1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D.
1,3-dichloropropene; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; nematicide; nematode management systems; Nicotiana tabacum; root-knot nematode; tobacco
The effects of crop rotation and the nematicides 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ethoprop, and fenamiphos on the relative frequency of Meloidogyne incognita race 3, M. arenaria race 2, and M. javanica and tobacco yields on a sandy loam soil were determined. Cropping sequences altered the species composition and population densities of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita predominated when cotton, corn, sorghum, or rye-fallow preceded tobacco. Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenaria predominated when tobacco preceded tobacco. Sorghum, cotton, corn, or rye-fallow preceding tobacco enhanced yields compared to tobacco preceding tobacco in plots containing mixtures of Meloidogyne species. Sorghum supported minimal reproduction of any Meloidogyne spp. Application of 1,3-D increased tobacco yields and reduced root galling when compared to untreated controls. Both fenamiphos and ethoprop treatments were less effective than 1,3-D in controlling Meloidogyne spp. or increasing yields. A rotation crop x nematicide interaction was not observed. In continuous tobacco, use of the M. incognita-resistant tobacco cv. Coker 176 increased tobacco yields when compared to the M. incognita-susceptible cv. Coker 319 when 1,3-D was not applied.
corn; cotton; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; nematicide; root-knot nematode; rotation; rye; sorghum; tobacco
A field population of Heterodera glycines was inbred by a combination of controlled male-female matings and inoculation of soybean with second-stage juveniles (J2) from single cysts. The initial and four F₆ inbred populations were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and were also tested for their ability to reproduce on race differentials. The RAPD patterns of the inbred populations had a lower number of total bands and a lower percentage of polymorphic bands among individual cysts than the initial population. The estimated number of polymorphic loci detected by RAPD analysis was about 25% for the initial population and 4% to 7% for the inbred lines. Reproduction of H. glycines decreased for 6 of 24 inbred-soybean combinations. In particular, reproduction of three inbred populations on PI 90763 was greatly reduced. Inbreeding did not decrease variance of cyst number on soybean genotypes. The inbreeding coefficient calculated from RAPD data was greater than that derived from the known inbreeding pedigree.
cyst; diversity; genetics; Glycines max; Heterodera glycines; inbreeding; isolate; nematode; PCR; population; RAPD; resistance; soybean; soybean cyst
An inoculation technique was developed for studying molecular responses of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Effect of inoculum age (0-7 days after eggs were released from cysts) and inoculation site (meristem, elongation, or differentiation zone) on infection were tested on four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes (PI 437654 and cv. Peking) were resistant and two (cv. Essex and cv. Hutcheson) were susceptible to race 3 of H. glycines. Inoculum consisting of second-stage juveniles (J2) was prepared by gently agitating nematode eggs at 75 revolutions per minute at 28 °C for various intervals. Infection rates were monitored cytologically. The most consistent infection rate was obtained with 48-hour-old inoculum containing more than 80% J2. More than 100 juveniles/root were observed after inoculation with the 48-hour-old inoculum placed at the root elongation zone, in both resistant and susceptible soybeans. Horizontal orientation of roots during inoculation, the use of concentrated J2 inoculurn (500 J2 in 125 μl/root), and restriction of inoculum to the root elongation zone facilitated synchronous root infection.
Glycine max; hatching; Heterodera glycines; infection; inoculation; method; nematode; root elongation zone; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
During the 1991 and 1992 soybean growing seasons, field plots were established in South Carolina to study the effect of planting date on at-planting nematode densities and subsequent yield losses caused by Hoplolaimus columbus. The susceptible and intolerant soybean cv. Braxton was planted on five dates from to May to 28 June in 1991 and from 12 May to 28 June in 1992. Nematodes were recovered from soil samples collected before nematicide treatment with 1,3-D (Pi), at 6 weeks after planting (Pm), and at harvest (Pf). Initial nematode population densities did not differ among the five dates of planting in either year. The increase in numbers of nematodes from planting to 6 weeks after planting (Pm/Pi) and from planting to harvest (Pf/Pi) were not different among the five planting dates in either year. Root samples also were collected at 6 weeks after planting and at harvest, but planting date did not affect the number of nematodes extracted from roots on any sample date in either year. Altering planting dates between early May and late June was not effective in preventing yield suppression due to H. columbus.
1,3-D; chemical control; ecology; Glycine max; Hoplolaimus columbus; lance nematode; nematode management; pest management; population dynamics; soybean
The genetic heterogeneity of two M. arenaria race 2 populations (designated Pelion and Govan) was examined using RFLP analysis of 12 clonal lines established from single egg masses (six distinct clonal lines from each population). These populations are essentially identical by traditional biochemical and race identification schemes; however, the Govan population is more aggressive than the Pelion population, producing larger galls and exhibiting greater reproductive capabilities on many soybean cultivars and experimental accessions. Variation at the genomic DNA level was examined using probes representative of expressed DNA sequences present in the eukaryotic genome. Ribosomal DNA, interspersed repeated sequences, and cDNA probes were tested for detection of polymorphism within and between single egg mass lines of each population. Cloned cDNAs and ribosomal intergenic spacer sequences detect polymorphism both within and between populations, demonstrating the usefulness of these sequence classes for molecular genetic analysis of population structure and genome evolution.
biochemical systematics; DNA polymorphism; M. arenaria; M. hapla; M. incognita; M. javanica; nematode; RFLP analysis; root-knot nematode
Fields in a concentrated area of soybean production in South Carolina were chosen for soil sampling to determine the distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes. Five hundred sampling sites were distributed over 19 counties according to county soybean acreage. Helicotylenchus and Scutellonema were identified most frequently from soil samples; together, these genera occurred in over 70% of the samples. Pratylenchus and Paratrichodorus were each observed in more than 60% of fields. Meloidogyne spp. were found in 27% of the fields and Hoplolaimus columbus in 14%. Rotylenchulus reniformis and Belonolaimus sp. each occurred in less than 10% of the fields. Tylenchorhynchus and Mesocriconema (Criconemella) were each present in over 40% of the fields, but numbers from each field were low. Of the fields sampled, 14% contained Heterodera glycines. Of these, 47% were race 14 and 32% were race 3. Races 9, 6, and 10 were also observed.
Belonolaimus; Criconemella; Glycine max; Helicotylenchus; Heterodera glycines; Hoplolaimus columbus; Meloidogyne; Mesocriconema; nematode; Paratrichodorus; Pratylenchus; race; Rotylenchulus reniformis; sampling; Scutellonema; soybean; survey; threshold; Tylenchorhynchus
Twenty-two graminaceous plant cultivars were evaluated in the greenhouse for host suitability for three South Carolina isolates of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 (Ma-R2) designated as Florence, Govan, and Pelion, a Florida isolate of M. arenaria race 1 (Ma-R1), and a South Carolina M. incognita race 3. Host suitability was determined by calculating egg mass index (EMI) reproduction factor (RF) (final egg numbers/initial egg numbers), and number of eggs per gram fresh root. Corn hybrids Pioneer 3147 and Northrup King 508 and oat cv. Florida 502 were nonhosts to all nematode isolates, as no egg masses or eggs were found in roots grown in infested soils. Oat cv. Coker 716 and grain sorghum cvs. Cherokee, Northrup King 2660, and Pioneer 8333 were poor hosts (RF < 1). Good (RF = 1.1-5.0) or excellent (RF > 5.0) hosts for both Ma-R1 and three Ma-R2 isolates included the following: barley cvs. Boone, Keowee, and Redhill; corn hybrid Pioneer 3389; oat cvs. Brooks and Coker 820; rye cvs. Bonel, Florida 401, and Wrens Abruzzi; triticale cvs. Beagle 82 and Florida 201 ; and wheat cvs. Coker 983, Florida 302, and Williams. All cultivars except Coker 716 oat were good or excellent hosts of M. incognita.
barley; corn; host; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; oat; resistance; root-knot; rye; sorghum; triticale; wheat
A technique was developed to evaluate Heterodera glycines development in susceptible and resistant soybean. Roots of 3-day-old soybean were exposed to infective juveniles of H. glyci.nes in sand for 8 hours followed by washing and transfer to hydroponic culture. The cotyledons and apical meristem were removed and plants were maintained under constant light, which resulted in a dwarfed plant system. After 15 or 20 days at 27 C, nematodes were rated for development. Emerged males were sieved from the culture water and females were counted directly from the roots. Nematodes remaining in the roots were rated for development after staining and clearing the tissues. The proportion of nematodes at each stage of development and the frequency of completed molts for each stage were calculated from these data. This technique showed that resistance to H. glycines was stage related and did not affect males and females equally in all resistant hosts. The resistance of plant introduction PI 209332 primarily affected development of third and fourth-stage juveniles; 'Pickett' mainly affected second and third-stage juveniles, whereas PI 89772 affected all stages. Male development was markedly affected in PI 89772 and 'Pickett' but not in PI 209332.
cyst nematode; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; hydroponics; nematode; resistance; soybean
Traditional morphological methods of Meloidogyne identification have been unsuccessful in distinguishing three South Carolina, USA Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 populations—Govan, Pelion, and Florence. These populations differ greatly in reproductive rate and aggressiveness on soybean hosts. Total genomic DNA from eggs of each population was digested with the restriction endonuclease Eco RI and Southern hybridization analyses were performed with single-copy and interspersed multi-copy cloned probes. Probes were isolated from a genomic library of Eco RI, M. arenaria DNA fragments cloned into pUC8. One probe, designated pE1.6A, when hybridized to Southern blots of M. arenaria genomic DNAs, displayed an interspersed repetitive pattern, and the RFLPs distinguished the Govan population from the Pelion and Florence populations. Another clone, pE6.0A, carrying moderately repeated sequences, distinguished the Pelion and Florence isolates. This communication demonstrates the utility of genomic RFLP analysis for distinguishing populations of the same race within the same species. To test the possible utility of these moderately repeated sequence probes for detecting the presence of nematode DNA in DNA samples from roots inoculated with varying numbers of nematodes, dot blot hybridization analyses were performed. It is possible to detect as few as 30 nematodes per root sample with these cloned probes.
DNA; Glycine max; M. arenaria; nematode; restriction fragment length polymorphism
The distribution of Meloidogyne spp. was determined in the Piedmont and Coastal Plains soybean production areas of South Carolina. Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were found in six of seven counties surveyed, with some populations consisting of two or more species. Because M. arenaria populations did not reproduce on peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner), they were designated as Host Race 2. Severity of root galling, shoot and root growth, seed yield, and nematode reproduction were examined in fields infested with M. arenaria at Govan and Pelion, South Carolina, using soybean cultivars differing in host suitability to M. arenaria. When different responses in shoot and root growth, seed yield, and nematode reproduction in the two locations were found, soil influences were examined in duplicate field microplot experiments. Soybean growth was affected more by soil influences than by nematode populations; however, the two M. arenaria populations differed in amount of galling and rate of reproduction.
Glycine max; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; microplot; nematode; peanut root-knot nematode; soybean
Aggressiveness and reproduction differed among four geographical populations of M. arenaria on six soybean cultivars in field microplots. These differences were consistent over 3 years. The populations did not differ in virulence; i.e., population by cultivar interactions were not significant. Perineal pattern morphology, the North Carolina differential host test, chromosome counts of immature oocytes, and esterase phenotypes confirmed that the four populations were M. arenaria. Three populations were host race 2 and one population was host race 1.
aggressiveness; chromosome; electrophoresis; esterase; Glycine max; Meloidogyne arenaria; microplot; peanut root-knot nematode; race; reproduction; resistance; soybean
Glycine max; root-knot nematode; resistance; race; biotype
A modified version of a standard greenhouse bioassay for determining soybean cyst resistance in soybean plants is described. White plastic laundry tubs served as microplots for rearing large numbers of nematodes in a confined space; up to 3 million eggs of each generation were collected per tub. Before screening, SCN populations were evaluated on susceptible and resistant soybean to characterize female development; these were periodically retested. Screening tests took place in Todd planter flats (120 plants per flat). Test plants were inoculated with 1,200 eggs per plant and evaluated for resistance 33-37 days after inoculation. The plants were pruned at the cotyledonary node which resulted in a greatly reduced root system. Staining the roots in Toluidine Blue created contrast with the white females and facilitated counting. Greenhouse space was conserved, and the labor to set up and maintain the screening test was reduced.
bioassay; cyst nematode; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; screening; soybean
root-knot nematode; lance nematode; ecology; Glycine max
Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were performed to determine if an interaction exists between Meloidogyne incognita and Hoplolaimus columbus on Davis soybean. Greenhouse tests were performed with three population levels of M. incognita and H. columbus (0, 1,500, 6,000/1.5-liter pot) separately and in all combinations. Dry root weight (DRT) declined nonlinearly and dry shoot weight (DST) declined linearly with respect to increasing initial populations of M. incognita and H. columbus. When the two nematode species were added to the soil together, the amount of DRT and DST suppression by one species was dependent on the initial level of the concomitant species. The final root population of M. incognita or H. columbus declined linearly with increasing initial population density of the concomitant species. H. columbus suppressed M. incognita populations in the soil nonlinearly, but M. incognita had no effect on H. columbus.
Glycine max; lance nematode; root-knot nematode; soybean; Meloidogyne incognita; Hoplolaimus columbus
Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 was excellent on Centennial, Govan, and Kirby soybeans, the latter two of which have tolerance to this species. The M. incognita race 1 isolate reproduced poorly on Centennial, especially at the higher of two temperature regimes. Numbers of galls and egg masses of M. arenaria plus M. incognita in simultaneous equivalent infestations on Centennial did not differ from sequential infestations in which M. arenaria was added first and M. incognita was added to the same pots, 1,2, or 3 weeks later. However, at both 25 and 30 C, suppression of galls and egg masses occurred when inoculation of M. incognita preceded that of M. arenaria by 2 weeks. Generally, M. arenaria reproduced well at 25 or 30 C, whereas M. incognita reproduced better at 30 C. Kirby was tolerant to either nematode species at 25 and 30 C, but in combined infestations of M. arenaria and M. incognita there was evidence of synergistic growth suppression. Govan was tolerant of M. arenaria at 25 C but not at 30 C. Moreover, general plant growth was less vigorous for Govan at the higher temperature, whereas Centennial was much more vigorous at this temperature. Kirby grew equally well at both temperatures.
host resistance; interaction; Glycine max (soybean); Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne arenaria; root-knot nematode; soil temperature
Pathogenicity and reproduction of single and combined populations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita on a susceptible soybean (Glycine max cv. Davis) were investigated. Significant galling and egg mass production were observed on roots of greenhouse-grown soybean inoculated with M. arenaria and M. incognita, in combination and individually. M. arenaria produced more galls and egg masses than M. incognita, whereas in combined inoculation with both nematode species, gall and egg production was intermediate. In growth chamber tests, inoculations with M. arenaria and M. incognita, singly or in combination, produced more galls and egg masses at 30 C than at 25 C. At 25 C, M. arenaria alone produced significantly more galls and egg masses than the combined M. arenaria plus M. incognita, while M. incognita produced the fewest. At 30 C, numbers of egg masses produced by M. arenaria did not differ significantly from combined M. arenaria and M. incognita. In temperature tank tests, M. incognita produced more galls and egg masses at 28 C than at 24 C soil temperature. In contrast, numbers of galls, egg masses, and eggs of M. arenaria were slightly higher at 24 C than at 28 C. Combined inoculum of both nematode species produced greater numbers of galls at 24 C than at 28 C.
Glycine max; interaction; concomitant; root-knot nematode; soil temperature; inoculum density; ecology
The effects of initial populations of Hoplolaimus columbus and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of Davis soybean were determined for 1980 and 1981 in microplots and H. columbus in field tests in 1981. M. incognita suppressed yield in microplots both years and H. columbus in 1980. Maximum suppression of dry pod weight by M. incognita was 45% and by H. columbus 35%. The relationship of yield vs. nematode population at planting time was described by a declining exponential model. Maximum reproductive rates for M. incognita and H. columbus were 67.0 and 4.7, respectively, and were inversely proportional to initial population level. Nematode reproductive rates, survival ability, and feeding habits suggest species specific life strategies in the ecological community.
ecology; Glycine max; lance nematode; root-knot nematode; reproduction threshold
Eleven soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars resistant to one or more plant-parasitic nematodes, and one resistant to the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Muls.), were tested for susceptibility to Hoplolaimus columbus. All cultivars were parasitized, but nematode reproduction varied. 'Pickett-71' was the most susceptible host among the cultivars tested. 'Dyer' and three 'P.I. cultivars' were most tolerant when yield /plant and total yield were compared for fumigated and unfumigated plots, even though their yield potential was low. 'Hardee,' 'Coker 4504,' 'W-4,' 'D71-9257,' and 'ED-371' appeared tolerant throughout the growing season and yielded well in unfumigated soil. Infection and reproduction of H. columbus in 'Forrest' soybean roots were greater at 30 ± 1 C than at 20 or 25 ± 1 C. Plant height and root weight varied with the soil treatments.
tolerant; reproduction; infectivity; ecology
Quantities of free amino acids in segments of cotton roots resistant and susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita were compared. Following infection, the root-knot susceptible cultivar, M8, had greater percentage increases of certain individual free amino acids than the resistant cultivar, Clevewilt, but the sum total of free amino acids was greatest in the resistant cultivar. More free amino acids were present in infected than in noninfected plants of both cultivars. The overall concn of glycine declined over the I 0-day period following inoculation. The concns of the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, varied as functions of infection, cultivar, and time of harvest. Proline in susceptible M8 increased nearly 2000-fold 10 days after infection, when considerable thickening of syncytial walls is occurring.
resistance; root-knot nematode; cell-wall metabolism