Healthy specimens of selected grasses were collected from salt marshes and grown in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne spartinae to determine the host range of this nematode. After 12 weeks, Spartina alterniflora plants formed root galls in response to infection and increased M. spartinae populations. Spartina patens, Spartina cynosuroides, Juncus gerardii and Distichlis spicata were non-hosts. In order to determine the natural distribution of M. spartinae in dieback areas, S. alterniflora plants were sampled from transects adjacent to dieback areas in Madison, CT, at low tide. Plants were sampled at the top or the creek and at 1-m intervals to the lowest area of plant growth at the low tide water's edge. Five samples were taken over an elevation drop of 90 cm. Two transects were taken each day on 21 June and 5 July 2007, and one transect was taken on 31 October 2007. Meloidogyne spartinae galls per gram root were higher at the higher elevations. In late June and early July 2007, M. spartinae developed more quickly in the higher elevations, perhaps because peat and sediments were drier and warmer away from low tide water levels. The effects of M. spartinae on S. alterniflora and the role of the nematode in marsh decline and dieback in the northeast United States remain to be determined.
Distichlis spicata; Juncus gerardii; Meloidogyne spartinae; root-knot nematode; salt marsh decline; Spartina alterniflora; Spartina cynosuroides; Spartina patens
Prompt tillage after crop harvest was investigated as a cultural control for the tobacco cyst nematode, Globodera tabacum tabacum, on stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco. Stalk stumps and roots remaining after harvest were destroyed by tilling immediately or from 2 to 6 wk after harvest in field experiments over 4 yr. Cyst nematode Pf/Pi ratios ranged from 0.65 to 1.62 when plants were tilled immediately after harvest and 1.13 to 5.88 when tillage was delayed. Nematode population development was monitored by inoculating plants in pots placed in fields with J2 in eggs and sampling over time (8 to 18 wk). Three generations per year were observed, and G. t. tabacum generation time was as short as 6 wk for each generation. Destroying stalks and root systems remaining after harvesting stalk-cut broadleaf cigar wrapper tobacco removes the host to preclude development of nematodes at the end of the second and entire third generation. Early tillage resulted in consistently lower tobacco cyst nematode populations than allowing viable roots to remain in fields for an additional 8 to 18 wk. This management tactic reduces the need for nematicide application to slow nematode population increases over time and can reduce losses due to infection by G. t. tabacum.
Cultural control; Globodera tabacum tabacum; management; Nicotiana tabacum; Nemacur; root destruction; tillage; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
The interaction of lesion nematodes, black root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae, and root damage caused by feeding of the scarab larva, Maladera castanea, was determined in greenhouse studies. Averaged over all experiments after 12 weeks, root weight was reduced 13% by R. fragariae and 20% by M. castanea. The percentage of the root system affected by root rot was increased by inoculation with either R. fragariae (35% more disease) or P. penetrans (50% more disease) but was unaffected by M. castanea. Rhizoctonia fragariae was isolated from 9.2% of the root segments from plants not inoculated with R. fragariae. The percentage of R. fragariae-infected root segments was increased 3.6-fold by inoculation with R. fragariae on rye seeds. The presence of P. penetrans also increased R. fragariae root infection. The type of injury to root systems was important in determining whether roots were invaded by R. fragariae and increased the severity of black root rot. Pratylenchus penetrans increased R. fragariae infection and the severity of black root rot. Traumatic cutting action by Asiatic garden beetle did not increase root infection or root disease by R. fragariae. Both insects and diseases need to be managed to extend the productive life of perennial strawberry plantings.
asiatic garden beetle; black root rot; Fragaria × ananassa; interaction; lesion nematode; Maladera castanea; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; scarab; strawberry
A split-root technique was used to examine the interaction between Pratylenchus penetrans and the cortical root-rotting pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae in strawberry black root rot. Plants inoculated with both pathogens on the same half of a split-root crown had greater levels of root rot than plants inoculated separately or with either pathogen alone. Isolation of R. fragariae from field-grown roots differed with root type and time of sampling. Fungal infection of structural roots was low until fruiting, whereas perennial root colonization was high. Isolation of R. fragariae from feeder roots was variable, but was greater from feeder roots on perennial than from structural roots. Isolation of the fungus was greater from structural roots with nematode lesions than from non-symptomatic roots. Rhizoctonia fragariae was a common resident on the sloughed cortex of healthy perennial roots. From this source, the fungus may infect additional roots. The direct effects of lesion nematode feeding and movement are cortical cell damage and death. Indirect effects include discoloration of the endodermis and early polyderm formation. Perhaps weakened or dying cells caused directly or indirectly by P. penetrans are more susceptible to R. fragariae, leading to increased disease.
black root rot; Fragaria × ananassa; interaction; lesion nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; strawberry
The effects of abamectin B1, diazinon, and methiocarb insecticides on Aphelenchoides fragariae and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Lamium maculatum, Phlox subulata, Rhododendron indicum, and Begonia × tuberhybrida were determined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Abamectin at 0.005 or 0.011 g a.i./liter (0.3 or 0.6 ml/liter Avid 0.15 EC), diazinon at 0.62 or 1.87 g a.i./liter (2.6 or 7.8 ml/liter KnoxOut GH), or methiocarb at 3.5 g a.i./liter (4.7 g/liter Mesurol) were applied in two to six weekly or biweekly applications to foliage until runoff. Diazinon and abamectin reduced both A. fragariae and D. dipsaci populations in Lamium and Phlox, especially after repeated applications. Diazinon was generally more effective than abamectin. While methiocarb reduced A. fragariae densities in Lamium, it was not as efficacious as diazinon or abamectin. Nematode populations varied widely between host plant species and over time. Management of high nematode populations was difficult, and none of the materials tested was effective against A. fragariae in azalea or begonia. Both abamectin and diazinon are currently registered for insect control in ornamentals and may be combined with cultural control tactics to manage foliar nematodes.
abamectin; Aphelenchoides fragariae; avid; azalea; begonia; diazinon; Ditylenchus dipsaci; KnoxOut; Lamium maculatum; Mesurol; methiocarb; nematicide; nematode; Phlox subulata; stem and bulb nematode
Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut.
black root rot; buckwheat; canola; crop rotation; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; oat; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; sorgho-sudangrass; strawberry
Microplot and small field-plot experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Pratylenchus penetrans on strawberry yield over several seasons and to evaluate the effects of nematode control on strawberry vigor and yield. Pratylenchus penetrans alone or in combination with the black root rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia fragariae, reduced strawberry yield in microplots over time. There were no differences in effects on yield among R. fragariae anastomosis groups A, G, or I. The interaction of the two pathogens appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. In field plots infested with P. penetrans alone, plant vigor and yield were increased by the application of carbofuran and fenamiphos nematicides. Nematode control was transitory, as P. penetrans populations were initially suppressed but were not different in samples taken 10 months after treatment. These data highlight the error in associating causality between plant damage and nematode populations based on a correlation of root disease with nematode diagnostic assays from severely diseased plants. These findings may help to explain how nematode numbers can sometimes be higher in healthy plants than in severely diseased plants that lack sufficient roots to maintain nematode populations. Because nematode populations from up to a year before harvest are better correlated with berry yield, preplant nematode diagnostic assays taken a year in advance of harvest may be superior in predicting damage to perennial strawberry yield.
black root rot; disease complex; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae
Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of Aconitum, Ajuga, Anemone, Geranium, and Trollius significantly reduced or eliminated M. hapla galls and egg production in plants 1 to 4 months after propagation. Planting M. hapla-resistant plants such as Rudbeckia and Aster into pots infested with 10,000 eggs/pot eliminated M. hapla populations after 2 to 6 months of growth. Tomato plants grown after Rudbeckia and Aster were free of galls and eggs, while bioassay tomatoes grown after susceptible plants such as Coreopsis, Primula, and Lobelia were heavily galled with a large number of egg masses. These results demonstrate the potential of sanitation and resistance for management of M. hapla in perennials.
management; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; nonhost; ornamental; perennial; resistance; root-knot nematode; rotation
Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. The remaining plants were intermediate in response. The identification of additional M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in nematode management in nurseries and landscapes.
Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; nonhost; ornamental; perennial; resistance; root-knot nematode
Tobacco, eastern black nightshade, and tomato were grown for 3 to 13 weeks to assess differences in invasion, development, and soil density of Globodera tabacum tabacum (tobacco cyst nematode) in field plots and microplots over three seasons. Tobacco cyst nematodes invaded roots of resistant and susceptible tobacco, nightshade, and tomato. Nematode development was fastest in nightshade and slowest in tomato, and few adults developed in roots of nematode-resistant tobacco. Soil populations of tobacco cyst nematodes were reduced up to 80% by destroying nightshade or susceptible tobacco grown for 3 to 6 weeks. Nematode populations were reduced up to 96% by destroying tomato or resistant tobacco grown for 3 to 6 weeks. Timing of crop destruction was less critical with tomato and resistant tobacco, as nematode populations did not increase after 13 weeks of growth. These studies demonstrate that trap cropping, through crop destruction, can significantly reduce G. t. tabacum populations.
eastern black nightshade; fallow; Globodera tabacum tabacum; hatch; Lycopersicon esculentum; Nicotiana tabacum; resistance; Solanum ptycanthum; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode; tomato; trap crop
Sixty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals in 56 genera were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Plants were rated susceptible or resistant based on the number of galls present on the root system. Thirty-six percent had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rated susceptible. Thirty percent of the plants tested did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated resistant. The remaining 34 percent were intermediate in response. Variation in response to M. hapla was observed within plant genera and species. The identification of M. hapla-resistant perennial ornamentals will aid in management of this nematode in landscapes and production fields.
Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; nonhost; ornamental; perennial; resistance; root-knot nematode
The effects of broadleaf tobacco, tomato, and black nightshade on juvenile hatch and reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum were determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Root exudates from nightshade stimulated greater egg hatch than those from either 'Rutgers' tomato or '86-4' tobacco. Hatch was greater at higher proportions of root exudates for all three plant species. Root exudates from plants greater than 3 weeks old stimulated more hatch than younger plants. No regression relationships existed between plant age and nematode batch. In other experiments, hatch from eggs in cysts was higher for tomato and nightshade after 10 weeks in greenhouse pots compared to tobacco and bare soil. Numbers of second-stage juveniles in eggs in cysts produced from a previous generation on the same host were highest on nightshade and less on tomato and tobacco. Cysts of variable age recovered from field soil had increased hatch in both root exudates or water compared to recently produced cysts from plants in growth chambers. Globodera t. tabacum may be subject to both host and environmentally mediated diapause.
hatch stimulation; Nicotiana tabacum; Lycopersicon esculentum; nematode; root exudates; Solanum nigrum; tobacco cyst nematode
Field microplot experiments were conducted from 1987 to 1992 to determine the relationship between fresh weight leaf yield of shade tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and initial density of Globodera tabacum tabacum (encysted J2 per cm³ soil). Initial nematode densities of 0.1 to 1,097 J2/cm³ soil were negatively correlated with leaf yield, total shoot weight, and normalized plant height 5 to 6 weeks after transplanting (r = -0.73, -0.73, and -0.52, respectively). Nonlinear damage functions were used to relate initial G. t. tabacum densities to the yield and shoot weight data. The model described leaf yield losses of < 5 % for initial nematode densities of less than 100 J2/cm³ soil. Densities above 100 J2 resulted in yields decreasing exponentially to a maximum yield loss of >40% at 500 to 1,000 J2/cm³ soil. A similar initial density tolerance threshold relationship was observed for total shoot weight. No threshold effect was evident for standardized plant height, which was a poor predictor of leaf yield. Globodera tabacum tabacum population increase over a growing season was described by a linear relation on a log/log plot (R² = 0.73).
damage function; Globodera tabacum tabacum; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; population dynamics; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
In greenhouse experiments, broadleaf tobacco plants were inoculated with tobacco cyst (Globodera tabacum tabacum) or root-knot (Meloidogyne hapla) nematodes 3, 2, or 1 week before or at the same time as Fusarium oxysporum. Plants infected with nematodes prior to fungal inoculation had greater Fusarium wilt incidence and severity than those simultaneously inoculated. G. t. tabacum increased wilt incidence and severity more than did M. hapla. Mechanical root wounding within 1 week of F. oxysporum inoculation increased wilt severity. In field experiments, early-season G. t. tabacum control by preplant soil application of oxamyl indirectly limited the incidence and severity of wilt. Wilt incidence was 48%, 23%, and 8% in 1989 and 64%, 60%, and 19% in 1990 for 0.0, 2.2, and 6.7 kg oxamyl/ha, respectively. Early infection of tobacco by G. t. tabacum predisposed broadleaf tobacco to wilt by F. oxysporum.
Disease complex; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium wilt; Globodera tabacum tabacum; interaction; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; predisposition; root-knot nematode; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
Preplant soil applications of oxamyl to shade grown tobacco in Globodera tabacum-infested field soil increased green leaf yields over untreated plots by 10.7 and 21.0% for 2.2 and 6.7 kg a.i. oxamyl/ha, respectively. Green leaf yield was negatively correlated (r = -0.60, P = 0.04) with initial G. tabacum density, which ranged from 33 to 154 second-stage juveniles (J2)/cm³ soil. Numbers of G. tabacum J2 and developing juveniles and adults (J3-adults) per gram root were fewer in plants from oxamyl-treated plots than in plants from untreated plots. Numbers of J2 in roots 4, 6, and 8 weeks after transplanting were reduced by 80, 89, and 4%, respectively, and numbers of J3-adults were reduced by 96, 89, and 21%, respectively, in high-rate oxamyl plots, compared with untreated plots. Globodera tabacum reproduction, as measured by the ratio of final to initial soil densities, was less in oxamyl-treated plots than in untreated plots.
chemical control; Globodera tabacum; Nicotiana tabacum; oxamyl; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
Two flue-cured tobacco cultivars, VA-81 and PD-4, resistant to Globodera tabacum solanacearum were tested for resistance to G. tabacum in field and greenhouse experiments. A G. tabacum-susceptible broadleaf cultivar CT86-4 was used for comparison. In a greenhouse screening procedure, VA-81 and PD-4 had, respectively, 1 of 24 and 0 of 24 plants with any cysts visible on the root systems. All 24 plants of CT86-4 had at least four G. tabacum cysts visible per plant. Up to 80% of juveniles emerged from cysts in response to all tobacco cultivars transplanted into pots. Subsequent reproduction was much less on VA-81 and PD-4 than on CT86-4. Staining nematodes in roots 5 weeks after inoculation indicated that fewer nematodes had developed in VA-81 and PD-4 than in CT86-4. During one growing season, population densities of G. tabacum in naturally infested field soil declined by 72-80% under VA-81 and PD-4 and increased by 144% under CT86-4.
Globodera tabacum; Nicotiana tabacum; resistance; tobacco; tobacco cyst nematode
Decline of Globodera rostochiensis populations occurring naturally in soil and those added to potato hills and furrow centers in nylon bags was correlated with root weight of Hudson, Rosa, and Katahdin potatoes at two locations in New York. Cysts in bags were added to soil at planting and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks after emergence (AE). Fallow decline required only 2-4 weeks in soil and did not increase with time. Decline due to growing potatoes was greater in hills than in furrow centers, and resistant Hudson potatoes stimulated greater nematode hatch for longer times in both hills and furrows than did resistant Rosa and susceptible Katahdin. Potato root diffusate (PRD) was produced in highest concentration early in the season; decreased egg hatch with time was probably the result of declining PRD production and inactivation of PRD in soil. Decreasing potato row spacing from 92 cm to 46 and 23 cm between rows increased G. rostochiensis decline in furrow centers, with the majority of decline occurring within 1-3 weeks AE. Replanting potatoes after 1 week of trap crop growth failed to favor population reduction over a single full season crop.
Globodera rostochiensis; golden nematode; Solanum tuberosum; potato; resistance; root exudate; population dynamics; trap crop
The effects of extraction technique, sample size, soil moisture level, and overflow rate on recovery of Globodera rostochiensis and (or) Heterodera schachtii cysts from organic soils were investigated. A modified Fenwick can (MFC) and an underflow elutriator (UE) described in this paper were evaluated and compared for cyst recovery efficiency and amount of organic flotsam collected. The MFC and UE extracted similar numbers of cysts, but the UE collected 50% less flotsam than the MFC. Sample size was negatively correlated with cyst recovery and positively correlated with amount of flotsam. The amount of flotsam recovered with the MFC was correlated with overflow speed. Presoaking air dried samples for 30 minutes halved the amount of flotsam without affecting cyst recovery. Extracting cysts from wet soil without prior drying resulted in negligible recovery with both extraction techniques. There were no significant differences in cyst recovery of the two genera tested.
elutriation; extraction; Globodera rostochiensis; potato cyst nematode; Heterodera schachtii; sugarbeet cyst nematode
cyst nematodes; Globodera rostochiensis; golden nematode; Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum; potato; techniques; viability determination; vintage cysts
Golden nematode, Globodera rostochiensis (GN) population decline under resistant potatoes was related to cyst distance from plants 23 cm apart in rows 92 cm apart. GN decline, determined by sampling an infested field planted to the resistant cultivar 'Yankee Chipper', was 81.8% in cores 11.5 cm from plants within rows. Decline was 27.4% at 23 cm from plants between rows and 36.6% at 46 cm. Population decline of juveniles in cysts added to soil in bags was 90.3% for cysts 11.5 cm from plants within rows planted to the resistant cultivar 'Rosa'. Decline between rows was 83.5, 76.9, and 60.4% at 11.5, 23.0, and 46.0 cm from plants, respectively. Maximum decline within for rows 30.5, 46.0, 61.0, and 92.0 cm apart, respectively. Decline under fallow was 43.5%, signif- which peaked 7 weeks AE. There was no effect of soil depth on population decline at any sampling position. Decreasing row spacing resulted in 79.9, 74.2, 73.4, and 66.1% GN population decline for rows 30.5, 46.0, 61.0, and 92.0 cm apart, respectively. Decline under fallow was 43.5%, significantly less than under potatoes. Potato root weight between rows was negatively correlated with row spacing and positively correlated with GN population decline.
golden nematode; resistance; potatoes; population dynamics; Solanum tuberosum
The influence of resistant and susceptible potato cultivars on Globodera rostochiensis population density changes was studied at different nematode inoculum levels (Pi) in the greenhouse and field. Soil in which one susceptible and two resistant cultivars were grown and fallow soil in pots was infested with cysts to result in densities of 0.04-75 eggs/cm³ soil. A resistant cultivar was grown in an infested field with Pi of 0.7-16.7 eggs/cm³ soil. Pi was positively correlated with decline of soil population densities due to hatch where resistant potatoes were grown in the greenhouse and in the field but not in fallow soil. However, Pi was not correlated with in vitro hatch of G. rostochiensis cysts in water or potato root diffusate. Under continuous culture o f a resistant cultivar, viable eggs per cyst declined 60-90% per plant growth cycle (4 weeks) and the number of cysts containing viable eggs had decreased by 77% after five cycles. The rate of G. rostochiensis reproduction on both resistant and susceptible cultivars was negatively correlated with Pi. These data were used to predict the effect of resistant and susceptible potato cultivars on G. rostochiensis soil population dynamics.
Globodera rostochiensis; golden nematode; modeling; plant resistance; population dynamics; Solarium tuberosum; potato
The effects of aldicarb, oxamyl, 1,3-D, and plastic mulch (solarization) on soil population densities of the golden nematode (GN) Globodera rostochiensis was assessed in field and microplot experiments with different soil types. Oxamyl was evaluated in both soil and foliar treatments, whereas aldicarb, 1,3-D, and solarization were applied only to soil. Soil applications of aldicarb and oxamyl resulted in reduced nematode populations after GN-susceptible potatoes in plots with initial population densities (Pi) of > 20 and 7.5 eggs/cm³ soil, respectively, but nematode populations increased in treated soil when Pi were less than 20 and 7.5 eggs/cm³soil. In clay loam field plots with Pi of 19-76 eggs/cm³ soil, nematode densities increased even with repeated foliar applications of oxamyl, whereas nematode populations at Pi greater than 76 eggs/cm³ soil were reduced by foliar oxamyl. Treatment with 1,3-D or solarization, singly or in combination, reduced GN soil population densities regardless of soil type or Pi. Temperatures lethal to GN were achieved 5 cm deep under clear plastic but not 10 or 15 cm deep.
golden nematode; chemical management; nonchemical management; initial densities; potato; Solanum tuberosum