The incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by J2 of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, and the resulting effects on fitness were determined. Live soybean cyst nematode J2 incubated in FITC fluoresced, primarily in the intestinal region, beyond auto-fluorescence. Dissection of animals, as well as fluorescence-quenching techniques, indicated that FITC was not simply bound to the cuticle. FITC was also found to cross the egg shell. Fluorescence increased in relation to FITC concentration and incubation time. Nematodes incubated in FITC remained active and did not lose their fluorescence even after two weeks at room temperature. Fluorescence of nematodes was not stable through development. Males which developed from fluorescent juveniles did not retain the stain. Both FITC and the DMF solvent reduced the hatching rate. However, those individuals that successfully hatched remained viable and able to infect roots. Incorporation of FITC was found to occur in three other genera of nematodes. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate was also found to be incorporated by H. glycines.
chemical uptake; FITC; fluorescein isothiocyanate; RITC; Heterodera glycines; physiology; technique; behavior
The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (SCN) is of major economic importance and widely distributed throughout soybean production regions of the United States where different maturity groups with the same sources of SCN resistance are grown. The objective of this study was to assess SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean yield responses in infested soils across the north-central region. In 1994 and 1995, eight SCN-resistant and eight SCN-susceptible public soybean cultivars representing maturity groups (MG) I to IV were planted in 63 fields, either infested or noninfested, in 10 states in the north-central United States. Soil samples were taken to determine initial SCN population density and race, and soil classification. Data were grouped for analysis by adaptation based on MG zones. Soybean yields were 658 to 3,840 kg/ha across the sites. Soybean cyst nematode-resistant cultivars yielded better at SCN-infested sites but lost this superiority to susceptible soybean cultivars at noninfested sites. Interactions were observed among initial SCN population density, cultivar, and location. This study showed that no region-wide predictive equations could be developed for yield loss based on initial nematode populations in the soil and that yield loss due to SCN in our region was greatly confounded by other stress factors, which included temperature and moisture extremes.
crop loss; crop rotation; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; management; resistance; soybean; soybean cyst nematode; yield; soil type
Several abiotic and biotic stresses can affect soybean in a growing season. Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, reduces yield of soybean more than any other pathogen in the United States. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether preemergence and postemergence herbicides modified the reproduction of H. glycines, and to determine the effects of possible interactive stresses caused by herbicides and H. glycines on soybean growth and yield. Heterodera glycines reproduction factor (Rf) generally was less on resistant than susceptible cultivars, resulting in a yield advantage for resistant cultivars. The yield advantage of resistant cultivars was due to more pods per plant on resistant than susceptible cultivars. Pendimethalin reduced H. glycines Rf on the susceptible cultivars in 1998 at Champaign, Illinois, and in greenhouse studies reduced dry root weight of H. glycines-resistant and susceptible cultivars, therefore reducing Rf on the susceptible cultivars. The interactive stresses from acifluorfen or imazethapyr and H. glycines reduced the dry shoot weight of the resistant cultivar Jack in a greenhouse study. Herbicides did not affect resistant cultivars' ability to suppress H. glycines Rf; therefore, growers planting resistant cultivars should make herbicide decisions based on weeds present and cultivar tolerance to the herbicide.
Glycine max; herbicide; Heterodera glycines; interaction; nematode; reproduction; SCN; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Modern technologies incorporating Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), remote sensing, and geostatistics provide unique opportunities to advance ecological understanding of pests across a landscape. Increased knowledge of the population dynamics of plant pathogens will promote management strategies, such as site-specific management, and cultural practices minimizing the introduction and impact of plant pathogens. The population dynamics of Alternaria solani, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans were investigated in commercial potato fields. A 0.5-ha diamond grid-sampling scheme was georeferenced, and all disease ratings and nematode samples were taken at these grid points. Percent disease severity was rated weekly, and P. penetrans densities were quantified 4 weeks after potato emergence. Spatial statistics and interpolation methods were used to identify the spatial distribution and population dynamics of each pathogen. Interpolated maps and aerial imagery identified A. solani intra-season progression across the fields as the potato crop matured. Late-season nitrogen application reduced A. solani severity. The spatial distributions of V. dahliae and P. penetrans were spatially correlated.
Alternaria solani; early blight; early dying; geostatistics; population dynamics; potato; Pratylenchus penetrans; root-lesion nematode; spatial distribution; Verticillium dahliae
The purpose of this research was to compare the overwinter survival of populations of Heterodera glycines at different latitudes in the United States and the effect of changing latitudes before and after the initiation of dormancy. Soil samples infested with H. glycines were collected in August or October in 1992 to 1994 from soybean fields in two to four states (combinations of Arkansas, Florida, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin). The samples were mixed thoroughly, divided into subsamples, shipped to an overwinter location, and buried until time for processing. To determine survival, cysts, eggs, and second-stage juveniles were extracted from replicated subsamples and counted each month from December to May. Survival generally was between 50% and 100%, and often was best in the state of origin. In Florida, survival was at the 50 to 100% level in soil from most locations, and in Wisconsin was near 100%. Survival of H. glycines in Arkansas and Missouri varied more than at the other locations. In a separate test, survival in microplots in Arkansas, in a more natural environment than that of buried samples, was 70 to 94% for field isolates from Arkansas, Minnesota, and Missouri and 100% for isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 that had been maintained in a greenhouse for several years. Survival appears to be better than previous tests had indicated. High survival rates require cultivars with high levels of resistance and long-term rotations for management.
Heterodera glycines; nematode; overwintering; soybean cyst nematode; survival
Four similar growth chamber experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the initial population density (Pi) of Pratylenchus penetrans influences the severity of interactive effects of P. penetrans and Verticillium dahliae on shoot growth, photosynthesis, and tuber yield of Russet Burbank potato. In each experiment, three population densities of P. penetrans with and without concomitant inoculation with V. dahliae were compared with nematode-free controls. The three specific Pi of JR penetrans tested varied from experiment to experiment but fell in the ranges 0.8-2.5, 1.8-3.9, 2.1-8.8, and 7.5-32.4 nematodes/cm³ soil. Inoculum of V. dahliaewas mixed into soil, and the assayed density was 5.4 propagules/gram dry soil. Plants were grown 60 to 80 days in a controlled environment. Plant growth parameters in two experiments indicated significant interactions between P. penetrans and V. dahliae. In the absence of V. dahliae, P. penetrans did not reduce plant growth and tuber yield below that of the nematode-free control or did so only at the highest one or two population densities tested. In the presence of K dahliae, the lowest population density significantly reduced shoot weight and photosynthesis in three and four experiments, respectively. Higher densities had no additional effect on shoot weight and caused additional reductions in photosynthesis in only one experiment. Population densities of 0.8 and 7.5 nematodes/cm³ soil reduced tuber yield by 51% and 45%, whereas higher densities had no effect or a 15% additional effect, respectively. These data indicate that interactive effects between P. penetrans and V. dahliae on Russet Burbank potato are manifested at P. penetrans population densities less than 1 nematode/cm³ soil and that the nematode population density must be substantially higher before additional effects are apparent.
concomitant populations; disease complex; fungus; interaction; lesion nematode; nematode; potato; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; root-lesion nematode; Solanum tuberosum; Verticillium dahliae; Verticillium wilt
Two cultivars of sudangrass (Piper and Trudan 8) and three of sorghum-sudangrass (Sordan 79, P855F, and P877F) were grown as green manure crops in 1993 and 1994 and compared with sweet corn for their impact on nematode population dynamics. Nematodes were identified to trophic group, order, and to lower taxa when possible. Population densities were determined after 7 weeks of crop growth and 3 weeks after incorporation of green crop residue. Plant-parasitic nematode genera included Pratylenchus, Longidorus, Xiphinema, and Paratrichodorus. The plant-feeder trophic group increased or was maintained on all crops after 7 weeks, at which time population densities were lowest on corn in 1993 and equivalent among crops in 1994. The total number of nematodes in the plant-feeder trophic group did not differ before and after incorporation in 1993 and increased for Piper sudangrass, Sordan 79 and P855F sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet corn in 1994. After incorporation, numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes increased for all crops in 1994 and for Piper sudangrass in 1993. There were no consistent crop treatment effects on the fungal-feeding, omnivore, and predator trophic groups after incorporation.
control; green manure; nematode; organic amendment; potato; Sorghum bicolor; sudangrass; sorghum-sudangrass hybrid
Although the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, has been known to exist in Wisconsin for at least 14 years, relatively few growers sample for SCN or use host resistance as a means to manage this nematode. The benefit of planting the SCN-resistant cultivar Bell on a sandy soil in Wisconsin was evaluated in 1992 and 1993. A range of SCN population densities was achieved by planting 11 crops with varying degrees of susceptibility for 1 or 2 years before the evaluation. Averaged over nematode population densities, yield of 'Bell' was 30 to 43% greater than that of the susceptible cultivars, 'Corsoy 79' and 'BSR 101'. Counts of cysts collected the fall preceding soybean were more predictive of yield than counts taken at planting. Yields of all three cultivars were negatively related (P < 0.001) to cyst populations. Fewer (P < 0.01) eggs were produced on 'Bell' than on the susceptible cultivars. The annual (fall to fall) change in cyst population densities was dependent on initial nematode density for all cultivars in 1992 and for the susceptible cultivars in 1993. Yield reductions induced by the SCN under the conditions of this study indicate that planting a SCN-resistant cultivar in Wisconsin can be beneficial if any cysts are detected.
crop loss estimate; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; resistance; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
Plant and soil nematodes significandy impact our lives. Therefore, we must understand and manage these complex organisms so that we may continue to develop and sustain our food production systems, our natural resources, our environment, and our quality of life. This publication looks specifically at soil and plant nematology. First, the societal impact of nematodes and benefits of nematology research are briefly presented. Next, the opportunities facing nematology in the next decade are outlined, as well as the resources needed to address these priorities. The safety and sustainability of U.S. food and fiber production depends on public and administrative understanding of the importance of nematodes, the drastic effects of nematodes on many agricultural and horticultural crops, and the current research priorities of nematology.
alternative management tactics; behavior; benefit to society; beneficial nematodes; biochemistry; biological control; constraints in nematology; control; crop rotation; cultural practice; ecology; education; environment; extension; diagnostics; funding; genetics; host-parasite interaction; information transfer; molecular genetics; nematicide; nematode; nematology; nematode management; nutrient cycling; pesticide; plant parasites; research goals; research priorities; resistance; resource; science of nematology; society; spread; sustainable agriculture; systematics
Low temperature induced physiological changes that increased the ability of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla to survive external freezing. Second-stage juveniles in polyethylene glycol solution were exposed to -4 , 0, 4, or 24 C, and then their survival was determined after ice-induced freezing of the suspensions at - 4 C for 24 hours. Survival was greatest for juveniles exposed to 4 C before freezing. Some juveniles were killed by exposure to - 4 C before freezing of the suspensions. The percentage of juveniles surviving freezing increased from about 30% to 80% within 12 hours of exposure to 4 C. This tolerance of external freezing was lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C. Longer exposures, of 1 to 15 days, to low temperature did not increase the percentage surviving external freezing, as compared to the 12-hour exposure, but reduced the tolerance of external freezing lost during subsequent exposure to 24 C for 48 hours.
acclimation; cold hardening; cryobiology; freezing tolerance; invertebrate; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; overwintering; thermal history
Population densities of Pratylenchus scribneri in a Plainfield loamy sand soil were sampled from 1 October to 1 May for 4 years. From May to October of each year, the site was planted to Russet Burbank potato and Wis 4763 corn. Percentages of change in population densities of nematodes were computed on the basis of number of nematodes present on 1 October. The decline of P. scribneri between growing seasons was nonlinear, with most mortality occurring in the autumn before the soil froze. Winter survival, defined as the percentage of change in population densities from 1 October to 1 May the following year, ranged from 50 to 136% for nematodes in corn plots and from 15 to 86% for nematodes in potato plots. There was no difference in survival of nematodes of different life stages or among root and soil habitats. Winter survival of nematodes was density-dependent in 3 of 4 years in corn plots and in 1 of 4 years in potato plots. Although predators were present, their abundance was not correlated with the winter survival of nematodes. Cumulative and average snow cover was correlated with the survival of nematodes associated with corn but not with potato. No relationships between other climatic factors and survivorship were detected.
cold tolerance; corn; extraction efficiency; overwintering; potato; Pratylenchus scribneri; lesion nematode; Solanum tuberosum; survival; Zea mays
The vertical distribution of Pratylenchus scribneri populations was monitored under irrigated corn and potato grown in loamy sand soil. population estimates were based on the number of nematodes recovered from 100-cm³ soil samples and the roots contained therein. Reproduction was assessed by counting the number of second-stage juveniles. An index of population maturity was computed to evaluate the age structure of populations. At no time were nematodes distributed uniformly among five soil depths from 0 to 37.5 cm deep. During the summer (June-September), changes in the total number of P. scribneri and the number of second-stage juveniles recovered were not consistent among the depths sampled. Early (April-June) and late (September-November) in the season, changes in the abundance, reproduction, and maturity of populations were similar among depths. The timing and pattern of increases in numbers of nematodes suggests that variation in the abundance of P. scribneri in the soil profile beneath potato and corn was caused primarily by reproduction rather than the movement of nematodes.
corn; maize migration; movement; population dynamics; potato; Pratylenchus scribneri; root-lesion nematode; Solanum tuberosum; spatial distribution; Zea mays
attraction; behavior; egress; infection; migration; Pratylenchus penetrans
The effect of previous exposure to low temperatures on freezing tolerance was determined for second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla. Juveniles in 5% polyethylene glycol 20,000 were exposed to 0-24 C for 12-96 hours, and then freezing tolerance was assessed by freezing samples at -4 C for 24 hours, thawing, and determining survival. Freezing tolerance was inversely related to prefreeze temperatures of 4-24 C. Prefreeze exposure to 4 C resulted in fourfold greater freezing tolerance than did exposure to 24 C. Mortality occurred during prefreeze exposure to 0 C. Most of the increase in freezing tolerance at 4 C occurred during the first 12 hours. In soil, prefreeze exposure to 4 C resulted in greater freezing tolerance than did prefreeze exposure to 24 C.
acclimation; cold hardening; cold tolerance; freezing tolerance; Meloidogyne hapla
Representatives of 15 nematode genera were viewed with 450-490-nm epi-illumination and found to autofluoresce. The autofluorescence was limited to 1-5-μm-d globules in the intestinal cells of live nematodes. When adult Pratylenchus penetrans or Caenorhabditis elegans were killed with formaldehyde, freezing, or heat, autofluorescence dispersed throughout the body. Mixed stages of P. penetrans were killed by freezing at several different temperatures. Estimates of survival based on autofluorescence dispersal matched estimates based on mobility more closely than did estimates based on the vital stain, eosin-y.
autofluorescence; lipofuscin; nematode viability; secondary lysosome
Longidorus breviannulatus was detected in a field planted to corn after 13 years of potato. Nematode populations were maintained in this field in adjacent corn and potato plots for 2 years but did not increase significantly on either crop. Population levels increased until approximately 60 days after planting and then declined until the end of the growing season. Overwinter mortality was negligible. The vertical distribution of the nematode population changed during the course of the season. More nematodes were recovered from depths of 0-15 cm in early season samples and from depths of 15-30 cm in late season samples. Data indicated that this redistribution was due to nematode migration.
corn; corn needle nematode; Longidorus breviannulatus; migration; potato; Solanum tuberosum; vertical distribution; Zea mays
The abundance of Pratylenchus scribneri in soil and root habitats was compared in potato and corn plots during 1986-88. Nematodes were extracted from 100-cm³ soil samples and the roots contained within the samples. The percentage of the population recovered from soil, similar among years and crops, averaged ca. 50% at the beginning and end of the growing season and ca. 20% from early to late season. Proportionately more adults and fourth-stage juveniles than younger stages were located outside roots until harvest. In a related study, nematodes were isolated from the roots, root surfaces, and soil associated with roots of whole corn and potato plants sampled from the field. Nematode population estimates calculated from the whole plant samples were generally lower than those based on soil cores, but showed similar patterns of population growth. Nematode density per gram dry weight was highest in roots, intermediate on root surfaces, and lowest in soil. Estimates of the absolute abundance of nematodes in each of the three habitats were highest in roots or soil, depending on the sampling date, and lowest on root surfaces. This study demonstrates that P. scribneri inhabits soil environments even when host roots are present and illustrates the importance of considering all possible habitats when estimating the size of Pratylenchus spp. populations.
corn; population dynamics; potato; Pratylenchus; recovery efficiency; rhizosphere; sampling; Solarium tuberosum; Zea mays
A simulation model of a single sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., plant infected by the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt, was developed using published information. The model is an interactive computer simulation programmed in FORTRAN. Given initial population densities of the nematode at planting, the model simulates nematode population dynamics and the growth of plant tap and fibrous roots. The driving variable for nematode development and plant growth is temperature.
sugarbeet; sugarbeet cyst nematode; simulation modeling; Beta vulgaris; Heterodera schachtii
The impact of Glomus fasciculatum on Meloidogyne hapla associated with Allium cepa was evaluated in two experiments. Nematode density was not different in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants 10 weeks after the joint inoculation of M. hapla and G. fasciculatum. Differences in the age structure of M. hapla populations reared on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizat plants were noted. G. fasciculatum enhanced leaf and bulb growth of A. cepa in the absence of M. hapla, but did not affect plant weight when nematodes were present. Survival and reproduction of M. hapla were not affected by G. fasciculatum or phosphorus (P). The estimated time required for inoculated second-stage juveniles (J2) to mature to the adult stage was 1,000 degree hours (base = 9 C) greater in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants supplemented with P. Although the infectivity of J2 was not measured directly, colonization of A. cepa by G. fasciculatum appeared to alter the ability of M. hapla to penetrate roots.
mycorrhizae; onion; nematode development; interaction
Field-collected Dendroctonus frontalis were reared in a controlled environment. Male-female beetle pairs retrieved from galleries 1, 2, or 5 wk after introduction into pine bolts were examined for nematode parasites. Data were obtained for each pair on gallery length, egg niche construction, egg viability, and progeny survival. In a separate study, beetle pairs were reared under laboratory conditions for 10 wk. The number of emerged adult progeny of each pair was recorded. Contortylenchus brevicomi, a nematode parasite, was found in 25% of all beetles that established galleries. After 2 and 3 wk, female beetles infected with the nematode had produced fewer eggs and shorter galleries than did uninfected females. Uninfected females mated with nematode-infected males showed similar trends, although the differences in the 2- and 3-wk tests were not significant. Progeny survival or egg viability was not affected by nematode parasitism of either parent beetle. Unikaryon minutum, a microsporidian parasite found in 65% of all colonizing beetles, had no effect on measured variables. The lower fecundity of beetles parasitized by C. brevicomi continued throughout the insect's reproductive cycle. After 10 wk, nematode-infected beetle pairs produced fewer emerged adult progeny than did uninfected pairs.
Dendroctonus frontalis; population dynamics; nematode-insect interaction
Larval and adult life stages are described for Contortylenchus brevicomi (Massey) Rühm parasitizing a Mississippi population of Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle. Fourth-stage larvae and free-living adult females of this species are identified and described for the first time. The life cycle of C. brevicomi can be reconstructed from this study. The adult female nematode lays eggs in a mature beetle. Larval development progresses within the hemocoel until fourth-stage larvae exit the host. Mating occurs in beetle galleries and only females enter an immature beetle host.
nematode-insect interaction; Scolytidae