken vulva and anus, and large distinct phasmids. Molecular data from ribosomal IGS illustrate that M. floridensis n. sp. is different from the mitotic species M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Data from RAPDs confirm it and suggest that this new species lies in an intermediate phylogenetic position between the previous species and the meiotic species M. hapla, M. fallax, and M. chitwoodi. Differential host tests based on annual crops and on Prunus accessions are reported.
esterase phenotype; Florida; host range; meiotic parthenogenesis; Meloidogyne; morphology; new species; peach; rootknot nematode; scanning electron microscopy; taxonomy
Seven fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. capable of inhibiting reproduction of Mesocriconema xenoplax have been isolated from soil sites that suppress both nematode multiplication and Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL). One of these seven strains, Pseudomonas sp. BG33R, inhibits M. xenoplax multiplication in vivo and egg hatch in vitro. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations on peach seedlings inoculated with BG33R and planted into soil-solarized field plots remained at or below the economic threshold for nematicide treatment in South Carolina for nearly 18 months. Soil solarization alone induced a shift toward a microbial community that was suppressive to nematode multiplication. Additionally, five Tn5 mutants of BG33R, lacking the ability to kill eggs, have been generated. The Tn5 insertion site in each mutant has been cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis has revealed a high degree of homology to several genes of interest because of their potential involvement in the production of the egg-kill factor. These Tn5 egg-kill negative mutants also no longer produce protease or salicylic acid while producing nearly twice the amount of fluorescent siderophore as the wild type parent.
bacteria; biological control; Mesocriconema xenoplax; peach; Prunus persica; rhizobacteria; rhizosphere; ring nematode
Guardian, Lovell, and Nemaguard peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility and growth response to two isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus. One nematode isolate was obtained from peach in Georgia (P. vulnus [GA-isolate]) and the other from apple in Idaho (P. vulnus [ID-isolate]). Nematode reproduction and pathogenicity as related to rootstock were determined 29 months after inoculation in outdoor microplots. All rootstocks were susceptible to both nematode isolates. Guardian supported a greater number of nematodes per gram dry root weight than Lovell or Nemaguard rootstocks. All rootstocks supported greater numbers of P. vulnus (GA-isolate) than P. vulnus (ID-isolate). Tree growth among the three rootstocks was similar in the presence of either P. vulnus isolate, but growth suppression was greatest in P. vulnus (GA-isolate) plots, intermediate in P. vulnus (ID-isolate) plots, and least in the uninoculated plots.
host-parasitic relationship; nematode; pathogenicity; peach; Pratylenchus vulnus; Prunus persica; resistance; root-lesion nematode; rootstock
Guardian peach rootstock was evaluated for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 (Georgia-peach isolate) and M. javanica in the greenhouse. Both commercial Guardian seed sources produced plants that were poor hosts of M. incognita and M. javanica. Reproduction as measured by number of egg masses and eggs per plant, eggs per egg mass, and eggs per gram of root were a better measure of host resistance than number of root galls per plant. Penetration, development, and reproduction of M. incognita in Guardian (resistant) and Lovell (susceptible) peach were also studied in the greenhouse. Differences in susceptibility were not attributed to differential penetration by the infectivestage juveniles (J2) or the number of root galls per plant. Results indicated that M. incognita J2 penetrated Guardian roots and formed galls, but that the majority of the nematodes failed to mature and reproduce.
host-parasitic relationship; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; peach; Prunus persica; resistance; root-knot nematode; rootstock
The relationship between Cricenemella xenoplax alone and in combination with Meloidogyne incognitaon the incidence of peach tree short life disease was studied in field microplots during 1989-96. The presence of M. incognita suppressed the population density of C. xenoplax on Lovell peach. Tree trunk diameter was significantly reduced in the presence of both nematode species prior to 1993. Soil pH was lowest in the co-infection treatment as compared with the uninoculated control on three of the four sampling dates. In 1994, 80% of the trees growing in soil infested with C. xenoplax alone developed typical disease symptoms and died. The remaining tree died in 1995. No trees died in the M. incognita alone, C. xenoplax + M. incognita, or uninoculated control treatments. Parasitism by C. xenoplax, but not by M. incognita, made Lovell peach trees more susceptible to the disease. These findings were confirmed in an orchard site naturally infested with both C. xenoplax and M. incognita where Redhaven trees budded to Lovell rootstock exhibited a reduction of 1.6 years in average tree life for every centimeter increase in trunk diameter.
concomitance; Criconemella xenoplax; disease complex; host-parasite relationship; interaction; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; peach; peach tree short life; Prunus persica; ring nematode; root-knot nematode
The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemella xenoplax on nematode reproduction and growth of Lovell peach was studied in field microlots and the greenhouse. Meloidogyne incognita suppressed reproduction of C. xenoplax in both field and greenhouse experiments. Tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter, was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of M. incognita as compared with C. xenoplax of the uninoculated control trees 26 months following inoculation. A similar response regarding dry root weight was also detected in greenhouse-grown seedlings after 5 months. The presence of C. xenoplax did not affect Lovell tree growth. A synergistic effect causing a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in tree growth was recorded 26 and 38 months following inoculation. The presence of M. incognita increased levels of malonyl-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid content in leaves of trees grown in field microplots 19 months after inoculaoon. Meloidogyne incognita appears to be a more dominant parasite than C. xenoplax on Lovell peach.
concomitant infection; Criconemella xenoplax; interaction; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; population dynamics; peach; Prunus persica; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; synergism
Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) strain A11, S. feltiae (Filipjev) strain SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strains HP88 and Georgia were tested for their efficacy as biological control agents of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), in pecan orchard soil-profile containers under greenhouse conditions. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora strain HP88 and Georgia was consistently poor when applied either prior to or following C. caryae entry into the soil, suggesting that these nematode species and (or) their enterobacteria are poor biological control agents of weevil larvae. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora strain HP88 induced a low rate of infection of Galleria mellonella larvae, whereas soil that had been similarily treated with H. bacteriophora strain Georgia induced a moderate rate of infection. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. feltiae was consistently low when applied following C. caryae entry into the soil and was inconsistent when applied as a barrier prior to entry of weevil larvae into the soil. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. feltiae induced a high rate of infection of G. mellonella larvae.
biological control; Curculio caryae; entomopathogenic nematode; heterorhabditid; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; pecan weevil; Steinernema carpocapsae; Steinernema feltiae; steinernematid
Criconemella; management; Meloidogyne; Pratylenchus; Prunus; stone fruit; Xiphinema
Most morphological characteristics of three populations of a Tylenchulus sp. from peach roots in Alabama, Arkansas, and Georgia did not differ from those of T. palustris paratypes. However, some mature females differed slightly from those of T. palustris paratypes from Florida. These mature females were more swollen in the posterior portion of their bodies, and they possessed digitate postvulval body sections with round rather than conoid termini. These morphological variants had a wide postvulval section core (PVSC), as do T. palustris paratypes; they did not differ from the paratypes in other characteristics. Second-stage juveniles and males were less morphologically variable and were not different from the paratypes. No males were found in populations from Alabama and Georgia. The Tylenchulus sp. from three peach sites was determined to be T. palustris. This is the first report of T. palustris on an economically important crop.
Alabama; Arkansas; citrus nematode; Georgia; morphological variability; peach; Prunus persica; scanning electron microscopy (SEM); systematics; Tylenchulus palustris; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Influences of Criconemella xenoplax and pruning dates were studied in field microplots with 'Nemaguard' peach cuttings on a site not previously planted to peaches. Trees with or without C. xenoplax were pruned beginning in December 1984 or March 1985. Peach tree short life (PTSL) did not occur in the absence of C. xenoplax. PTSL occurred earlier in December-pruned than in March-pruned inoculated trees. Results confirm that "old" peach sites are not required for PTSL to occur. Pruning Nemaguard and 'Lovell' greenhouse-grown seedlings reduced the root mass of both stocks and stimulated Nemaguard, but not Lovell, shoot regrowth. Numbers of C. xenoplax per gram of dry root were greater on pruned than on unpruned seedlings.
Criconemella xenoplax; peach; pruning; Prunus persica; ring nematode
Fall annual leaf senescence of peach was delayed in the field and in microplots in the presence of Criconemella xenoplax. Soil from the rhizosphere of orchard trees with greener leaves had ca. 2.5 × more nematodes than soil around trees in a more advanced state of fall senescence. In microplots, monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of leaf cytokinins indicated that concentration of zeatin riboside-like substances and chlorophyll content were greater in leaves of trees growing in nematode-infested soil than in trees in uninfested soil. EIA also indicated the presence of substances resembling trans-zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, and dihydrozeatin riboside-like substances in whole body homogenates of C. xenoplax. Levels of zeatin-like substances were present in the nematode in greater levels than the other related substances.
chlorophyll; Criconemella xenoplax; cytokinin; peach; Prunus persica; ring nematode; senescence
Host-parasite relationships of Criconemella xenoplax and C. ornata on Nemaguard peach and common bermudagrass were determined in the greenhouse. Criconemella xenoplax reproduced on peach and reduced root volume, height, and dry stem weight after 6 months, compared with the noninfested check. Numbers of C. ornata did not increase on peach or influence peach growth, but they did reduce dry top weight and root volume of common bermudagrass, compared with C. xenoplax. Criconemella xenoplax and C. ornata produced the enzyme β-glucosidase and were capable of metabolizing prunasin, but only C. xenoplax produced β-cyanoalanine synthase to detoxify the cyanide released from prunasin. The apparent inability of C. ornata to detoxify cyanide is one explanation why numbers of this species did not increase on peach. Criconemella xenoplax and C. ornata can be distinguished by using stylet length, vaginal configuration, and shape of the anterior head region.
Criconemella ornata; C. xenoplax; parasitism; peach; peach tree short life; Prunus persica; ring nematode
Criconemella xenoplax and C. curvata, previously associated with decline of peach trees in other parts of the United States, were found in 20 of 25 Pennsylvania peach orchards. Population densities were high in some samples. Morphometrics of juveniles and adult females of Criconemella curvata and C. ornata, are provided. Cuticular crenations were observed on J2 and J3 stages of C. curvata and J2-J4 stages of C. ornata.
Criconemella curvata; C. ornata; C. xenoplax; Hirsutella rhossiliensis; morphometrics; peach decline; ring nematode
Percentage of mortality, growth suppression, and changes in free amino acid and reducing sugar content in root and (or) stem tissue of Nemaguard peach seedlings were studied in the greenhouse in relation to time and eight different initial population densities (Pi) of Criconemella xenoplax. After 90 and 180 days, free amino acid content in root tissue significantly increased with increasing nematode numbers. Suppression of root volume, dry root and stem weight, height increase, plant survival, and content of reducing sugars in root tissue were detected at 180 and 270 days and following pruning. All criteria were negatively correlated with nematode Pi. Changes in growth, metabolic parameters, and survival percentage were attributed to Pi density of C. xenoplax, duration of the experiment, and nematode reproduction rate.
Criconemella xenoplax; ring nematode; Prunus persica; interaction; peach tree short life
Criconemella xenoplax, Fusarium solani, and F. oxysporum caused necrosis of Nemaguard peach feeder roots in greenhouse tests. Root necrosis was more extensive in the presence of either fungus than wtih C. xenoplax alone. Shoot growth and plant height were less for plants inoculated with F. oxysporum or F. solani than for plants inoculated with the fungi plus C. xenoplax. Neither synergistic nor additive effects on root necrosis or plant growth occurred between C. xenoplax and the fungal pathogens.
Criconemella xenoplax; ring nematode; interaction; Prunus persica; Fusarium solani; F. oxysporum
Meloidogyne chitwoodi reduced the growth of winter wheat 'Nugaines' directly in relation to nematode density in the greenhouse, The relationship between top dry weight and initial nematode density suggests a tolerance limit of Nugaines wheat to M. chitwoodi of between 0.03 and 0.18 eggs/cm³ of soil; the value for relative minimum plant top weight was 0.45 g and 0.75 g, respectively. Growth of wheat in field microplots containing four population densities (0.003, 0.05, 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm³ soil) was not affected significantly at any inoculum level compared to controls during September to July, However, suppression of head weights of 'Fielder' spring wheat grown May-July occurred in microplots initially infested with 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm³ soil. Reproduction (Pf/Pi) was poorer at these two inoculum levels as compared to the lower densities. In another greenhouse experiment, roots of wheat cultivars Fielder, 'Fieldwin,' 'Gaines,' 'Hyslop,' and Nugaines became infected by M. chitwoodi, but not by M. hapla. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi was less on Gaines and Nugaines than on Fielder, Fieldwin, or Hyslop.
Columbia root-knot nematode; northern root-knot nematode; Triticum aestivum; damage threshold
From September 1980 to June 1981, a survey was conducted in the major potato growing regions of northern California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon. and Washington to determine the distribution of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and other Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla were the only root-knot nematode species detected parasitizing potato in all the states surveyed. Meloidogyne chitwoodi occurred alone in 83% of the samples and M. hapla in 11%, with 6% of all samples containing both species. The greater incidence of M. chitwoodi, as compared to M. hapla, may be due to the cool growing season encountered in 1980 (which favored M. chitwoodi but not M. hapla) and to the increased acreage of small grains (which are good hosts for M. chitwoodi but not M. hapla) planted in rotation with potato. Differentiation between these two species can be determined by a differential host test, perineal patterns of mature females, and shape of the tail tip amt of the tail hypodermal terminus of L₂ juveniles.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; potato
Eleven soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars resistant to one or more plant-parasitic nematodes, and one resistant to the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Muls.), were tested for susceptibility to Hoplolaimus columbus. All cultivars were parasitized, but nematode reproduction varied. 'Pickett-71' was the most susceptible host among the cultivars tested. 'Dyer' and three 'P.I. cultivars' were most tolerant when yield /plant and total yield were compared for fumigated and unfumigated plots, even though their yield potential was low. 'Hardee,' 'Coker 4504,' 'W-4,' 'D71-9257,' and 'ED-371' appeared tolerant throughout the growing season and yielded well in unfumigated soil. Infection and reproduction of H. columbus in 'Forrest' soybean roots were greater at 30 ± 1 C than at 20 or 25 ± 1 C. Plant height and root weight varied with the soil treatments.
tolerant; reproduction; infectivity; ecology