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1.  Differential Effects of Pratylenchus neglectus Populations on Single and Interplantings of Alfalfa Grasses 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(1):82-89.
The invasion by three different Utah populations of Pratylenchus neglectus (UTI, UT2, UT3) was similar in single and interplantings of 'Lahontan' alfalfa and 'Fairway' crested wheatgrass at 24 ñ 3 °C. Population UT3 was more pathogenic than UT1 and UT2 on both alfalfa and crested wheatgrass. Inoculum density was positively correlated with an invasion by P. neglectus. Invasions by UT3 at all initial populations (Pi) exceeded that of UT1 and UT2 for both single and interplanted treatments. The greatest reductions in shoot and root weights of alfalfa and crested wheatgrass were at a Pi of 8 P. neglectus/cm³ soil. Pi was negatively correlated with alfalfa and crested wheatgrass shoot and root growth and nematode reproduction. The reproductive factor (Rf) for UT3 exceeded that of UT1 and UT2 in single and interplantings at all inoculum levels. There were no differences in Rfin the Utah populations in single or interplantings. A nematode invasion increased with temperature and was greatest at 30 °C. Population UT3 was more pathogenic than UT1 and UT2 and reduced shoot and root growth at all soil temperatures. Populations UT1 and UT2 reduced shoot and root growth at 20-30 °C. Soil temperature was negatively correlated with shoot and root growth and positively correlated with nematode reproduction. Reproduction of UT3 exceeded that of UT1 and UT2 at all soil temperatures.
PMCID: PMC2619756  PMID: 19274136
alfalfa; crested wheatgrass; lesion nematode; Medicago sativa; Pascopyrum smithii; pathogenicity; Pratylenchus neglectus; reproductive factor; root weights; shoot weights; survival
2.  Importance of Temperature in the Pathology of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi on Legumes 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(1):112-116.
Effects of temperatures on the host-parasite relationships were studied for three legume species and four populations of root-knot nematodes from the western United States. The nematode populations were Meloidogyne hapla from California (MHCA), Utah (MHUT), and Wyoming (MHWY), and a population of M. chitwoodi from Utah (MCUT). The legumes were milkvetch (Astragalus cicer), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis). All milkvetch plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, while alfalfa and yellow sweet clover were more susceptible. On yellow sweet clover, MHCA was most pathogenic at 30 °C based on suppression of shoot growth while MHUT, MHWY, and MCUT were most pathogenic at 25 °C. All nematode populations suppressed growth of yellow sweet clover more than growth of milkvetch and alfalfa. The reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) of MHCA was positively correlated (r = 0.83) with temperature between 15 °C and 30 °C. The greatest Rf occurred on alfalfa inoculated with MHCA at 30 °C. The Rf of MHUT, MHWY, and MCUT were positively correlated (r= 0.76, r= 0.78, and r= 0.73, respectively) with temperature between 15 °C and 25 °C. The Rf values of MHUT and MHWY were similar on all species and exceeded the Rf of MCUT at all temperatures (P < 0.05).
PMCID: PMC2619753  PMID: 19274139
alfalfa; Astragalus cicer; legume; Medicago sativa; Melilotus officinalis; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; Meloidogyne hapla; milkvetch; pathogenicity; reproduction; temperature; thermal adaptation; yellow sweet clover
3.  Resistance of Auto- and Allotetraploid Triticeae Species and Accessions to Meloidogyne chitwoodi based on Genome Composition 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(1):104-111.
The Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi parasitizes several plant species, including grasses that have been developed for semiarid environments, and substantially reduces the productivity of cereals and the longevity of perennial grasses growing under semiarid conditions throughout the intermountain region. Thirty-two auto- and allotetraploid (2n = 28) taxa in the perennial Triticeae were evaluated as possible sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Low levels of root galling were observed on roots of all accessions; root-gall indices ranged from 0 (no galls) to 1.95 in the grasses compared to 4.67 for the susceptible 'Ranger' alfalfa check on a scale of 1 to 6. Even though the gall ratings were low, significant (P < 0.01) differences among accessions of the same species, among species, and among genera with different genomes were observed. Within the reproductive indices, which ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 in the grasses compared to 65.38 for the alfalfa check, there was no difference among genera with different genomes and accessions within the same species and genome; however, there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference among species with the same genomes. This variation can be traced to Thinopyrum nodosum (Jaaska-19), which was the only accession with a reproductive factor greater than 1.00. Based on the data, all auto- and allotetraploids are considered resistant to M. chitwoodi.
PMCID: PMC2619762  PMID: 19274138
Agropyron; Columbia root-knot nematode; Elymus; grasses; Hordeum; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; nematode; Psathyrostachys; Pseudoroegneria; resistance; Thinopyrum
4.  Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(3):400-406.
Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode populations at a greenhouse temperature of 24 ± 3°C. All plants of the other legume species survived all nematode populations, except 4% of the white clover (T. repens) plants inoculated with the California M. hapla population. Entries were usually more susceptible to the M. hapla populations than to M. chitwoodi. Galling of host roots differed between nematode populations and species. Root-galling indices (1 = none, 6 = severely galled) ranged from 1 on pea vine inoculated with the California population of M. hapla to 6 on yellow sweet clover inoculated with the Wyoming population of M. hapla. The nematode reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) ranged from 0 for all nematode populations on pea vine to 35 for the Wyoming population of M. hapla on alfalfa (M. sativa).
PMCID: PMC2619707  PMID: 19277158
host suitability; legumes; leguminosae; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; pathology; reproduction; root galling; root-knot nematode; resistance; shoot weight; survival; susceptibility
5.  Factors Affecting Population Trends of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Rangeland Grasses 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):107-114.
The effects of environmental conditions on population trends of plant-parasitic nematodes were studied in experimental plots of five wheatgrasses in the western Utah desert. In a 3-year (1984-86) field study, soil water and temperature affected the population trends of the ectoparasites, Tylenchorhynchus acutoides and Xiphinema americanum, and the migratory endoparasite, Pratylenchus neglectus, on Fairway crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum; 'Hycrest' crested wheatgrass, A. cristatum X A. desertorura; 'Rosana' western wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii; 'Oahe' intermediate wheatgrass, Thinopyrum intermedium; and RS-1 hybrid (Elytrigia repens X Pseudoroegneria spicata). The largest soil populations of these nematode species were collected in 1984 under good plant-growth conditions. A reduction in nematode populations occurred in 1985 and 1986, possibly because of low soil-water conditions. There was a positive relationship between high soil water and maximum population densities of T. acutoides in the spring and fall of 1984, and between low soil water and minimum population densities of the nematode in 1985 and 1986. Pratylenchus neglectus populations were affected by soil water, although to a lesser degree than the ectoparasitic nematodes. Population densities of the three nematode species were significantly lower in the drier years of 1985 and 1986 than in 1984. Nematode populations were greater at the lower soil depths in the fall than in the spring or summer.
PMCID: PMC2619666  PMID: 19277352
Agropyron cristatura; ecology; Elytrigia repens X Pseudoroegneri spicata; nematode; Pascopyrum smithii; population dynamics; Pratylenchus neglectus; Tylenchorhynchus acutoides; RS-1 hybrid; soil temperature; soil water; Thinopyrum intermedium; wheatgrasses, Xiphinema americanum
6.  Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(3):353-361.
Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures.
PMCID: PMC2619628  PMID: 19277299
Alfalfa; Medicago sativa; Meloidogyne hapla; Nematode; northern root-knot; population; race; reproduction; resistance; root growth; shoot growth; susceptibility; temperature
7.  Effect of Single and Interplantings on Pathogenicity of Pratyenchus penetrans and P. neglectus to Alfalfa and Crested Wheatgrass 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4):460-466.
Alfalfa is a host of Pratylenchus penetrans and P. neglectus, whereas crested wheatgrass is a host of P. neglectus but not of P. penetrans. In a 120-day greenhouse experiment at 24 ñ 3 C, P. neglectus inhibited the growth of 'Lahontan' alfalfa and 'Fairway' crested wheatgrass. There were no differences in persistence and plant growth of alfalfa and crested wheatgrass, or reproduction of P. neglectus, in single plantings of alfalfa (AO) or crested wheatgrass (CWO), or in interplanted alfalfa and crested wheatgrass (ACW) treatments. On alfalfa, P. penetrans inhibited growth and reproduced more than did P. neglectus. Inhibition of plant growth and reproduction of P. penetrans was greater on alfalfa in AO than in ACW treatments. Pratylenchus penetrans did not reproduce on crested wheatgrass, but inhibited growth of crested wheatgrass in interplanted treatments and was avirulent in single planted treatments. Results were similar in a controlled growth chamber experiment at 15, 20, 25, and 30 C. Both nematode species inhibited alfalfa growth at all temperatures, and P. penetrans was more virulent than was P. neglectus to alfalfa at all temperatures and treatments. Plant growth inhibition and reproduction of P. penetrans on alfalfa in single and interplanted treatments were similar at 15-20 C, but were greater in single than in interplanted treatments at 25-30 C. Pratylenchus penetrans was avirulent to crested wheatgrass in the single planted treatments at all temperatures, but inhibited growth of crested wheatgrass in interplanted treatments at 20-30 C. Plant growth and reproduction of P. neglectus on crested wheatgrass was similar in single and interplanted treatments at 20-30 C and 15-30 C, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2619533  PMID: 19279916
Agropyron cristatum; alfalfa; crested wheatgrass; Medicago sativa; nematode; Pratylenchus neglectus; P. penetrans; reproductive index; root lesion nematodes; root weight; shoot weight; survival; virulence
8.  Distribution in the Western United States on Alfalfa and Cultivar Reaction to Mixed Populations of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):705-719.
Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi were extracted from 29 of 40 plant samples (72.5%) collected from Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Percentages of A. ritzemabosi in tissue of the 29 samples ranged from 1.77 to 67.82%. Only Ditylenchus dipsaci was recovered from the remaining 11 samples. All of the 16 fields sampled in Wyoming contained both nematodes. Percentages of A. ritzemabosi in the Wyoming samples ranged from 0.7-30.0%, with an overall mean of 10.3%. Individual plants collected from a field in Big Horn, Wyoming, all contained both nematodes. Percentages of A. ritzemabosi in tissue ranged from 5-70%. Alfalfa stem nematode symptomatic plants in 17 of 18 alfalfa cultivars collected from a screening nursery in California contained both nematodes, of which 10-94% were A. ritzemabosi. Only one cultivar had D. dipsaci only, and no entries had A. ritzemabosi only. Under environmentally controlled conditions, A. ritzemabosi reproduced in all nine alfalfa cultivars tested at 6 weeks of age with a mean reproductive factor (final population/initial population) of 4.1. There were more (P ≤ 0.05) A. ritzemabosi in stem and bud tissue of the susceptible cultivars at harvest than in the resistant cultivars with combined cultivar means of 238, 42, 78, and 4 A. ritzemabosi/g tissue for the susceptible, moderately resistant, resistant, and highly resistant cultivars, respectively. Percentage A. ritzemabosi in tissues decreased over time in seedlings but increased in older plants.
PMCID: PMC2619569  PMID: 19279952
alfalfa stem nematode; Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi; chrysanthemum nematode; cultivar reaction; Ditylenchus dipsaci; geographic distribution; mixed population; nematode; red clover; Sonchus sp.; sow thistle; Trifolium pratense
9.  Resistance of Diploid Triticeae Species and Accessions to the Columbia Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):635-639.
The Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2, is associated with several plant species, including members of the tribe Triticeae. We evaluated 15 diploid species for M. chitwoodi gall and reproductive indices from the following genera: Agropyron, Pseudoroegneria, Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum. Species from the genus Thinopyrum (Thinopyrum bessarabicum; J genome) and Psathyrostachys (Psathyrostachys fragilis, P. juncea, P. stoloniformis; N genome) expressed more resistance to M. chitwoodi than species within the genera Agropyron (Agropyron cristatum and A. mongolicum; P genome), Pseudoroegneria (Pseudoroegneria spicata, P. stipifolia, A. aegilopoicles, P. libanotica; S genome), and Hordeum (Hordeum bogdanii, H. brevisubulatum, H. californicum, and H. chilensis; H genome), although there was variation among individuals within P. spicata, P. juncea, and P. fragilis. The variation among genera and within species indicates that it would be possible to select Triticeae grasses for resistance to M. chitwoodi in order to identify and introgress genes for resistance into cultivated cereals.
PMCID: PMC2619574  PMID: 19279939
Agropyron; Columbia root-knot nematode; Elymus; genome; grass; Hordeum; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; nematode; Psathyrostachys; Pseudoroegneria; resistance; screening; Thinopyrum; Triticeae
10.  Influence of Temperature on the Virulence of Two Races of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Wheat and Barley 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(3):454-460.
Races of the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitzooodi, from Idaho (R1) and Utah (R2) suppressed (P < 0.05) tillering of Dusty winter wheat, Fielder spring wheat, Luther winter barley, and Steptoe spring barley at 15-30 C. Nematode inoculum density was negatively correlated with tillering (r = -0.79). Inoculum densities of both nematode races were negatively correlated with heads per plant (r = -0.83), head length (r = -0.87), and head dry weight (r = 0.73) of Fielder spring wheat and Steptoe spring barley at all temperatures; the greatest growth restrictions occurred at Pi 20 eggs/cm³ soil. Both nematode races were most damaging at 25-30 C. Fielder spring wheat and Steptoe spring barley inoculated with R2 produced fewer heads than R1 when inoculated at 15 C, whereas the same cultivars inoculated with R1 produced fewer heads than R2 at 30 C. No differences were observed between root growth of winter and spring wheat or between winter and spring barley. Nematode reproduction was positively correlated to temperature (r = 0.87) and negatively correlated with inoculum density (r = -0.86). Reproductive rates were greatest with Pi = 2 eggs/cm³ soil at 25 C and lowest with Pi = 20 eggs/cm³ soil at 15 C for both nematode races.
PMCID: PMC2619397  PMID: 19279794
barley; Columbia root-knot nematode; damage potential; nematode; plant growth; reproductive index; root-gall rating; susceptibility; temperature; tillering; wheat
11.  Comparative Response of Alfalfa to Pratylenchus penetrans Populations 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(3):461-465.
Four populations of Pratylenchus penetrans did not differ (P > 0.05) in their virulence or reproductive capability on Lahontan alfalfa. There was a negative relationship (r = -0 .7 9 ) between plant survival and nematode inocula densities at 26 ± 3 C in the greenhouse. All plants survived at an inoculum level (Pi) of 1 nematode/cm³ soil, whereas survival rates were 50 to 55% at 20 nematodes/cm³ soil. Alfalfa shoot and root weights were negatively correlated (r = - 0.87; P < 0.05) with nematode inoculum densities. Plant shoot weight reductions ranged from 13 % at Pi 1 nematode/cm³ soil to 69% for Pi 20 nematodes/cm³ soil, whereas root weight reductions ranged from 17% for Pi 1 nematode/cm³ soil to 75% for Pi 20 nematodes/cm³ soil. Maximum and minimum nematode reproduction (Pf/Pi) for the P. penetrans populations were 26.7 and 6.2 for Pi 1 and 20 nematodes/cm³ soil, respectively. There were negative correlations between nematode inoculum densities and plant survival (r = 0.84), and soil temperature and plant survival (r = -0 .7 8 ). Nematode reproduction was positively correlated to root weight (r = 0.89).
PMCID: PMC2619385  PMID: 19279795
alfalfa; Lahontan; Medicago sativa; nematode; plant survival; Pratylenchus penetrans; reproduction; temperature; virulence
12.  Resistance of Lathyrus Species and Accessions to the Northern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):729-734.
The leguminous plant genus Lathyrus contains many species useful for soil conservation and reclamation. Some of these species may also have vaIue in the United States for forage production. The extent of genetic variation among Lathyrus populations in reaction to most disease pathogens is not known. We examined 28 USDA Agricultural Research Service Plant Introduction accessions representing 16 Lathyrus species for their ability to tolerate attack by the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla. There were differences in the percentage of root tissue galled and in the nematode reproductive index among species and among accessions within species. Root biomass of infected plants was significantly less than that of uninfected plants of the same accession. Accessions of L. ochrus and L. tingitanus were susceptible to M. hapla, whereas L. latifolius, L. sylvestris, and L. hirsutus were resistant. The variation among Lathyrus spp. in root galling and reproductive indices ofM. hapla warrant the inclusion of these traits in Lathyrus breeding programs.
PMCID: PMC2629872  PMID: 19283053
alfalfa; flatpea; forage; germplasm; grasspea; Lathyrus; legume; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; pathogenicity; peavine; perennial pea; vetchling
13.  Pathological Effects of Pratylenchus neglectus on Wheatgrasses 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(3):442-449.
In controlled greenhouse and growth chamber studies, Pratylenchus neglectus reduced dry shoot and dry root weight of rangeland grasses. Greenar intermediate wheatgrass and Secar Snake River wheatgrass were more susceptible to P. neglectus than Hycrest crested wheatgrass, Fairway crested wheatgrass, and Nordan crested wheatgrass at a greenhouse bench temperature of 26 ± 3 C. Hycrest was the most tolerant to parasitism by P. neglectus. An initial nematode inoculum density of four nematodes/cm³ soil reduced dry shoot weights of Hycrest, Fairway, Nordan, Greenar, and Secar by 22%, 33%, 36%, 47%, and 49%, and reduced dry root weights by 26%, 31%, 32%, 38%, and 42%. There was a positive relationship between dry root weight, the nematode inoculum density, and the nematode reproduction index (final nematode population/initial nematode inoculum). However, there were more nematodes/g root tissue on Secar than on the crested wheatgrasses, and significantly more nematodes/g root tissue on Greenar, Fairway, and Nordan than on Hycrest. Pratylenchus neglectus was most pathogenic at four nematodes/cm³ soil at 30 C and least pathogenic at one nematode/cm³ soil at 15 C. Greenar and Secar were more susceptible to the nematode than Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan at two and four nematodes/cm³ soil at 20 to 30 C. The nematode reproductive indices were greatest at 30 C and were positively correlated with dry root weight. Secar supported the most and Hycrest had the fewest nematodes/g root.
PMCID: PMC2619282  PMID: 19283021
Agropyron cristatum; Agropyron desertorum; crested wheatgrass; Elymus lanceolatus; nematode; reproduction; root weight; shoot weight; snake river wheatgrass; susceptible; temperature; tolerance
14.  Stem Nematode-Fusarium Wilt Complex in Alfalfa as Related to Irrigation Management at Harvest Time 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(2):315-320.
A high moisture level in the top 10 cm of soil at time of cutting of alfalfa increased the incidence of plant mortality and Fusarium wilt in soil infested with Ditylenchus dipsaci and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in greenhouse and field microplot studies. Ranger alfalfa, susceptible to both D. dipsaci and F. oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, was less persistent than Moapa 69 (nematode susceptible and Fusarium wilt resistant) and Lahontan alfalfa (nematode resistant with low Fusarium wilt resistance). In the greenhouse, the persistence of Ranger, Moapa 69, and Lahontan alfalfa plants was 46%, 64%, and 67% respectively, in nematode + fungus infested soil at high soil moisture at time of cutting. This compared to 74%, 84%, and 73% persistence of Ranger, Moapa 69, and Lahontan, respectively, at low soil moisture at time of cutting. Shoot weights as a percentage of uninoculated controls at the high soil moisture level were 38%, 40%, and 71% for Ranger, Moapa 69, and Lahontan, respectively. Low soil moisture at time of cutting negated the effect D. dipsaci on plant persistence and growth of subsequent cuttings, and reduced Fusarium wilt of plants in the nematode-fungus treatment; shoot weights were 75%, 90%, and 74% of uninoculated controls for Ranger, Moapa 69, and Lahontan. Similar results were obtained in the field microplot study, and stand persistence and shoot weights were less in nematode + fungus-infested soil at the high soil-moisture level (early irrigation) than at the low soil-moisture level (late irrigation).
PMCID: PMC2619274  PMID: 19283002
alfalfa; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis; interaction; irrigation timing; Medicago sativa; mortality; nematode; soil moisture; suppression
15.  Differential Pathogenicity of Four Pratylenchus neglectus Populations on Alfalfa 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4):380-385.
A Pratylenchus neglectus population from lltah (UT3) was more virulent to Lahontan alfalfa than other P. neglectus populations from Utah (UT1, UT2) and Wyoming (WY). All alfalfa plants survived at 24 ± 3 C when inoculated with WY, UT1, or UT2 at initial populations (Pi) of 500, 1,000, and 5,000 nematodes per plant. At Pi 10,000 with WY, UT1, or UT2, plant mortality was 15, 15, and 20%, respectively; at Pi 5,000 and 10,000 with UT3, plant mortality was 10 and 40%. The WY, UT1, and UT2 populations reduced (P ≤ 0.05) root growth at Pi 10,000 only, and UT3 reduced (P ≤ 0.05) root growth at Pi 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000. At Pi 5,000, shoot dry weights were reduced by 10-23% by WY, 14-29% by UT1, 12-25% by UT2, and 20-48% by UT3 at 15-30 C. The UT3 population reduced (P ≤ 0.05) root dry weight at 20-30 C at Pi 1,000 and 5,000. The WY, UT1, and UT-2 populations did not reduce (P ≥ 0.05) root growth at any temperature or Pi. The UT3 nematode reproductive indices were greater than those of the other nematode populations at all Pi and increased with temperature.
PMCID: PMC2619183  PMID: 19283142
alfalfa; Lahontan; Medicago sativa; nematode; plant survival; Pratylenchus neglectus; reproduction; temperature; virulence
16.  Relationship of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Harvest Practices to the Persistence of Alfalfa 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(3):306-315.
Persistence of dormant Ranger and nondormant Moapa alfalfas, both susceptible to Ditylenchus dipsaci, varied with stand age and cutting frequency. Stand reduction increased with cutting frequency. In D. dipsaci-infested soil, stand reductions in Ranger 1, 4, and 5 years old exceeded reductions in stands 2 and 3 years old; persistence was greatest in 2-year-old stands. In Moapa alfalfa, D. dipsaci reduced stands the most in years 2 and 3; whereas persistence was greatest in 1-year-old stands. Harvesting Ranger alfalfa one, two, three, and four times during the growing season reduced 2-year-old stands by 10, 14, 19, and 29% in D. dipsaci-infested soil and by 2, 4, 4, and 7% in uninfested soil, respectively. Comparable reductions in Moapa alfalfa were 13, 16, 18, and 38% in infested soil and 0, 2, 4, and 6% in uninfested soil. Cutting frequency had less effect on persistence of resistant semidormant Lahontan grown in D. dipsaci-infested soil relative to susceptible cultivars. Increasing the number of cuttings per year decreased storage of total nonstructural carbohydrate and adversely affected persistence of alfalfa stands and yields; the greatest negative effects occurred on both resistant and susceptible alfalfa in D. dipsaci-infested soil.
PMCID: PMC2619173  PMID: 19283131
alfalfa; alfalfa stem nematode; Ditylenchus dipsaci; harvest management; Medicago sativa; pathogenicity; persistence; nonstructural carbohydrate; yield
17.  Biology and Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus neglectus on Alfalfa 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(4):546-551.
Pratylenchus neglectus reduced the growth of alfalfa cultivars in greenhouse and growth chamber studies. Inocula (1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 nematodes per plant) reduced shoot dry weights of Ranger by 16, 27, and 40%, of Lahontan by 16, 32, and 40%, and of Nevada Synthetic XX (Nev Syn XX) by 18, 26, and 37%, respectively, at 26 ñ 2 C. Pratylenchus neglectus at 1,000 nematodes per plant reduced Ranger shoot dry weights by 5, 12, 18, and 27%, at 15, 20, 25, and 30 C, respectively, whereas 5,000 nematodes per plant reduced shoot dry weights by 12, 17, 26, and 38%, respectively, at similar temperatures. Reductions in dry root weights were directly related to reductions in shoot growth. At 1,000 nematodes per plant, Ranger root dry weights were reduced by 3, 14, 40, and 40%, whereas 5,000 nematodes per plant reduced root dry weight by 25, 31, 59, and 63%, respectively, at similar temperatures. Similar results were observed on Lahontan and Nev Syn XX at the same inoculum levels and soil temperatures. Nematode reproductive indices (final nematode population per plant divided by initial nematode inoculum per plant) were higher at 1,000 nematodes per plant than at 5,000 nematodes per plant, were positively correlated with temperature, and were unaffected by cultivar.
PMCID: PMC2619077  PMID: 19287756
alfalfa; Medicago sativa; pathogenicity; plant mortality; Pratylenchus neglectus; reproduction; root weight; shoot weight
18.  Pathological Relationship of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis on alfalfa 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(3):333-336.
Ditylenchus dipsaci and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis synergistically affected the mortality and plant growth of Ranger alfalfa, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematode and Fusarium wilt. The nematode-fungus relationship had an additive effect on mortality and plant growth of Lahontan (nematode resistant and Fusarium wilt susceptible) and of Moapa 69 (nematode susceptible and Fusarium wilt resistant). Mortality rates were 13, 16, 46, and 49% for Ranger; 4, 18, 26, and 28% for Lahontan; and 19, 10, 32, and 30% for Moapa 69 inoculated with D. dipsaci, F. oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, and simultaneously and sequentially with D. dipsaci and F. oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, respectively. Shoot weights as a percentage of uninoculated controls for the same treatments were 52, 84, 26, and 28%, for Ranger; 74, 86, 64, and 64% for Lahontan; and 50, 95, 44, and 39% for Moapa 69. Plant growth suppression was related to vascular bundle infection and discoloration of alfalfa root tissue. Disease severity and plant growth of alfalfa did not differ with simultaneous or sequential inoculations of the two pathogens. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis affected alfalfa growth but not nematode reproduction.
PMCID: PMC2619055  PMID: 19287729
alfalfa; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis; interaction; Medicago sativa; mortality; reproduction; suppression; synergism
19.  Comparison of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides for control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(4S):640-644.
The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) effectively controlled Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank potato, Solanum tuberosum. There was a maximum of 4% infected and galled tubers from the 1,3-D treatment after 2,028 degree-days with a base temperature of 5 C (DD5). This compared to 66% infected and galled tubers in aldicarb at-plant treated plots. Soil temperature, as determined by DD5, and timing of chemical applications affected the nematicidal activity on M. chitwoodi (P < 0.05). Aldicarb was most effective when applied postplant (PP) during the nematode reproductive cycle. After 1,684 DD5 of growth, there were 59, 26, 22, and 6% infected and galled tubers from untreated control plots and aldicarb treatments of 2.1 g/m row at 600 DD5, 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, and 1.3 g/m row at 600 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, respectively. No aldicarb treatments were effective over a growing period of 2,028 DD5; 34% of the tubers were infected and galled following the most effective aldicarb treatment (1.3 g/m row at 504 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 996 DD5).
PMCID: PMC2618975  PMID: 19287664
aldicarb; chemical control; Columbia root-knot nematode; degree-day; 1,3-dichloropropene; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; potato; reproduction; soil temperature; Solanum tuberosum
20.  Pathological Reaction of Crested Wheatgrass Cultivars to Four Meloidogyne chitwoodi Populations 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(4):446-452.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi populations from Tulelake, California; Ft. Hall, Idaho; Beryl, Utah; and Prosser, Washington, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dry shoot weights of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L., Gaertn. and A. desertorum, Fisch. ex Link, Schult.) cultivars Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan in experiments conducted in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Shoot growth depression, root galling, and nematode reproduction indices were greatest (P < 0.05) on plants inoculated with 5,000 eggs/plant. Nematode populations from Tulelake, Ft. Hall, and Beryl significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the growth of the three grass cultivars at 15, 20, 25, and 30 C; the greatest reductions occurred at 20 and 25 C. There were significant differences in the virulence of the nematode populations at high (30 C) and low (15 C) soil temperatures. At 15 C, plant growth was reduced more by the Beryl and Tulelake than by the Ft. Hall population; whereas at 30 C, the Ft. Hall population was more virulent than the Beryl and Tulelake populations. Root galling and nematode reproduction were greater on plants inoculated with Beryl and Tulelake populations at 15 C than on plants inoculated with the Ft. Hall population, while the Ft. Hall population had the most pronounced effects at 30 C.
PMCID: PMC2618960  PMID: 19287637
Agropyron cristatum; Agropyron desertorum; Columbia root-knot nematode; crested wheat-grass; resistance; reproductive index; root gall rating; susceptibility; temperature
21.  Susceptibility of Nevada Synthetic XX Germplasm to a California Race of Meloidogyne hapla 
Journal of Nematology  1989;21(2):292-293.
PMCID: PMC2618913  PMID: 19287611
alfalfa; California; Medicago sativa; northern root-knot nematode; physiological race; resistance
22.  Factors Affecting the Biology and Pathogenicity of Heterodera schachtii on Sugarbeet 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(3):396-404.
A direct relationship exists between soil temperature and Heterodera schachtii development. The average developmental period of two nematode populations from Lewiston, Utah, and Rupert, Idaho, from J2 to J3, J4, adult, and the next generation J2 at soil temperatures of 18-28 C were 100, 140,225, and 399 degree-days (base 8 C), respectively. There was a positive relationship (P < 0.05) between nematode Pi, nematode generations, and sugarbeet yields. The greatest sugarbeet growth inhibition (87%) occurred when sugarbeets were exposed to a Pi of 12 eggs/cm³ soil for five generations (1,995 degree-days), compared with a 47% inhibition when plants were exposed to the same Pi for two generations. There was a negative correlation (P < 0.05) between the Pi, Pf, and sugarbeet yield for each population threshold. The smaller the Pi, the greater the sugarbeet yields and the greater the Pf. Root yields were 80 and 29 t /ha and Pf were 8.4 and 3.6 eggs/cm³ soil when sugarbeet seeds were planted at Pi of 0.4 and 7.9 eggs/cm³. respectively, at a soil temperature of 8 C. The number of years rotation with a nonhost crop required to reduce the nematode population density below a damage threshold level of 2 eggs/cm³ depends on the Pi. A Pi of 33.8 eggs/cm³ soil required a 5-year crop rotation, whereas a Pi of 8.4 eggs/cm³ soil required a 2-year crop rotation.
PMCID: PMC2618818  PMID: 19290229
basal thermal temperature; Beta vulgaris; damage threshold population; degree-day; final population density; Heterodera schachtii; initial population density; nematode generation; reproduction; soil temperature; sugarbeet cyst nematode; yield
23.  Efficacy of Using Split and Postplant Applications of Aldicarb for Control of Helerodera schachtii on Sugarbeet 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(Annals 1):119-122.
Soil temperature at planting and initial population densities (Pi) significantly affected (P < 0.05) the chemical control of Heterodera schachtii on sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris. The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) at 9.4 g/m of row effectively controlled H. schachtii, resulting in increased sugarbeet yields over the nontreated control treatment at soil temperatures at planting of 8, 12, and 16 C and Pi of 4.7, 10.4, and 18.3 eggs/cm³ at planting. A split application of aldicarb, 1.3 g/m of row at planting (AP) and 28 days later (PP), and a single at-planting (AP) treatment of 2.1 g/m of row were less effective in controlling H. schachtii than 1,3-D at the three soil temperatures and Pi. The sugarbeet yield from the AP plus PP treatment, however, was greater than the sugarbeet yield from the AP treatment and was equivalent to the yield from the 1,3-D treatment at temperatures of 8 and 12 C and a Pi of 4.7 eggs/cm³. Sugarbeet yield from the AP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the AP plus PP application at a Pi of 18.3 at a planting temperature of 8 C and Pi of 10.4 and 18.3 eggs/cm³ at soil planting temperatures of 12 and 16 C. Postplant application of 2.1 g/m of aldicarb, applied 28 days after planting, significantly increased sugarbeet yields at all soil temperatures at the lower Pi levels.
PMCID: PMC2618706  PMID: 19290290
aldicarb; Beta vulgaris; cyst nematode; Heterodera schachtii; population density; soil temperature; sugarbeet; yield
24.  Interaction of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Meloidogyne hapla on Resistant and Susceptible Plant Species 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(4):441-446.
Numbers ofDitylenchus dipsaci or Meloidogyne hapla invading Ranger alfalfa, Tender crop bean, Stone Improved tomato, AH-14 sugarbeet, Yellow sweet clover, and Wasatch wheat from single inoculations were not significantly different from numbers by invasion of combined inoculations. D. dipsaci was recovered only from shoot and M. hapla only from root tissue. Combined inoculations did not affect reproduction of either D. dipsaci or M. hapla. D. dipsaci suppressed shoot growth of all species at 15-30 C, and M. hapla suppressed shoot growth of tomato, sugarbeet, and sweet clover at 20, 25, and 30 C. There was a positive correlation (P < 0.05) between shoot and root growth suppression by D. dipsaci on all cultivars except wheat at 20 C and tomato at 30 C. M. hapla suppressed (P < 0.05) root growth of sugarbeet at 20-50 C and wheat at 30 C. Growth suppression was synergistic in combined inoculations of sweet clover shoot growth at 15 C and root growth at 20-30 C, wheat root growth at 15 and 20 C, and tomato root growth at 15-30 C (P < 0.05) D. dipsaci invasions caused mortality of alfalfa and sweet clover at 15-30 C and sugarbeet at 20-30 C. Mortality rates of alfalfa and sweet clover increased synergistically (P < 0.05) from combined inoculations.
PMCID: PMC2618674  PMID: 19290168
alfalfa; alfalfa stem nematode; bean; Ditylenchus dipsaci; growth suppression; interaction; Meloidogyne hapla; mortality; soil temperature; sugarbeet; sweet clover; tomato; wheat
25.  Effects of Environmental Factors and Cultural Practices on Parasitism of Alfalfa by Ditylenchus dipsaci 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(3):267-276.
Cool humid weather enhanced development and reproduction of Ditylenchus dipsaci in alfalfa in laboratory and field studies in Utah. Relative humidity and nematode reproduction were positively correlated (P < 0.05), whereas air temperature and nematode reproduction were negatively correlated (P < 0.05). The greatest number of nematodes per gram of alfalfa tissue was found in nondormant Moapa alfalfa tissue at St. George during April, whereas the greatest numbers of nematodes were found in dormant Ranger alfalfa in June at West Jordan and Smithfield. There was 100% invasion of both resistant Lahontan and susceptible Ranger alfalfa plants at soil moisture levels of 61-94% field capacity. Fall burning of alfalfa to control weeds reduced, and spring burning increased, the incidence of invaded plants, nematodes per gram of plant tissue, and the mortality of susceptible Ranger (P < 0.01) and Moapa (P < 0.01) alfalfa plants over that of plants in nonburned control plots. Fall burning also reduced and spring burning increased the incidence of invaded plants (P < 0.05), but had no influence on nematodes per gram of plant tissue or the mortality of resistant Lahontan and Nevada Synthetic XX alfalfa over those of plants in control plots.
PMCID: PMC2618651  PMID: 19290142
alfalfa stem nematode; air temperature; mortality; relative humidity; reproduction; resistance; soil moisture; susceptibility; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Medicago sativa

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