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1.  Origin of a Meloidogyne incognita Surface Coat Antigen 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(2):174-182.
The surface coat (SC) of plant nematodes is thought to originate either from the living hypodermis or from secretory glands associated with the excretory system or nervous system. In this study, we investigated the origin of the SC of Meloidogyne incognita by immunolocalization with a monoclonal antibody raised against the surface coat of the preparasitic juveniles (J2). Under the electron microscope, strong labeling was found on the cuticular surface and in the rectal dilation of the J2, while labeling was absent in other parts of the nematode, including the hypodermis, excretory system, nervous system, and digestive system. Because the rectal glands are known to be the origin of the gelatinous egg matrix produced by adult females of Meloidogyne, we also examined sections of mature females from monoxenic cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana. Labeling of the female occurred in the rectal glands and in the gelatinous matrix exuded from the anus. At the ultrastructural level, gold particles were mainly deposited in multivesicular bodies that appeared to be associated with the Golgi bodies of the rectal glands. Our results suggest that at least one component of the J2 SC originates from the rectal gland cells and that the SC of the J2 shares common epitopes with the gelatinous egg matrix of mature females.
PMCID: PMC2620445  PMID: 19270963
antibody; cuticle; electron microscopy; immunocytochemistry; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; rectal gland; root-knot; surface coat; ultrastructure
2.  Meloidogyne incognita Surface Antigen Epitopes in Infected Arabidopsis Roots 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(2):212-223.
Surface-coat epitopes of Meloidogyne incognita were detected in root tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana during migration and feeding site formation. A whole-mount root technique was used for immunolocalization of surface coat epitopes in A. thaliana, with the aid of a monoclonal antibody raised specifically against the outer surface of infective juveniles of M. incognita. The antibody, which was Meloidogyne-specific, recognized a fucosyl-bearing glycoprotein in the surface coat. During migration in host tissues the surface coat was shed, initially accumulating in the intercellular spaces next to the juvenile and later at cell junctions farther from the nematode. Upon induction of giant cell formation, the antibody bound to proximally located companion cells and sieve elements of the phloem.
PMCID: PMC2620359  PMID: 19270892
antigen; antigenic mimicry; Arabidopsis thaliana; cell wall; host-parasite relationship; immunolocalization; Meloidogyne incognita; migration; nematode; surface coat; ultrastructure; whole-mount root technique
3.  Cactodera salina n. sp. from the Estuary Plant, Salicornia bigelovii, in Sonora, Mexico 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4):465-473.
Cactodera salina n. sp. (Heteroderinae) is described from roots of the estuary plant Salicornia bigelovii (Chenopodiaceae), in Puerto Pefiasco, Sonora, Mexico, at the northern tip of the Sea of Cortez. The halophyte host is grown experimentally for oilseed in plots flooded daily with seawater. Infected plants appear to be adversely affected by C. salina relative to plants in noninfested plots. Cactodera salina extends the morphological limits of the genus. Females and cysts have a very small or absent terminal cone and deep cuticular folds in a zigzag pattern more typical of Heterodera and Globodera than of Cactodera spp. Many Cactodera spp. have a tuberculate egg surface, whereas C. salina shares the character of a smooth egg with C. amaranthi, C. weissi, and C. acnidae. Only C. milleri and C. acnidae have larger cysts than C. salina. Face patterns of males and second-stage juveniles, as viewed with scanning electron microscopy, reveal the full complement of six lip sectors as in other Cactodera spp. Circumfenestrae of C. salina are typical for the genus.
PMCID: PMC2619802  PMID: 19274182
Cactodera salina; cyst nematodes; halophyte; Heteroderinae; nematode; new species; Salicornia bigelovii; scanning electron microscopy; Sea of Cortez; taxonomy
4.  Effects of Monoclonal Antibodies, Cationized Ferritin, and Other Organic Molecules on Adhesion of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4):556-564.
The incidence of adhesion of Pasteuria penetrans endospores to Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) was studied after pretreatment of the latter with monoclonal antibodies (MAb), cationized ferritin, and other organic molecules in replicated trials. Monoclonal antibodies developed to a cuticular epitope of M. incognita second-stage juveniles gave significant reductions in attachment of P. penetrans endospores to treated nematodes. MAb bound to the entire length of J2 except for the area of the lateral field, where binding was restricted to the incisures. Since reductions in attachment with MAb treatment were modest, it is uncertain if these results implicated a specific surface protein as a factor that interacted in binding of the endospore to the nematode cuticle. Endospore attachment was decreased following treatment of the nematode with the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Endospore attachment to live nematodes was significantly greater than attachment to dead nematodes. Attachment rates of three P. penetrans isolates to M. incognita race 3 varied between isolates. The effects of neuraminidase, pronase, pepsin, trypsin, lipase, and Na periodate on endospore attachment were inconsistent. The cationic dye alcian blue, which binds sulfate and carboxyl groups on acidic glycans, had no consistent effect on endospore attachment. The incidence of endospore attachment was significantly lower but modest, at best, for nematodes that were treated with cationized ferritin alone or cationized ferritin following monoclonal antibody. The lack of consistency or extreme reduction in most experiments suggests that attachment of P. penetrans spores to M. incognita is not specified by only one physico-chemical factor, but may involve a combination of at least two physico-chemical factors (including surface charge and movement of the J2). This points to a need for analysis of combined or factorial treatment effects.
PMCID: PMC2619811  PMID: 19274193
adhesion; bacterium; binding site; biological control; cationized ferritin; cuticle; Meloidogyne incognita; monoclonal antibody; nematode; Pasteuria penetrans; root-knot nematode; surface charge; surface coat
5.  Description of Hemicycliophora biosphaera n. sp. from Arizona (Nemata: Criconematidae) 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(3):329-335.
Hemicycliophora biosphaera n. sp. (Nemata: Criconematidae) was found in soil from a fallow field plot within the Biosphere 2 Center, Oracle, Arizona. The nematode species is characterized by continuous and irregular breaks in transverse striae in the lateral field, smooth annules, a rounded-truncate lip region with rounded anterior margins, three lip annules, first labial annule elevated and widened laterally, dome-shaped and elevated labial disc, stylet length (76-97 (μm), VA%T value (30-59), 234-273 body annules, and tail with a terminus offset, cylindrical to slightly conoid digit. Hemicycliophora biosphaera n. sp. most closely resembles H. armandae but differs from it in body width (30-39 vs. 38-54 μm), stylet length (76-97 vs. 95-119 μm), greater number of annules between the excretory pore and esophagus base (4-16 vs. 2), length of the tail terminal spike (16-28 vs. 32 μm), lower Rvan value (9-15 vs. 16), and indistinct spetanatheca vs. distinct spermatheca.
PMCID: PMC2619793  PMID: 19274166
Arizona; Biosphere 2; Criconematidae; Hemicycliophora; armandae; Hemicycliophora biosphaera; morphology; nematode; new species; sheath nematode; taxonomy
6.  Control of Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus seimipenetrans, with Cadusafos 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):624-628.
Granular (Rugby 10G) and liquid (Rugby 100 ME) formulations of cadusafos were evaluated for the control of Tylenchulus semipenetrans on mature lemon trees in a commercial citrus orchard at Yuma, Arizona. Three applications of cadusafos, with 2 months between applications, at the rate of 2 g a.i./m² reduced nematode populations to undetectable levels and increased the yield and rate of fruit maturity of 'Rosenberger' lemons. Yields were increased 12,587 kg/ha with Rugby 100ME and 8,392 kg/ha with Rugby 10G. Nematode populations were suppressed for at least 12 months after the last application.
PMCID: PMC2619740  PMID: 19277185
cadusafos; chemical control; citrus nematode; lemon; management; Rugby; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
7.  Surface Coat of Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(2):216-224.
The nematode surface coat is defined as an extracuticular component on the outermost layer of the nematode body wall, visualized only by electron microscopy. Surface coat proteins of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 infective juveniles were characterized by electrophoresis and Western blotting of extracts from radioiodine and biotin-labeled nematodes. Extraction of labeled nematodes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide yielded a principal protein band larger than 250 kDa and, with water soluble biotin, several faint bands ranging from 31 kDa to 179 kDa. The pattern of labeling was similar for both labeling methods. Western blots of unlabeled proteins were probed with a panel of biotin-lectin conjugates, but only Concanavalin A bound to the principal band. Nematodes labeled with radioiodine and biotin released ¹²⁵I and biotin-labeled molecules into water after 20 hours incubation, indicating that surface coat proteins may be loosely attached to the nematode. Antiserum to the partially purified principal protein bound to the surface of live nematodes and to several proteins on Western blots. Differential patterns of antibody labeling were obtained on immuno-blots of extracts from M. incognita race 1, 2, and 3; Meloidogyne hapla race 2; and Meloidogyne arenaria cytological race B.
PMCID: PMC2619683  PMID: 19277137
cuticle; electron microscopy; immunology; lectin; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. hapla; M. incognita; Meloidogyne spp.; protein; root-knot nematode; surface coat
8.  Induced Resistance to Meloidogyne hapla by other Meloidogyne species on Tomato and Pyrethrum Plants 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4):441-447.
Advance inoculation of the tomato cv. Celebrity or the pyrethrum clone 223 with host-incompatible Meloidogyne incognita or M. javanica elicited induced resistance to host-compatible M. hapla in pot and field experiments. Induced resistance increased with the length of the time between inoculations and with the population density of the induction inoculum. Optimum interval before challenge inoculation, or population density of inoculum for inducing resistance, was 10 days, or 5,000 infective nematodes per 500-cm³ pot. The induced resistance suppressed population increase of M. hapla by 84% on potted tomato, 72% on potted pyrethrum, and 55% on field-grown pyrethrum seedlings, relative to unprotected treatments. Pyrethrum seedlings inoculated with M. javanica 10 days before infection with M. hapla were not stunted, whereas those that did not receive the advance inoculum were stunted 33% in pots and 36% in field plots. The results indicated that advance infection of plants with incompatible or mildly virulent nematode species induced resistance to normally compatible nematodes and that the induced resistance response may have potential as a biological control method for plant nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2619633  PMID: 19277310
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium; induced resistance; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Mi gene; nematode; pyrethrum; root-knot nematode; tomato
9.  The Surface Coat of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: Chemical Composition, Origin, and Biological Role—A Review 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(2):127-134.
Chemical composition, origin, and biological role of the surface coat (SC) of plant-parasitic nematodes are described and compared with those of animal-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The SC of the plant-parasitic nematodes is 5-30 nm thick and is characterized by a net negative charge. It consists, at least in part, of glycoproteins and proteins with various molecular weights, depending upon the nematode species. The lability of its components and the binding of human red blood cells to the surface of many tylenchid plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as the binding of several neoglycoproteins to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne, suggest the presence of carbohydrate-recognition-domains for host plants and parasitic or predatory soil microorganisms (Pasteuria penetrans and Dactylaria spp., for example). These features may also assist in nematode adaptations to soil environments and to plant hosts with defense mechanisms that depend on reactions to nematode surfaces. Surface coat proteins can be species and race specific, a characteristic with promising diagnostic potential.
PMCID: PMC2619597  PMID: 19277272
biological control agents; carbohydrate-recognition-domain; glycoprotein; lectin; neoglycoprotein; plant-parasitic nematode; protein; recognition; surface coat
10.  A Method for Staining Nematode Secretions and Structures 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(1):70-78.
Secretions from amphids, phasmids, and excretory system were stained by incubating nematodes in 0.1% coomassie brilliant blue G-250 in 40% aqueous methanol containing 10% acetic acid on slides with coverslips sealed with nail polish or Zut. Nematodes incubated in this staining solution usually produced copious amounts of secretions from their amphids and excretory pore. Phasmids also stained dark blue, enabling them to be easily observed. Other biological dyes stained these secretions or were useful for differentiating specific morphological features of nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2618786  PMID: 19290186
secretion; amphid; phasmid; excretory system; stain; coomassie brilliant blue; exudate
11.  Genotypic Differentiation of Meloidogyne Populations by Detection of Restriction Fragment Length Difference in Total DNA 
Journal of Nematology  1986;18(1):83-86.
Detection of EcoRI restriction fragment length differences in repetitive DNA sequences permitted the rapid diagnosis, by genotype, of randomly selected populations of Meloidogyne incognita, Races 1, 2, 3, and 4; M. javanica; M. arenaria, Races 1 and 2; and M. hapla, Races A and B.
PMCID: PMC2618507  PMID: 19294145
Meloidogyne arenaria; M. hapla; M. incognita; M. javanica; race differentiation; repetitive DNA; restriction fragment; DNA
12.  Effect of Oryzalin and 1,1-Dimethylpiperidinium Chloride on Cotton and Tomato Roots Infected with the Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1979;11(1):78-83.
Oryzalin (3,5-dinitro-N4,N4-dipropyl-sulfanilamide) and BAS 083 (l,l-dimethylpiperdinium chloride) reduced root-knot infection in tomato roots when respectively applied as a soil drench at 20 ppm and 10,000 ppm. Oryzalin reduced knot counts with various intervals between treatment and inoculation. BAS 083 reduced knot counts only when applied before inoculation. Oryzalin was shown not to be a contact nematicide, and BAS 083 was only a weak one. Neither compound reduced penetration by infective larvae. Postinfection reduction in knot counts by Oryzalin and BAS 083 resulted, in part, from activation of natural defense mechanisms of the host. Giant-cell development in cotton roots inoculated with nematodes was inhibited by Oryzalin. Lateral root development was inhibited by BAS 083.
PMCID: PMC2617935  PMID: 19305533
herbicides; growth regulators; physiology; resistance
13.  Terpenoid Aldehydes in Cotton Roots Susceptible and Resistant to the Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1977;9(3):225-229.
We investigated the role of terpenoid aldehydes in the resistance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Three-day-old, root-knot-resistant ('Auburn 623') and -susceptible ('Deltapine 16') seedlings were inoculated with M. incognita. Comparable portions of inoculated and noninoculated roots were harvested 2, 4, 7, and 10 days later. Terpenoid aldehydes were extracted, separated by thin-layer chromatography, eluted as their phloroglucinol derivatives, and measured colorimetrically. In noninoculated seedlings of each age, the susceptible cultivar contained more total and more of each of five specific terpenoid aldehydes (hemigossypol, methoxyhemigossypol, gossypol, lnethoxygossypol, dimethoxygossypol) than did the resistant cultivar. In both cultivars, the concentration of terpenoid aldehydes increased as seedlings aged. After inoculation, the concentration of terpenoid aldehydes was usually highest in the noninoculated, followed by the infected susceptible, infected resistant, and noninfected resistant seedlings in that order. The changes in concentration that occurred in response to infection, particularly at 7 and 10 days after inoculation, did correlate with host resistance, i.e., there was a net loss of total and each specific terpenoid aldelhyde in tlae susceptible cultivar, and a net gain in the resistant. Our data do not exclude the possibility that localized synthesis of terpenoid aldehydes is involved in resistance to root-knot nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2620247  PMID: 19305600
Gossypium hirsutum; physiology; resistance
14.  Free Amino Acids in Roots of Infected Cotton Seedlings Resistant and Susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1975;7(1):10-15.
Quantities of free amino acids in segments of cotton roots resistant and susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita were compared. Following infection, the root-knot susceptible cultivar, M8, had greater percentage increases of certain individual free amino acids than the resistant cultivar, Clevewilt, but the sum total of free amino acids was greatest in the resistant cultivar. More free amino acids were present in infected than in noninfected plants of both cultivars. The overall concn of glycine declined over the I 0-day period following inoculation. The concns of the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, varied as functions of infection, cultivar, and time of harvest. Proline in susceptible M8 increased nearly 2000-fold 10 days after infection, when considerable thickening of syncytial walls is occurring.
PMCID: PMC2620077  PMID: 19308129
resistance; root-knot nematode; cell-wall metabolism
15.  Autoradiography of Developing Syncytia in Cotton Roots Infected with Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1975;7(1):64-68.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings, uniformly infected with Meloidogyne incognita, were exposed for periods of 1-15 days to a nutrient solution containing tritium-labelled thymidine. Syncytium formation began with the amalgamation of cells near the nematode head, and was followed by synchronized mitoses of the nuclei which had been incorporated into a single cell. Syncytial nuclei synthesized DNA in roots harvested 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after inoculation. Seedlings transferred from unlabelled to labelled nutrient solution 9 days after inoculation, and grown for 6 more days, contained some syncytial nuclei which did not become labelled. Giant-cell nuclei increased in size and, in many cases, all nuclei in one giant cell of a set showed active DNA synthesis at about the time the nematode molted to the adult stage.
PMCID: PMC2620075  PMID: 19308135
root-knot nematode; giant cell; DNA synthesis
16.  Post-Infection Development and Histopathology of Meloidogyne incognita in Resistant Cotton 
Journal of Nematology  1974;6(1):21-26.
The numbers of Meloidogyne incognita larvae which migrated from cotton roots declined over a 16-day period, but the difference in numbers migrating from resistant and susceptible cultivars was not significant. Larvae penetrated susceptible roots, matured, and reproduced within 14 days following inoculation, whereas nematode development in the resistant roots was greatly retarded. Three types of histological responses were observed in infected, resistant roots, and these correlated with the degree of nematode development. Some galls were examined which contained only fragments of nematodes; others contained no detectable traces of developing larvae. Formation of druses in galls, but not in healthy tissue, was noted in both cultivars 20 days after inoculation. Massive invasion of roots resulted in deep longitudinal fissures of root cortex.
PMCID: PMC2620040  PMID: 19319359
Gossypium hirsutum; larval egression; larval degradation; syncytium formation
17.  Resistance of Cotton to the Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  1974;6(1):17-20.
Cotton plants resistant to Meloidogyne incognita had roots characterized by fewer and smaller galls, and females that produced fewer egg masses containing fewer eggs than did susceptible plants. Many galls on resistant roots contained no nematodes at the time of examination. Penetration of the resistant cultivar was equal to that of the susceptible cultivar and independent of the number of nematodes in the inoculum. Fewer nematodes penetrated resistant or susceptible plants with eight leaves than those with fewer leaves. Reciprocal grafts of resistant and susceptible plants failed to confer resistance or susceptibility to the rootstock.
PMCID: PMC2620031  PMID: 19319358
Gossypium hirsutum; attraction; penetration; host age

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